Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Cruelty to animals
Cruelty to animals called animal abuse, animal neglect or animal cruelty, is the infliction by omission or by commission by humans of suffering or harm upon any non-human. More narrowly, it can be the causing of harm or suffering for specific achievement, such as killing animals for food or for their fur. Cruelty to animals sometimes encompasses inflicting harm or suffering as an end in itself, defined as zoosadism. Divergent approaches to laws concerning animal cruelty occur in different jurisdictions throughout the world. For example, some laws govern methods of killing animals for food, clothing, or other products, other laws concern the keeping of animals for entertainment, research, or pets. There are a number of conceptual approaches to the issue of cruelty to animals. For example, the animal welfare position holds that there is nothing inherently wrong with using animals for human purposes, such as food, entertainment and research, but that it should be done in a way that minimizes unnecessary pain and suffering, sometimes referred to as "humane" treatment.
Utilitarian advocates argue from the position of costs and benefits and vary in their conclusions as to the allowable treatment of animals. Some utilitarians argue for a weaker approach, closer to the animal welfare position, whereas others argue for a position, similar to animal rights. Animal rights theorists criticize these positions, arguing that the words "unnecessary" and "humane" are subject to differing interpretations, that animals have basic rights, they say that the only way to ensure protection for animals is to end their status as property and to ensure that they are never used as commodities. Throughout history humans believed to have a God-given right to treat nonhuman animals with cruelty however some individuals were concerned, for example, Leonardo da Vinci once purchased caged birds in order to set them free, he expressed anger within his notebooks with the fact that humans use their strength and power to raise animals for slaughter. According to contemporary philosopher Nigel Warburton, for the most of human history, the dominant view has been that animals are there for humans to do with as they see fit.
René Descartes contrarily believed that non-humans are automata, complex machines with no soul, mind, or reason. In Cartesian dualism, consciousness was unique to human among all other animals and linked to physical matter by divine grace. However, close analysis shows that many human features such as complex sign usage, tool use, self-consciousness can be found in some animals. Charles Darwin, by presenting the theory of evolution, revolutionized the way that humans viewed their relationship with other species. Darwin believed that not only did human beings have a direct kinship with other animals, but the latter had social and moral lives too. In The Descent of Man, he wrote: "There is no fundamental difference between man and the higher mammals in their mental faculties."Some philosophers and intellectuals, such as Peter Singer and Tom Regan, have argued that animals' ability to feel pain as humans do makes their well-being worthy of equal consideration. There are many precursors of this train of thought.
Jeremy Bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, famously wrote in his An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation: "The question is not, can they reason nor can they talk? but, can they suffer?" These arguments have prompted some to suggest that animals' well-being should enter a social welfare function directly, not just indirectly via its effect only on human well-being. In one survey of United States homeowners, 68% of respondents said they consider the price of meat a more important issue. Animal cruelty can be broken down into two main categories: passive. Passive cruelty is typified by cases of neglect, in which the cruelty is a lack of action rather than the action itself. Oftentimes passive animal cruelty is accidental, born of ignorance. In many cases of neglect in which an investigator believes that the cruelty occurred out of ignorance, the investigator may attempt to educate the pet owner revisit the situation. In more severe cases, exigent circumstances may require that the animal be removed for veterinary care.
Farm animals are produced in large, industrial facilities that house thousands of animals at high densities. The industrial nature of these facilities means that many routine procedures or animal husbandry practices impinge on the welfare of the animals and could arguably be considered as "cruelty", with Henry Stephen Salt claiming in 1899 that "it is impossible to transport and slaughter vast numbers of large and highly-sensitive animals in a humane manner", it has been suggested the number of animals hunted, kept as companions, used in laboratories, reared for the fur industry and used in zoos and circuses, is insignificant compared to farm animals, therefore the "animal welfare issue" is numerically reducible to the "farm animal welfare issue". It has been suggested by campaign groups that chickens, cows and other farm animals are among the most numerous animals subjected to cruelty. For example, because male chickens do not lay eggs, newly hatched males are culled using macerators or grinders.
Worldwide meat overconsumption is another factor that contributes to the miserable situation of farm animals. Many undercover investigators have exposed the animal cruelty taking place inside the factory farming industry and there is evidence to show that consumers provided with accurate information about the process of meat productions and the abuse that accompa
Anthony Stewart Head is an English actor and musician. He rose to fame in the UK following his role in the Gold Blend couple television advertisements for Nescafé Gold Blend, is known for his roles as Rupert Giles in Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Uther Pendragon in Merlin, the Prime Minister in Little Britain, as Herc Shipwright in BBC Radio 4's Cabin Pressure. Head was born in London, his father was Seafield Laurence Stewart Murray Head, a documentary filmmaker and a founder of Verity Films, his mother is actress Helen Shingler. They had married in 1944 in Watford, his older brother is singer Murray Head. Both brothers have played the part of Freddie Trumper in the musical Chess at the Prince Edward Theatre, with Murray a part of the original cast in 1986, whilst Anthony was in the final cast in 1989. Head was educated at Sunbury Grammar London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art. In discussing why he chose acting as a career, in an interview in 2013 he said that'When it's in your family, it's a choice, it's there.
It's not a jump to say:'I want to act.' When I was six I was in a little show my mother's friends organised, playing the Emperor in The Emperor's New Clothes. I remember thinking:'This is the business, this is what I want to do.'His first role was in the musical Godspell. In the early 1980s he provided backing vocals for the band Red Box. In the late 1980s, he appeared in a storyline series of twelve coffee commercials with Sharon Maughan for Nescafé Gold Blend; the soap opera nature of the commercials brought him wider recognition, along with a part in the Children's ITV comedy drama Woof! Head played Frank N. Furter in the 1990–91 West End revival of The Rocky Horror Show at London's Piccadilly Theatre, with Craig Ferguson as Brad Majors. In 1991 Head's rendition of "Sweet Transvestite" was released as a single by Chrysalis Records. Head played the role again in the summer of 1995 at London's Duke of York's Theatre, a 3 May 2006 tribute show at London's Royal Court Theatre, a 14 October 2000 production at the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Success on the stage and a number of brief appearances on American television, such as in the short-lived VR.5, led to accepting the role of Rupert Giles in Buffy the Vampire Slayer in 1997. For this role he lived full-time in the United States during the late 1990s and early 2000s, although his family continued to live in the UK. Head left the regular cast of Buffy during the show's sixth season and subsequently appeared several times as a guest star through the conclusion of the series. In many interviews at the time, Head said he left the show to spend more time with his family, having realised that he had spent most of the year outside Britain, which added up to more than half his youngest daughter's life. In 2002, he co-starred in the BBC Two television series Manchild, a show revolving around four friends approaching their fifties who try to recapture their fading youth and vitality while dealing with life as'mature' men, he appeared in guest roles in various other dramas, such as Silent Witness, Murder Investigation Team, Spooks.
He appeared in the 4th series of the British hit sitcom My Family in 2003 playing one of the main character's father in the episode "May the Best Man Win". He was featured as the Prime Minister in the popular BBC comedy sketch show Little Britain from 2003 to 2005, guest starred in several episodes of the 2004 series of popular drama Monarch of the Glen. Outside television work, he has released an album of songs with musician George Sarah entitled Music for Elevators. Early in his career he provided vocals for some of the tracks on the Chris de Burgh album The Getaway and the reading from The Tempest on Don't Pay the Ferryman. In 2001, he appeared in a special webcast version of Doctor Who, a story called Death Comes to Time, in which he played the Time Lord Valentine, he guest starred in the Excelis Trilogy, a series of Doctor Who audio adventures produced by Big Finish Productions, in 2005 narrated the two-part documentary Project: WHO?, detailing the television revival of the series, for BBC Radio 2.
In April 2006 he appeared as a school's alien headmaster, Mr. Finch, in an episode of the second series entitled "School Reunion". Soon after, he recorded an abridged audio book of the Doctor Who novel The Nightmare of Black Island by Mike Tucker, he narrated the fourth series of Doctor Who Confidential. He voiced the character Baltazar, Scourge of the Universe, in the first animated Doctor Who special, "The Infinite Quest". Head had auditioned for the role of the Eighth Doctor for the 1996 television film, but lost out to Paul McGann. In early 2006, he appeared in an episode of Hotel Babylon, a BBC One drama set in a hotel, in which he played a suicidal man who recovers and lands a music deal; the same year he filmed a pilot for a new show entitled Him and Us, loosely based on the life of gay rock star Elton John, for American TV channel ABC, co-starring Kim Cattrall. In July he appeared as Captain Hook at the Children's Party at the Palace, a live pantomime staged in the grounds of Buckingham Palace as part of Queen Elizabeth II's 80th birthday celebrations.
In October 2006, he voiced Ponsonby, leader of MI6, in Destroy All Humans! 2. At Comic-Con International in 2007, Joss Whedon said talks were completed for a 90-minute Buffy the Vampire Slayer spin-off, Ripper, as a BBC special, with both Head and the
The Northern line is a London Underground line that runs from south-west to north-west London, with two branches through central London and three in the north. It runs northwards from its southern terminus at Morden in the borough of Merton to Kennington in Southwark, where it divides into two central branches, one via Charing Cross in the West End and the other via Bank in the City; the central branches re-join at Camden Town where the line again divides into two branches, one to High Barnet and the other to Edgware in the borough of Barnet. On the High Barnet branch there is a short single-track branch to Mill Hill East only. For most of its length it is a deep-level tube line; the portion between Stockwell and Borough opened in 1890 and is the oldest section of deep-level tube line on the Underground network. There were about 294 million passenger journeys recorded in 2016/17 on the Northern line, making it the busiest on the Underground, it is unique in having two different routes through central London.
Despite its name, it does not serve the northernmost stations on the network, though it does serve the southernmost station, Morden, as well as 16 of the system's 29 stations south of the River Thames. There are 50 stations in total on the line; the line has a complicated history, the current complex arrangement of two main northern branches, two central branches and the southern route reflects its genesis as three separate railways, combined in the 1920s and 1930s. An extension in the 1920s used a route planned by a fourth company. Abandoned plans from the 1920s to extend the line further southwards, northwards in the 1930s, would have incorporated parts of the routes of two further companies. From the 1930s to the 1970s, the tracks of a seventh company were managed as a branch of the Northern line. An extension from Kennington to Battersea is under construction, which may either give the Northern line a second southern branch or may see it split into separate distinct lines with their own identities.
It is coloured black on the current Tube map. See City and South London Railway and Charing Cross and Hampstead Railway for detailed histories of these companies The core of the Northern line evolved from two railway companies: the City & South London Railway and the Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway; the C&SLR, London's first deep-level tube railway, was built under the supervision of James Henry Greathead, responsible, with Peter W. Barlow, for the Tower Subway, it was the first of the Underground's lines to be constructed by boring deep below the surface and the first to be operated by electric traction. The railway opened in November 1890 from Stockwell to a now-disused station at King William Street; this was inconveniently placed and unable to cope with the company's traffic so, in 1900, a new route to Moorgate via Bank was opened. By 1907 the C&SLR had been further extended at both ends to run from Clapham Common to Euston; the CCE&HR was opened in 1907 and ran from Charing Cross via Euston and Camden Town to Golders Green and Highgate.
It was extended south by one stop to Embankment in 1914 to form an interchange with the Bakerloo and District lines. In 1913 the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, owner of the CCE&HR, took over the C&SLR, although they remained separate companies. During the early 1920s, a series of works was carried out to connect the C&SLR and CCE&HR tunnels to enable an integrated service to be operated; the first of these new tunnels, between the C&SLR's Euston station and the CCE&HR's station at Camden Town, had been planned in 1912 but had been delayed by World War I. The second connection linked the CCE&HR's Embankment and C&SLR's Kennington stations and provided a new intermediate station at Waterloo to connect to the main line station there and the Bakerloo line; the smaller-diameter tunnels of the C&SLR were expanded to match the standard diameter of the CCE&HR and the other deep tube lines. In conjunction with the works to integrate the two lines, two major extensions were undertaken: northwards to Edgware in Middlesex and southwards to Morden in Surrey.
The Edgware extension used plans dating back to 1901 for the Edgware and Hampstead Railway which the UERL had taken over in 1912. It extended the CCE&HR line from its terminus at Golders Green to Edgware in two stages: to Hendon Central in 1923 and to Edgware in 1924; the line crossed open countryside and ran on the surface, apart from a short tunnel north of Hendon Central. Five new stations were built to pavilion-style designs by Stanley Heaps, head of the Underground's Architects Office, stimulating the rapid northward expansion of suburban developments in the following years; the engineering of the Morden extension of the C&SLR from Clapham Common to Morden was more demanding, running in tunnels to a point just north of Morden station, constructed in a cutting. The line runs under the wide station forecourt and public road outside the station, to the depot; the extension was planned to continue to Sutton over part of the route for the unbuilt Wimbledon and Sutton Railway, in which the UERL held a stake, but agreements were made with the Southern Railway to end the extension at Morden.
The Southern Railway built the surface line from Wimbledon to Sutton, via South Merton and St. Helier; the tube extension opened in 1926, with seven new stations, all designed by Charles Holden in a modern style. Stanley Heaps was to design the stations, but after s
An animal shelter or pound is a place where stray, abandoned or surrendered animals dogs and cats, sometimes sick or wounded wildlife are kept and rehabilitated. While no-kill shelters exist, it is sometimes policy to euthanize sick animals, any animal, not claimed enough by a previous or new owner. In Europe, of 30 countries included in a survey, all but four permitted the killing of healthy stray dogs. Critics believe the new term "animal shelter" is a euphemism for the older term "pound"; the word "pound" had its origins in the animal pounds of agricultural communities, where stray livestock would be penned or impounded until claimed by their owners. Some shelters have sick tropical animals. In the United States there is no government-run organization that provides oversight or regulation of the various shelters on a national basis. However, many individual states do regulate shelters within their jurisdiction. One of the earliest comprehensive measures was the Georgia Animal Protection Act of 1986.
The law was enacted in response to the inhumane treatment of companion animals by a pet store chain in Atlanta. The Act provided for the licensing and regulation of pet shops, stables and animal shelters, established, for the first time, minimum standards of care; the Georgia Department of Agriculture was tasked with licensing animal shelters and enforcing the new law through the Department's newly created Animal Protection Division. An additional provision, added in 1990, was the Humane Euthanasia Act, the first state law to mandate intravenous injection of sodium pentothal in place of gas chambers and other less humane methods; the law was further expanded and strengthened with the Animal Protection Act of 2000. It is estimated that there are 5,000 independently run animal shelters operating nationwide. Shelters have redefined their role since the 1990s. No longer serving as an until-death repository for strays and drop-offs, modern shelters have taken the lead in controlling the pet population, promoting pet adoption, studying shelter animals' health and behavior.
In order to prevent animal euthanization, some shelters offer behavioral assessments of animals and training classes to make them more adoptable to the public. Most shelters provide medical care that includes spaying and neutering, which will prevent overpopulation. Shelters, shelter-like volunteer organizations, responded to cat overpopulation with trap-neuter-return programs that reduced feral cat populations and reduced the burden on shelters. In the United States, many government-run animal shelters operate in conditions that are far from ideal. In the wake of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 many government shelters have run out of adequate space and financial resources. Shelters unable to raise additional funds to provide for the increased number of incoming animals have no choice but to euthanize them, sometimes within days. In 2012 four million cats and dogs died in U. S. shelters. In Quebec, there are two types of animal shelters: SPCA SPA In the United Kingdom, animal shelters are more known as rescue or rehoming centres, are run by charitable organizations.
The most common rescue and rehoming organizations are the RSPCA, Cats Protection, the Dogs Trust. Larger cities in Germany either have a city shelter for animals or contract with one of the common non-profit animal organizations throughout the country, which run their own shelters. Most shelters are populated by dogs, a variety of small animals like mice and rabbits. Additionally there are so-called Gnadenhöfe for larger animals, they take horses from private owners who want to put them down for financial reasons. German animal protection law prohibits killing of vertebrates without proper reason. Permissive reasons are slaughtering or hunting for food production, control of infectious diseases, painless killing "if continued life would imply uncurable pain or suffering", or if an animal poses a danger to the general public; the latter will only be reason for euthanasia, if an authority concerned with public safety orders it based on an investigation. Because of this ruling, all German animal shelters are no-kill shelters.
Facilities are required to be led by a person certified in handling of animals. Most shelters have contract veterinarians to provide medical care. Across India, various animal shelters are run by animal lovers; the Lal Mandir, a prominent Jain temple in Delhi, is known for the Jain Birds Hospital in a second building behind the main temple.. Blue cross of India and PETA India are the major animal rescue organizations in India In New Zealand, dog pounds are run by each territorial local authority, who provide Animal Control services under the Dog Control Act 1996. Land of the Strays, 152-hectare sanctuary in the centre of the Central American country is funded by donations. Around 8,000 dogs have passed through the refuge. Kennel Abandoned pets Black dog bias Cat colony Dog camp Goshala, cow shelters in India Neutering No-kill shelter Overpopulation in companion animals Pet adoption Shelter Dogs, a controversial 2003 documentary film Chesley V. Morton v. Georgia Department of Agriculture and Tommy Irvin in his Official Capacity as Commissioner List of animal shelters in Quebec
Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era, his works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, by the 20th century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories are still read today. Born in Portsmouth, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors' prison. Despite his lack of formal education, he edited a weekly journal for 20 years, wrote 15 novels, five novellas, hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles and performed readings extensively, was an indefatigable letter writer, campaigned vigorously for children's rights and other social reforms. Dickens's literary success began with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers. Within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humour and keen observation of character and society.
His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, pioneered the serial publication of narrative fiction, which became the dominant Victorian mode for novel publication. Cliffhanger endings in his serial publications kept readers in suspense; the instalment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audience's reaction, he modified his plot and character development based on such feedback. For example, when his wife's chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities, Dickens improved the character with positive features, his plots were constructed, he wove elements from topical events into his narratives. Masses of the illiterate poor chipped in ha'pennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up and inspiring a new class of readers. Dickens was regarded as the literary colossus of his age, his 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol, remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. Oliver Twist and Great Expectations are frequently adapted, like many of his novels, evoke images of early Victorian London.
His 1859 novel, A Tale of Two Cities, set in London and Paris, is his best-known work of historical fiction. Dickens has been praised by fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to George Orwell, G. K. Chesterton and Tom Wolfe—for his realism, prose style, unique characterisations, social criticism. On the other hand, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of psychological depth, loose writing, a vein of sentimentalism; the term Dickensian is used to describe something, reminiscent of Dickens and his writings, such as poor social conditions or comically repulsive characters. Charles John Huffam Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, at 1 Mile End Terrace, Landport in Portsea Island, the second of eight children of Elizabeth Dickens and John Dickens, his father was temporarily stationed in the district. He asked Christopher Huffam, rigger to His Majesty's Navy and head of an established firm, to act as godfather to Charles. Huffam is thought to be the inspiration for Paul Dombey, the owner of a shipping company in Dickens's novel Dombey and Son.
In January 1815, John Dickens was called back to London, the family moved to Norfolk Street, Fitzrovia. When Charles was four, they relocated to Sheerness, thence to Chatham, where he spent his formative years until the age of 11, his early life seems to have been idyllic, though he thought himself a "very small and not-over-particularly-taken-care-of boy". Charles spent time outdoors, but read voraciously, including the picaresque novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding, as well as Robinson Crusoe and Gil Blas, he reread The Arabian Nights and the Collected Farces of Elizabeth Inchbald. He retained poignant memories of childhood, helped by an excellent memory of people and events, which he used in his writing, his father's brief work as a clerk in the Navy Pay Office afforded him a few years of private education, first at a dame school, at a school run by William Giles, a dissenter, in Chatham. This period came to an end in June 1822, when John Dickens was recalled to Navy Pay Office headquarters at Somerset House, the family moved to Camden Town in London.
The family had left Kent amidst mounting debts, living beyond his means, John Dickens was forced by his creditors into the Marshalsea debtors' prison in Southwark, London in 1824. His wife and youngest children joined him there. Charles 12 years old, boarded with Elizabeth Roylance, a family friend, at 112 College Place, Camden Town. Roylance was "a reduced old lady, long known to our family", whom Dickens immortalised, "with a few alterations and embellishments", as "Mrs Pipchin" in Dombey and Son, he lived in a back-attic in the house of an agent for the Insolvent Court, Archibald Russell, "a fat, good-natured, kind old gentleman... with a quiet old wife" and lame son, in Lant Street in Southwark. They provided the inspiration for the Garlands in The Old Curiosity Shop. On Sundays—with his sister Frances, free from her studies at the Royal Academy of Music—he spent the day at the Marshalsea. Dickens used the prison as a setting in Little Dorrit. To pay for his board and to help his family, Dickens was forced to leave school and work ten-hour days at Warren's Blacking Warehouse, on Hungerford Stairs, near the present Charing Cross railway station, where he earned six shillings
Battersea Power Station
Battersea Power Station is a decommissioned coal-fired power station, now being redeveloped to bring new homes, shops, bars, open space and more to Wandsworth, south London. Now owned by a consortium of Malaysian investors, the Grade II* listed building and the surrounding 42 acres are being gentrified through an eight phase development project; the first phase, Circus West Village, is complete and now open to the public to eat, shop and live. Situated on the south bank of the river by Chelsea Bridge, over 1000 people now live at Circus West Village, 12 restaurants and shops are open alongside a fitness studio and a hair salon. Circus West Village is accessible by river bus, as the new Battersea Power Station pier is serviced by MBNA Thames Clippers; the Power Station itself is the second phase of the project, will be home to over 250 residential units, restaurants, office space, entertainment space and more. In 2012, administrators Ernst & Young entered into an exclusivity agreement with Malaysia's SP Setia and Sime Darby to develop the site.
The £400 million sale was completed in September 2012, the redevelopment was planned to implement the Rafael Vinoly design, which had gained planning consent from Wandsworth Council in 2011. In January 2013, the first residential apartments went on sale. Construction on Phase 1 was due to commence in 2013, with completion due in 2016/17. Apple will locate its new London headquarters at Battersea Power Station, becoming the largest office tenant with 1,400 staff on six floors in the central boiler house. Situated on the south bank of the River Thames, in Nine Elms, Battersea, an inner-city district of South West London, the building comprises two power stations, built in two stages in a single building. Battersea A Power Station was built in the 1930s and Battersea B Power Station to its east in the 1950s, they were built to a nearly identical design. The Power Station was decommissioned between 1975 and 1983 and remained empty until 2014, it was designated as a Grade II listed building in 1980.
In 2007 its listed status was upgraded to Grade II*. The station is one of the world's largest brick buildings and notable for its original, lavish Art Deco interior fittings and decor; the structure remained unused for more than 30 years after its closure. The site was listed on the 2004 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund. Since the station's closure, redevelopment plans have been drawn up by successive site owners. In 2004, when a redevelopment project by Parkview International stalled, the site was sold to the administrators of Irish company Real Estate Opportunities, who bought it for £400 million in November 2006 with plans to refurbish the station for public use and build 3,400 homes on the site; this plan fell through due to REO's debt being called in by the state-owned banks of the UK and Ireland. The site was again put up for sale in December 2011 through commercial estate agent Knight Frank; the combination of an existing debt burden of some £750 million, the need to make a £200 million contribution to an extension to the London Underground, requirements to fund conservation of the derelict power station shell, the presence of a waste transfer station and cement plant on the river frontage made commercial development of the site a significant challenge.
Until the late 1930s electricity was supplied by municipal undertakings. These were small power companies that built power stations dedicated to a single industry or group of factories, sold any excess electricity to the public; these companies used differing standards of voltage and frequency. In 1925 Parliament decided that the power grid should be a single system with uniform standards and under public ownership. Several of the private power companies reacted to the proposal by forming the London Power Company, they planned to heed parliament's recommendations and build a small number of large stations. The London Power Company's first of these super power stations was planned for the Battersea area, on the south bank of the River Thames in London; the proposal was made in 1927, for a station built in two stages and capable of generating 400 megawatts of electricity when complete. The site chosen was a 15-acre plot of land, the site of the reservoirs for the former Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company.
The site was chosen for its proximity to the River Thames for cooling water and coal delivery, because it was in the heart of London, the station's immediate supply area. The proposal sparked protests from those who felt that the building would be too large and would be an eyesore, as well as worries about the pollution damaging local buildings and paintings in the nearby Tate Gallery; the company addressed the former concern by hiring Sir Giles Gilbert Scott to design the building's exterior. He was a distinguished architect and industrial designer, famous for his designs for the red telephone box and Liverpool Anglican Cathedral, he subsequently designed another London power station, which now houses Tate Modern art gallery. The pollution issue was resolved by granting permission for the station on the condition that its emissions were to be treated, to ensure they were "clean and smokeless". Construction of the first phase began in March 1929; the main building work was carried out by John Mowlem & Co, the structural steelwork erection carried out by Sir William Arrol & Co.
Other contractors were employed for specialist tasks. Most of the electrical equipment, i