Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era, it is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the established Kingdom of Italy; the Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. The city attracts millions of tourists each year, the Historic Centre of Florence was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982; the city is noted for Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.
The city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune, it was the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries; the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. All the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War, they financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII. Catherine de Medici married King Henry II of France and, after his death in, reigned as regent in France. Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future King Louis XIII; the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
The Etruscans formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole, destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, changed to Florentia, it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement became an important commercial centre. In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital.
The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county. Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD; the Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte; the exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "Commune"; the city's primary resource was the Arno river, providing power and access for the industry, access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community; the Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation to medieval fairs. This period saw the eclipse of Florence's powerful rival Pisa, the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice.
Of a population estimated at 94,00
Mattia Preti was an Italian Baroque artist who worked in Italy and Malta. He was appointed a Member of the Order of Saint John. Born in the small town of Taverna in Calabria, Preti was called Il Cavalier Calabrese after appointment as a Knight of the Order of St. John in 1660, his early apprenticeship is said to have been with the "Caravaggist" Giovanni Battista Caracciolo, which may account for his lifelong interest in the style of Caravaggio. Before 1630, Preti joined his brother Gregorio, in Rome, where he became familiar with the techniques of Caravaggio and his school as well as with the work of Guercino, Guido Reni, Giovanni Lanfranco. In Rome, he painted fresco cycles in the churches of Sant'Andrea della Valle and San Carlo ai Catinari. Between 1644 and 1646, he may have spent time in Venice, but remained based in Rome until 1653, returning in 1660–61, he painted frescoes for the church of San Biagio at Modena and participated in the fresco decoration of the Palazzo Pamphilj in Valmontone, where he worked along with Pier Francesco Mola, Gaspar Dughet, Francesco Cozza, Giovanni Battista Tassi, Guglielmo Cortese.
During most of 1653–1660, he worked in Naples, where he was influenced by another major painter of his era, Luca Giordano. One of Preti's masterpieces were a series of large frescoes, ex-votos of the plague, depicting the Virgin or saints delivering people from the plague. Two sketches are in the Capodimonte Museum in Naples; the bozzetto of the Virgin with the baby Jesus looming over the dying and their burial parties envisions a Last Judgement presided over by a woman. Preti won a commission to supervise the construction and gilding for the nave and transept of San Pietro a Maiella. Having been made a Knight of Grace in the Order of St John, he visited the order’s headquarters in Malta in 1659 and spent most of the remainder of his life there. Preti transformed the interior of St. John's Co-Cathedral in Valletta with a huge series of paintings on the life and martyrdom of St. John the Baptist. In Malta one can find many paintings of Preti in private collections and in parish churches, his increased reputation led to an expanded circle of patrons, he received commissions from all over Europe.
Preti was fortunate to have a considerable artistic output. His paintings, representative of the exuberant late Baroque style, are held by many great museums, including important collections in Naples, in his hometown of Taverna. Spike, John. Mattia Preti e Gregorio Preti a Taverna. Catalogo completo delle opere. Centro Di. Spike, John. Mattia Preti. Catalogo Ragionato dei Dipinti. Florence. Wittkower, Rudolf. "Art and Architecture Italy, 1600–1750". Pelican History of Art. 1980. Penguin Books Ltd. pp. 330–331
Harvard Art Museums
The Harvard Art Museums are part of Harvard University and comprise three museums: the Fogg Museum, the Busch-Reisinger Museum, the Arthur M. Sackler Museum and four research centers: the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, the Center for the Technical Study of Modern Art, the Harvard Art Museums Archives, the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies; the three museums that constitute the Harvard Art Museums were integrated into a single institution under the name Harvard University Art Museums in 1983. The word "University" was dropped from the institutional name in 2008; the collections include 250,000 objects in all media, ranging in date from antiquity to the present and originating in Europe, North America, North Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia. In 2008, the Harvard Art Museums' historic building at 32 Quincy Street, was closed for a major renovation and expansion project. During the beginning phases of this project, the Arthur M. Sackler Museum at 485 Broadway, displayed selected works from the collections of the Fogg, Busch-Reisinger, Sackler museums from September 13, 2008 through June 1, 2013.
The renovated building at 32 Quincy Street unites the three museums in a single state-of-the-art facility designed by architect Renzo Piano, which increases gallery space by 40% and adds a glass, pyramidal roof. In a view of the front facade, the glass roof and other expansions are concealed preserving the original appearance of the building; the renovation adds six levels of galleries, lecture halls, new study areas providing access to parts of the 250,000-piece collection of the museums. The new building was opened in November 2014. Charles Herbert Moore: 1896–1909 Edward W. Forbes: 1909–1944 John Coolidge: 1948–1968 Agnes Mongan: 1968–1971 Daniel Robbins: 1972–1974 Seymour Slive: 1975–1984 Edgar Peters Bowron: 1985–1990 James Cuno: 1991–2002 Thomas W. Lentz: 2003–2015 Martha Tedeschi: 2016–present The Fogg Museum, opened to the public in 1896, is the oldest and largest component of the Harvard Art Museums; the museum was housed in an Italian Renaissance-style building designed by Richard Morris Hunt.
In 1925, the building was replaced by a Georgian Revival-style structure on Quincy Street, designed by Coolidge, Shepley and Abbott. The Fogg Museum is renowned for its holdings of Western paintings, decorative arts, photographs and drawings from the Middle Ages to the present. Particular strengths include Italian Renaissance, British Pre-Raphaelite, French art of the 19th century, as well as 19th- and 20th-century American paintings and drawings; the museum's Maurice Wertheim Collection is a notable group of impressionist and post-impressionist works that contains many famous masterpieces, including paintings and sculptures by Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Édouard Manet, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Vincent van Gogh. Central to the Fogg's holdings is the Grenville L. Winthrop Collection, with more than 4,000 works of art. Bequeathed to Harvard in 1943, the collection continues to play a pivotal role in shaping the legacy of the Harvard Art Museums, serving as a foundation for teaching and professional training programs.
It includes important 19th-century paintings and drawings by William Blake, Edward Burne-Jones, Jacques-Louis David, Honoré Daumier, Winslow Homer, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Alfred Barye, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Auguste Rodin, John Singer Sargent, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, James Abbott McNeill Whistler. The art museum has Late Medieval Italian paintings by the Master of Offida, Master of Camerino, Bernardo Daddi, Simone Martini, Luca di Tomme, Pietro Lorenzetti, Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Master of Orcanesque Misercordia, Master of Saints Cosmas and Damiançand Bartolomeo Bulgarini. Flemish Renaissance paintings — Master of Catholic Kings, Jan Provoost, Master of Holy Blood, Aelbert Bouts, Master of Saint Ursula. Italian Renaissance period paintings — Fra Angelico, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Gherardo Starnina, Cosme Tura, Giovanni di Paolo, Lorenzo Lotto. French Baroque period paintings — Nicolas Poussin, Jacques Stella, Nicolas Regnier, Philippe de Champaigne. Dutch Master paintings — Rembrandt, Emanuel de Witte, Jan Steen, Willem Van de Velde, Jacob Van Ruisdael, Salomon van Ruysdael, Jan van der Heyden, Dirck Hals.
American paintings — Gilbert Stuart, Charles Willson Peale, Robert Feke, Sanford Gifford, James McNeil Whistler, John Singer Sargent, Thomas Eakins, Man Ray, Ben Shahn, Jacob Lawrence, Lewis Rubenstein, Robert Sloan, Phillip Guston, Jackson Pollock, Kerry James Marshall, Clyfford Still. Founded in 1901 as the Germanic Museum, the Busch–Reisinger Museum is the only museum in North America dedicated to the study of art from the German-speaking countries of Central and Northern Europe in all media and in all periods. William James spoke at its dedication, its holdings include significant works of Austrian Secession art, German expressionism, 1920s abstraction, material related to the Bauhaus design school. Other strengths include 18th-century art; the museum holds noteworthy postwar and contemporary art from German-speaking Europe, including works by Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer, Gerhard Richter, one of the world's most comprehensive collections of works by Joseph Beuys. The Busch-Reisinger Art Museum has oil paintings by artists Lovis Corinth, Max Liebermann, Gustav Klimt, Edvard Munch, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Max Ernst, Ernst Ludwig Kirchne
Pio Monte della Misericordia
The Pio Monte della Misericordia is a church in the historic center of Naples, southern Italy. It is famous for its art works, including Caravaggio's The Seven Works of Mercy. A charity brotherhood was founded in August 1601 by seven young nobles, who met every Friday at the Hospital for Incurables and ministered to the sick. In 1602 they established an institution and commissioned a small church, built by Gian Giacomo di Conforto, near the staircase leading to the Cathedral, on the corner of the Via dei Tribunali and the Vico dei Zuroli. In 1605, they received an apostolic letter from Pope Paul V, according special privileges to the high altar; the church was consecrated in September 1606. From 1658 to 1678 the edifice was enlarged with the annexation of neighbouring structures, by architect Francesco Antonio Picchiati, forming a complex with a palace and a renewed church; the latter, at the high altar, houses Caravaggio's Seven Works of Mercy. There are paintings by Luca Giordano, Carlo Sellitto, Fabrizio Santafede, Battistello Caracciolo and others.
The noblemen of the brotherhood at Pio Monte della Misericordia were looking for painters "to give permanent visual expression to their sense of charitable mission”. Regarding the sharp contrasts of the chiaroscuro in Caravaggio's painting’s, the German art historian Ralf van Bühren explains the bright light as a metaphor for mercy, which "helps the audience to explore mercy in their own lives". Leonetti Rodinò, M. G.. Il Pio Monte della Misericordia la storia la chiesa la quadreria. Naples. Ralf van Bühren, "Caravaggio’s ‘Seven Works of Mercy’ in Naples; the relevance of art history to cultural journalism", in Church and Culture 2, pp. 63–87 Andrew Graham-Dixon, Caravaggio. A Life Sacred and Profane, London: Allen Lane, Penguin Books 2010 Helen Langdon, Random House 2012 - ISBN 9781448105717. Pio Monte della Misericordia Official website
Santa Maria La Nova
Santa Maria la Nova is a Renaissance style, now-deconsecrated, Roman Catholic church and monastery in central Naples. The church is located at the beginning of a side street directly across from the east side of the main post office, a few blocks south of the Church and Monastery of Santa Chiara. Today the adjacent monastery hosts the Museo ARCA of modern religious art. Since the early 13th century, a Franciscan monastery, named Santa Maria ad Palatium had existed nearby, but by 1268, was demolished in order for Charles of Anjou decided to build his Castel Nuovo, or Maschio Angioino. By 1279, the Friars were granted this site to build a new church, hence la Nova. Constructed in Gothic style, the building was battered by Naple's frequent earthquakes but suffered gravely from an explosion originating from Castel Sant'Elmo on December 13, 1587; this last episode prompted reconstruction in 1596-1599, as announced in a cornice inscription, leading to the facade we see today, designed by Agnolo Franco Typical of Franciscan churches, the facade has a sober and simple restraint, accessed through a staircase and balustrade.
The church nave ceiling is decorated with 46 gilt-framed cassetone, or rectangular fresco panels, completed in 1598-1600. Among the contributing artists were Francesco Curia. Along the windows are canvases by Belisario Corenzio, who painted the Final Judgement in the counterfacade in collaboration with Luigi Rodriguez. On the right of the counterfacade is a copy of a painting by Aert Mytens; the transept has canvases by Nicola Corenzio. In the chapel to the right of the altar is a painting by Simone Papa, retouched in the 19th century by Luigi Pastore; the architects and decorators of the choir include Corenzio, Papa, De Lione, with stucco by Francesco Napolella. To the left of the altar is a silver paliotto for Domenico Marinelli and Matteo Treglia, made to designs from Lorenzo Vaccaro and Gaetano Vesivalle; the walls have sculptures by Tommaso Malvito. In the arches of the chapels are frescoes by Malinconico; the main altar was conceived by Cosimo Fanzago, completed with help from Mario Cotti, Giuseppe Pellizza, Andrea Lazzaro.
Agostino Borghetti completed the wooden statues of the Procession artifact. The first chapel on right has paintings by Battistello Caracciolo, sculptures by Nicolò Carletti, Domenico Monterosso, scholars of Girolamo d'Auria; the main altarpiece is by Teodoro d'Errico. The second chapel has paintings by Benedetto Torre; the third chapel has paintings by Marco Pino and frescoes by Corenzio: the altar was designed by Girolamo D'Auria. The fourth chapel has paintings by Giovanni Battista Beinaschi; the fifth chapel has paintings by Giuseppe Marullo and Santillo Sandini, while the altarpiece is attributed to Francesco Balsimelli. The sixth chapel was designed by Giuseppe Gallo with paintings by Francesco Antonio Altobello and Onofrio de Lione; the third chapel on the left is the largest in the church, is called the Cappellone di San Giacomo della Marca, hosts the preserved body of St James of the Marches. It was commissioned by Gonzalo di Cordova, called the great captain; the ceilings are frescoed by Massimo Stanzione, depict the Miracles of the Saint, including the procession by Neapolitans with his body to compel the volcano Vesuvius to stop its 1631 eruption.
A number of warriors are memorialized or buried in this chapel, Amida of Tunis, installed as king by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, died in exile in Naples by 1601. Ferdinando di Cordova, nephew of Gonzalo commissioned sculptures from Giovanni da Nola for the tombs of the Captain and Pietro Navarro, Odette di Foix, a French general who died during the siege of the city, but found by Neapolitans, after having been buried unceremoniously by his troops; the first chapel on the left has paintings by Scibelli. The fourth chapel on the left has the Funereal Monument of Duke Caracciolo di San Teodoro by Domenico Morante, a wooden statue by Michele Perrone and frescoes by Beinaschi; the pulpit was sculpted by Balsimelli. The seventh chapel on the left obstructed by the organ, has paintings attributed to an 8 year old Luca Giordano; the church is a part of a larger monastic complex. Regina, Vincenzo. Le chiese di Napoli. Viaggio indimenticabile attraverso la storia artistica, letteraria, civile e spirituale della Napoli sacra.
Naples: Newton e Compton. Santa Maria La Nova - Official website
The Uffizi Gallery is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in the Historic Centre of Florence in the region of Tuscany, Italy. One of the most important Italian museums and the most visited, it is one of the largest and best known in the world and holds a collection of priceless works from the period of the Italian Renaissance. After the ruling house of Medici died out, their art collections were gifted to the city of Florence under the famous Patto di famiglia negotiated by Anna Maria Luisa, the last Medici heiress; the Uffizi is one of the first modern museums. The gallery had been open to visitors by request since the sixteenth century, in 1765 it was opened to the public, formally becoming a museum in 1865. Today, the Uffizi is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Florence and one of the most visited art museums in the world; the building of Uffizi complex was begun by Giorgio Vasari in 1560 for Cosimo I de' Medici so as to accommodate the offices of the Florentine magistrates, hence the name uffizi, "offices".
The construction was continued by Alfonso Parigi and Bernardo Buontalenti. The top floor was made into a gallery for the family and their guests and included their collection of Roman sculptures; the cortile is so long and open to the Arno at its far end through a Doric screen that articulates the space without blocking it, that architectural historians treat it as the first regularized streetscape of Europe. Vasari, a painter and architect as well, emphasised its perspective length by adorning it with the matching facades' continuous roof cornices, unbroken cornices between storeys, as well as the three continuous steps on which the palace-fronts stand; the niches in the piers that alternate with columns of the Loggiato filled with sculptures of famous artists in the 19th century. The Uffizi brought together under one roof the administrative offices and the Archivio di Stato, the state archive; the project was intended to display prime art works of the Medici collections on the piano nobile.
He commissioned the architect Buontalenti to design the Tribuna degli Uffizi that would display a series of masterpieces in one room, including jewels. The octagonal room was completed in 1584. Over the years, more sections of the palace were recruited to exhibit paintings and sculpture collected or commissioned by the Medici. For many years, 45 to 50 rooms were used to display paintings from the 13th to 18th century; because of its huge collection, some of the Uffizi's works have in the past been transferred to other museums in Florence—for example, some famous statues to the Bargello. A project was finished in 2006 to expand the museum's exhibition space some 6,000 metres2 to 13,000 metres2, allowing public viewing of many artworks, in storage; the Nuovi Uffizi renovation project which started in 1989 was progressing well in 2015 to 2017. It was intended to modernize all of more than double the display space; as well, a new exit was planned and the lighting, air conditioning and security systems were updated.
During construction, the museum remained open, although rooms were closed as necessary with the artwork temporarily moved to another location. For example, the Botticelli rooms and two others with early Renaissance paintings were closed for 15 months but reopened in October 2016; the major modernization project, New Uffizi, had increased viewing capacity to 101 rooms by late 2016 by expanding into areas used by the Florence State Archive. The Uffizi hosted over two million visitors in 2016, making it the most visited art gallery in Italy. In high season, waiting times can be up to five hours. Tickets are available on-line in advance, however, to reduce the waiting time. A new ticketing system is being tested to reduce queuing times from hours to just minutes; the museum is being renovated to more than double the number of rooms used to display artwork. On 27 May 1993, the Sicilian Mafia carried out a car bomb explosion in Via dei Georgofili and damaged parts of the palace, killing five people.
The blast destroyed five pieces of art and damaged another 30. Some of the paintings were protected by bulletproof glass; the most severe damage was to the Niobe room and classical sculptures and neoclassical interior, although its frescoes were damaged beyond repair. In early August 2007, Florence experienced a heavy rainstorm; the Gallery was flooded, with water leaking through the ceiling, the visitors had to be evacuated. There was a much more significant flood in 1966 which damaged most of the art collections in Florence including some of the works in the Uffizi; the collection contains some ancient sculptures, such as the Arrotino and the Two Wrestlers. Collections of the Uffizi Official website Uffizi – Google Art Project Uffizi Gallery
The Seven Works of Mercy (Caravaggio)
The Seven Works of Mercy known as The Seven Acts of Mercy, is an oil painting by Italian painter Caravaggio, circa 1607. The painting depicts the seven corporal works of mercy in traditional Catholic belief, which are a set of compassionate acts concerning the material needs of others; the painting was made for, is still housed in, the church of Pio Monte della Misericordia in Naples. It was meant to be seven separate panels around the church; the painting is better seen from il "coreto" in the first floor. The titular seven works/acts of mercy are represented in the painting as follows: Bury the dead In the background, two men carry a dead man. Visit the imprisoned, feed the hungry On the right, a woman visits an imprisoned man and gives him milk from her breast; this image alludes to the classical story of Roman Charity. Shelter the homeless A pilgrim asks an innkeeper for shelter. Clothe the naked St. Martin of Tours, fourth from the left, has torn his robe in half and given it to the naked beggar in the foreground, recalling the saint's popular legend.
Visit the sick St. Martin greets and comforts the beggar, a cripple. Refresh the thirsty Samson drinks water from the jawbone of an ass. American art historian John Spike notes that the angel at the center of Caravaggio’s altarpiece transmits the grace that inspires humanity to be merciful. Spike notes that the choice of Samson as an emblem of Giving Drink to the Thirsty is so peculiar as to demand some explanation; the fearsome scourge of the Philistines was a flawed man who accomplished his heroic tasks through the grace of God. When Samson was in danger of dying of thirst, God gave him water to drink from the jawbone of an ass, it is difficult to square this miracle with an allegory of the Seven Acts of Mercy since it was not in fact the work of human charity. Regarding the sharp contrasts of the painting’s chiaroscuro, the German art historian Ralf van Bühren explains the bright light as a metaphor for mercy, which "helps the audience to explore mercy in their own lives".. Current scholarship has established the connection between the iconography of "The Seven Works of Mercy" and the cultural and philosophical circles of the painting's commissioners..
The Seven Works of Mercy was adapted for the theatre in 2016 by the Royal Shakespeare Company. Written by Anders Lustgarten, The Seven Acts of Mercy was directed by Erica Whyman, the Deputy Artistic Director at the Royal Shakespeare Company. Ralf van Bühren, Caravaggio’s ‘Seven Works of Mercy’ in Naples; the relevance of art history to cultural journalism, in Church and Culture 2, pp. 63-87 Alessandro Giardino, The Seven Works of Mercy. Love between Astrology and Natural Generosity in the Naples of Tommaso Campanella, in Aries 17-2, pp. 149-70 John Spike, with the assistance of Michèle Kahn Spike, New York: Abbeville Press 2001 - ISBN 978-0-7892-0639-8 Ralf van Bühren, Die Werke der Barmherzigkeit in der Kunst des 12.–18. Jahrhunderts. Zum Wandel eines Bildmotivs vor dem Hintergrund neuzeitlicher Rhetorikrezeption, Hildesheim / Zürich / New York: Verlag Georg Olms 1998 - ISBN 3-487-10319-2 Chronology of works by Caravaggio