Pininfarina Sintesi was a concept car designed by Pininfarina and unveiled in 2008 at Geneva Motor Show. The name Sintesi means synthesis in the Italian language, the Pininfarina Sintesi was a 4-door 4-seat coupe. The design did not consider the car as a shape that covers the mechanicals, the concept was born from the manufacturer’s need to communicate his way of interpreting the car of the future. With the Sintesi, Pininfarina introduced concepts including Liquid Packaging and Transparent Mobility, Liquid Packaging refers to the concept of putting fuel cells and motors in each wheel. The result is that the space for passengers is much more generous – in proportion to the volume of the car – without detracting from the tapered. That’s why for the Sintesi, designers have developed a new fuel cell powertrain that can be spread out into different locations in the car, Transparent Mobility refers to the communication system where a vehicle can exchange information with other vehicles and traffic technology, through wireless technology.
But at the time, we did not want everything to be limited to a flight of fancy. Which is why we combined and tested our ideas with the innovative technologies provided by our partners in this project. ”The Pininfarina Sintesi won the Red Dot Award for 2008 and this prestigious award ranks among the largest and most renowned design competitions in the world. The exterior design features large windshield surface and front spoiler, both the front and rear doors had a verticale opening system. The total output is around 700 hp, the center tunnel integrates a bio-fuel tank and a reformer capable of producing hydrogen. In terms of performances, the Pininfarina Sintesi has a top speed of 115 mph and can scoot from 0 to 60 mph in just 7.5 seconds
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture, the librarys main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař, the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers, as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague, the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years, the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new building on Letna plain. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, in 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Later in 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water. Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building, there was a fire at the library in December 2012, but nobody was injured in the event. List of national and state libraries Official website
A coachbuilder is a manufacturer of bodies for automobiles or a manufacturer of complete horse-drawn vehicles. Coachwork is the body of a vehicle, a horse-drawn coach or carriage, or, by extension. The term is reserved for bodies built on a separate chassis. With reference to motor vehicles, auto body is the term in North American English. Coachbuilders are, carrossiers in French, carrozzeria in Italian, karosseriebauer in German, a British trade association the Worshipful Company of Coachmakers and Coach Harness Makers, was incorporated in 1630. Some British coachmaking firms operating in the 20th century were established even earlier, rippon was active in the time of Queen Elizabeth I, Barker founded in 1710 by an officer in Queen Annes Guards, Brewster a relative newcomer, formed in 1810. This chassis would be delivered by the manufacturer to the coachbuilder of the buyers choice, the chassis would be a rolling chassis which included the chassis frame, brakes, complete steering system including the wheel, radiator and dashboard.
The manufacturer delivered the chassis with lighting system, spare wheel and rear mudguards, the very easily damaged honeycomb radiator and protected by a shell, became the main visual element identifying the chassis brand. The manufacturer retained an element of control over bodies, bodies not approved by the chassis manufacturer would lose the chassis manufacturers chassis warranties. Until the second World War it would not have been unusual to order the most popular cars as only a chassis and have a local coachbuilder put a body on it for you, the Austin 7s of the 1920s and 1930s were favourite subjects. For example, Fisher Body built all of Cadillacs closed bodies in the 1910s, though automobile manufacturers brought body building skills in-house, the practice of bespoke or custom coachbuilding remained in favour among the wealthy, who continued the habit of centuries past. All ultra-luxury vehicles sold as chassis only, for instance, when Duesenberg introduced their Model J, it was offered as chassis only, for $8,500.
Other examples include the Bugatti Type 57, Cadillac V-16, Ferrari 250, Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8, delahaye had no in-house coachworks, so all its chassis were bodied by independents, who created some of their most attractive designs on the Type 135. Most of the Delahayes were bodied by Chapron, Franay, Figoni & Falaschi, the advent of unibody construction, where the car body is unified with, and structurally integral to the chassis, made custom coachbuilding practically impossible. Hermann Graber Ramsauer & Cie, known as Worblaufen after the place they were built, mulliner Park Ward Mulliners Nu-Track Park Ward Harold Radford Salmons Swallow Tickford Tilbury, originators of the Tilbury carriage. Thrupp & Maberly Vanden Plas Vincent of Reading Windover Wingham Martin Walter Walter Alexander & Sons, now Alexander Dennis Ltd Wrightbus James Young Brewster & Co. Brunn Budd Company Derham Earl Automobile Works Fisher Fleetwood KEM Motorworks LeBaron Locke N2A motors Inc. a Langmesser Co. Murphy Rollston Willoughby
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Mahindra & Mahindra
Mahindra and Mahindra Limited is an Indian multinational automobile manufacturing corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. It is one of the largest vehicle manufacturers by production in India and it is a part of Mahindra Group, an Indian conglomerate. It was ranked 21st on a list of top companies in India by Fortune India 500 in 2011 and its major competitors in the Indian market include Maruti Suzuki, Tata Motors, Ashok Leyland and others. Mahindra & Mahindra was set up as a trading company in 1945 in Ludhiana as Mahindra & Mohammed by brothers K. C. Mahindra and J. C. Mahindra. After India gained independence and Pakistan was formed, Mohammed emigrated to Pakistan where he became that countrys first finance minister, the company changed its name to Mahindra & Mahindra in 1948. It eventually saw an opportunity in expanding into manufacturing and selling larger MUVs. Soon established as the Jeep manufacturers of India, the company commenced manufacturing light commercial vehicles, over the past few years, the company has taken interest in new industries and in foreign markets.
They entered the industry by taking over Kinetic Motors in India. M&M has a stake in the REVA Electric Car Company. In 2010–11 M&M entered in micro drip irrigation with the takeover of EPC Industries Ltd in Nashik, Mahindra & Mahindra, branded on its products usually as Mahindra, produces SUVs, saloon cars, commercial vehicles, and two wheeled motorcycles and tractors. It owns assembly plants in India, Mainland China, the United Kingdom, Mahindra maintains business relations with foreign companies like Renault SA, France. M&M has a presence and its products are exported to several countries. Its global subsidiaries include Mahindra Europe S. r. l. based in Italy, Mahindra South Africa and Mahindra Tractor Co. Ltd. Mahindra started making passenger vehicles firstly with the Logan in April 2007 under the Mahindra Renault joint venture, M&M made its maiden entry into the heavy trucks segment with the Mahindra Truck and Bus Division, the joint venture with International Truck, USA. Mahindra produces a range of vehicles including MUVs, LCVs.
It manufactures over 20 models of cars including larger, multi-utility vehicles like the Scorpio and it formerly had a joint venture with Ford called Ford India Private Limited to build passenger cars. True to their word, Mahindra & Mahindra launched the Mahindra Xylo in January 2009, in early 2008, Mahindra commenced its first overseas CKD operations with the launch of the Mahindra Scorpio in Egypt, in partnership with the Bavarian Auto Group. This was soon followed by facilities in Brazil
Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera
Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera is an automobile coachbuilder established on 25 March 1926 in Milan, Italy by Felice Bianchi Anderloni and Gaetano Ponzoni. Carrozzeria Touring became well known for both the beauty of its designs and patented superleggera construction methods, the trademark was purchased by the current owner, a family business, which resumed business activities in 2006 under the name Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera S. r. l. The firm is headquartered nearby Milan, its hometown, the new owners changed the name of the firm to Carrozzeria Touring. Carrozzeria Tourings location at Via Ludovico da Breme 65 placed the coachbuilder in close proximity to automobile manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Citroën, Tourings first bodywork assignments were for chassis produced by these companies. Bianchi Anderloni came to Touring more as an automobile designer than a car constructor, the company licensed Charles Weymanns system of fabric-covered lightweight frames, a predecessor of their own Superleggera construction system.
Touring hired Giuseppe Seregni, who collaborated with Bianchi Anderloni on the 1927 Isotta-Fraschini Flying Star. This super lightweight system consists of a structure of small tubes to form the bodys shape with thin alloy panels attached to cover. Aside from light weight, the Superleggera construction system gave great flexibility, in 1937 at Mille Miglia, Alfa Romeo 6C 2300B was the first appearance of a Touring car built with the Superleggera system. Prior to World War II, Touring gained fame for their Superleggera bodies, particularly those made for the Alfa Romes 8C2900, the company quickly re-energized after the war, with the Superleggera system widely licensed and copied. Felice Bianchi Anderloni died in 1948 and his son, Carlo Felice Cici Bianchi Anderloni, the two would remain in charge of the firm until the company discontinued production in 1966. Cicis first major project was to create a body for the Ferrari 166 Mille Miglia Touring barchetta, automotive design critic Robert Cumberford has referred to the body design for the 166 as One of the most charismatic shapes ever.
The egg-crate grill of the 166 became a signature Ferrari design element and is still in use by Ferrari today, the Aston Martin DB4, the DB5 and the DB6 were named after David Brown’s initials. He entrusted Touring Superleggera to design their next generation GT after the introduction of the successful DB2, Tourings fortunes began to decline as automobile manufacturers replaced body-on-frame construction with monocoque construction. The carmakers began to build their own bodies in their production lines, they were not able to produce less than a few thousand units yearly. Therefore, they decided to assign the body production to coachbuilders and this led coachbuilders to invest in additional manufacturing capacity. Once Touring Superleggera had the new plant in Nova Milanese completed, the company had to wind-up in 1966, although bankruptcy never occurred. During the winding up, roughly the 80% of Touring Superleggera’s archives caught fire, the documents included precious information Carlo Felice Bianchi Anderloni cherished the most.
Therefore, he devoted energy to get in touch with every owner
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the only national library in Japan. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy, the library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two facilities in Tokyo and Kyoto, and several other branch libraries throughout Japan. The Diets power in prewar Japan was limited, and its need for information was correspondingly small, the original Diet libraries never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity. Until Japans defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information. The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II.
In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee, hani Gorō, a Marxist historian who had been imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as both a citadel of popular sovereignty, and the means of realizing a peaceful revolution, the National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes. The first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori, the philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL merged with the National Library and became the national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained a million volumes previously housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, in 1986, the NDLs Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals.
The Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items, in May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Childrens Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno. This branch contains some 400,000 items of literature from around the world. Though the NDLs original mandate was to be a library for the National Diet. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries, in contrast, as Japans national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. The NDL has an extensive collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences
Automotive Hall of Fame
The Automotive Hall of Fame is an American museum. It was founded in 1939 and has over 800 worldwide inductees and it is part of the MotorCities National Heritage Area. They include award recipients from advertising, car rental, designers, financiers, mechanics, executives, dealers, inventors and it includes the automotive industry, suppliers and support. The Automotive Hall of Fame has conferred four different awards, the Automotive Hall of Fame was founded on October 18,1939 in New York City by a group called the Automobile Old Timers. Its original mission was to perpetuate the memories of early automotive pioneers, for its first three decades, The Automotive Hall of Fame had four name changes. Its second iteration was Automotive Old Timers adopted in 1957 and intended to recognize its broader base, in 1971 it became The Automotive Organization Team. Finally, it became The Automotive Hall of Fame which resulted in greater growth, the organization moved to Washington, D. C. in 1960, sharing space in the National Automobile Dealers Association building.
In 1971, it moved to Midland, Michigan where it got its first home at Northwood University, in 1997, it moved to its present home in Dearborn, adjacent to The Henry Ford museum. It is within the MotorCities National Heritage Area, an affiliate of the U. S. National Park Service dedicated to preserving and promoting the automotive and labor history of Michigan. The facilities, with automobile history artifacts, are in a 25, 000-square-foot building containing a small theater, the Hall honors members of the automotive industry each year. There were 271 people inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame through 2016, in 1946 the hall worked with the National Golden Jubilee. As General William S. Knudsen stated, the selection to the Hall of Fame included Ten pioneers whose engineering, the selection was done in cooperation with the Automobile Manufacturers Association, the National Automotive Golden Jubilee committee of which Knudeson was president. Edgar Apperson, William Crapo Durant, J. Frank Jersey, Henry Ford, George OMalley, Charles W Nash, Barney Oldfield, Ransom E.
Olds, and Alfred P Sloan Jr. were selected. The Hall celebrated its 75th anniversary in 2014, a private tour with the Hall of Fame president, William R. Chapin, is available. At annual induction ceremonies an occasion is made to honor and remember past inductees, the Hall of Fame is reported to be moving to downtown Detroit. A person must be notable in the industry to be eligible for induction. To receive the award is considered recognition that the person has made a significant contribution to the automotive industry, along with the Hall of Fame induction awards, the Hall honors individuals with significant awards each year. For the awards 1,3 and 4, anyone can submit a nomination by filling out the form or sending a letter, the Industry Leader of the Year Award is nominated and awarded solely by the Awards Committee, so no external nominations are accepted
A supercar is a luxury, high-performance sports car or grand tourer. An advertisement for the Ensign 6, a 6, the combination of a potent engine in a lightweight car began with the 1957 Rambler Rebel that was described as a veritable supercar. In 1966 the sixties became a official industry trend as the four domestic automakers needed to cash in on the supercar market with eye-catching, heart-stopping cars. The SC in the name stood for SuperCar. The supercar market segment included regular production models in different muscle market segments, as well as limited edition, the word supercar came to mean a GT or grand touring type of car. By the 1970s and 1980s the phrase was in regular use, the supercar term has been applied to technologically advanced vehicles using new fuel sources, powerplants and lightweight materials to develop an 80 mpg‑US family-sized sedan. Supercar was the description for the United States Department of Commerce R&D program. The program was established to support the domestic U. S.
automakers develop prototypes of a safe, affordable car the size of the Ford Taurus, List of sports car manufacturers List of fastest production cars Supercar Season Exotic Cars at DMOZ Whats A Supercar. The Debate Rages On - Drive,27 February 2014