Battle Creek is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan, in northwest Calhoun County, at the confluence of the Kalamazoo and Battle Creek rivers. It is the principal city of the Battle Creek, Michigan Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Calhoun County; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 52,347, while the MSA's population was 136,146. In about 1774, the Potawatomi and the Ottawa Native American tribes formed a joint village near the future Battle Creek, Michigan. Battle Creek was named for a minor encounter on March 14, 1824, between a federal government land survey party led by Colonel John Mullett and two Potawatomi Indians, who had approached the survey camp asking for food, they were hungry because the Army was late in delivering the supplies promised them by the treaty of 1820. After a protracted discussion, the Native Americans tried to steal food. One of the surveyors grabbed his rifle and shot one of the Potawatomies wounding him. Following the encounter, the surveyors retreated to Detroit.
Surveyors would not return to the area until June 1825, after Governor Lewis Cass had settled the issues with the Native Americans. Early white settlers called the nearby stream the Battle Creek River, the town took its name from that. Native Americans had called the river Waupakisco. By this account, the name Waupakisco or Waupokisco was a reference to an earlier battle fought between Native American tribes before the arrival of white settlers. However, Virgil J. Vogel establishes that this native term had "nothing to do with blood or battle". Following removal of the Potawatomi to a reservation, the first permanent white settlements in Battle Creek Township began about 1831. Migration had increased to Michigan from New York and New England following the completion of the Erie Canal in New York in 1824. Most settlers chose to locate on the Goguac prairie, fertile and cultivated. A post office was opened in Battle Creek in 1832 under Postmaster Pollodore Hudson; the first school was taught in a small log house about 1833 or 1834.
Asa Langley built the first sawmill in 1837. A brick manufacturing plant, called the oldest enterprise in the township, was established in 1840 by Simon Carr and operated until 1903; the township was established by act of the legislature in 1839. In the antebellum era, the city was a major stop on the Underground Railroad, used by fugitive slaves to escape to freedom in Michigan and Canada, it was the chosen home of noted abolitionist Sojourner Truth after her escape from slavery. Battle Creek figured prominently in the early history of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, it was the site of a Protestant church founding convention in 1863. The denomination's first hospital and publishing office would be constructed in the city; when the hospital and publishing office burned down in 1902, the church elected to decentralize, most of its institutions were relocated. The first Adventist church is still in operation. World Heavyweight Champion Jack Johnson was once arrested here for marrying his White wife and transporting her across state lines.
The city was noted for its focus on health reform during the late early 1900s. The Battle Creek Sanitarium was founded by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg. In addition to some of his sometimes bizarre treatments that were featured in the movie The Road to Wellville, Kellogg funded organizations that promoted eugenics theories at the core of their philosophical agenda; the Better Race Institute was one of these organizations. He supported the "separate but equal" philosophy and invited Booker T. Washington to speak at the Battle Creek Sanitarium in order to raise money. Washington was the author of the speech "The Atlanta Compromise", which solidified his position of being an accommodationist while providing a mechanism for southern Whites, to fund his school. W. K. Kellogg had worked for his brother in a variety of capacities at the B. C. Sanitarium. Tired of living in his brother's shadow, he struck out on his own, going to the boom-towns surrounding the oilfields in Oklahoma as a broom salesman. Having failed, he returned to work as an assistant to his brother.
While working at the sanitariums' laboratory, W. K. spilled liquefied cornmeal on a heating device that rendered it to flakes. He added milk to them, he was able to get his brother to allow him to give some of the product to some of the patients at the sanitarium, the patients' demand for the product exceeded his expectations to the point that W. K made the decision to leave the sanitarium. Along with some investors, he built a factory to satisfy the demand for his "corn flakes"; as W. K. Kellogg's wealth began to exceed his brother's, he funded some of his projects that were at the sanitarium. One of these was a eugenics-based organization. During this time, John Harvey Kellogg became a Freemason. One of the tenets of the fraternity is that "Masonry recognizes the internal character of a man, not the external". John Harvey Kellogg stopped funding his brother's projects and established equal pay policies in his company, he led desegregation efforts by allowing black children to swim in his home pool.
He funded many school and philanthropic projects throughout the city, founded Andrews University in Berrien Springs, Michigan. It was during this time of going their separate ways for good that Dr. John Harvey Kellogg sued his brother for copyright infringement; the U. S. Supreme court ruled in W. K. Kellogg's favor. Inspired by Kellogg's innovation, C. W. Post invented Grape-Nuts and founded his own cereal company in the town. Battle Creek has been nic
Joseph Mordaunt Crook known as J. Mordaunt Crook, is an English architectural historian and specialist on the Georgian and Victorian periods, he is an authority on the life and work of the Victorian architect William Burges, his study published in 1981 has been described as "one of the most substantial studies of any Victorian architect".. Slade Professor of Fine Art, University of Oxford Professor of Architectural History, Royal Holloway College, President of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain Supernumerary Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford Member of the Supervisory Committee of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Council Member of the Society of Antiquaries of London Council Member of the Victorian Society of Great Britain Vice Chairman Westminster Abbey Fabric Commission Commander of the Order of the British Empire Alice Davis Hitchcock Medallion, Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain Fellow of the British Academy The History of the King's Works volumes V-VI HMSO The British Museum: a Case-study in Architectural Politics, Pelican The Greek Revival: Neo-Classical Attitudes in British Architecture 1760-1870 John Murray The Reform Club article for and published by the Reform Club Strawberry Hill Revisited Reprints from Country Life of 7/14/21 June 1973 William Burges and the High Victorian Dream John Murray.
Club Government: How the Early Victorian World was Ruled from London Clubs. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 9781784538187
Faculte de Theologie Evangelique de Boma is a Christian college located in Boma, Congo. It is an official school of the Missionary Alliance. With the help of the Christianity and Missionary Alliance in the USA and Canada, the Evangelical Community of the Alliance in Congo launched the Boma Seminary in September 1976. Three students were part of the first class: Esaron Lelo Mavinga, Dynobert Nlandu Nguala and Justin-Abraham Kumbu-ki-Makaya. With a teaching faculty of three full-time professors, Raymur Downey, Lammert Hukema, Britta Hukema, one visiting professor, Nathalis Songo Vangu, who became full-time professor the following year, what was known as Institut Supérieur Théologie Évangélique de Boma began to offer pastoral training leading to an undergraduate degree; the arrival of Dr. Floyd Shank in 1979 gave a new impetus the seminary's academic programs, establishing a trend that continued with the arrival of new professors, such as Arie Verduijn, K. Bruce Edwards, Esaron Lelo Mavinga, Mabiala Justin-Robert Kenzo, Louis Matundu Zulu, Philippe Manzali Tsisi, Claude Lendo Luyindula, César Mata Ndudi, Lydie Kwangu Seke, Joseph Ngoma Nzita, Véronique Mabiala Dikoba Ngoma, Jérémie Khele Tsatu, Nzuzi Mbenza, Anastasie Masanga Mampoda, Gabriel Tsumbu Mayunda.
The seminary has greatly benefited from its roster of part-time and visiting professors such as Joachim Maduka Nzau, Joseph Mavinga Nzita, Timothée Taty Tshika, Justin Mayenda Ma Mbongo, Kitikila Dimonika, Nymi Panzu, Chris Braun, Ron Brown. Under the leadership of Dr. Nathalis Songo Vangu, its first African Rector, the seminary underwent a significant growth sprout; as an example, in June 1991, 11 men and women graduated from FACTEB. This growth would come to a virtual halt with the turmoil in the Congo during the nineties. Yet, it is during this time that the seminary changed its status from a seminary to graduate school, offering both undergraduate and graduate degrees; this explains the change in the name of the institution, from Institut Supérieur de Théologie Évangélique de Boma to Faculté de Théologie Évangélique de Boma. FACTEB offers master's degrees through on-campus study. ^ Alliance Life magazine, Volume 111, Number 26, Dec 29, 1976 edition ^ Alliance Life magazine, Volume 112, Number 10, May 18, 1977 edition ^ Alliance Life magazine, Volume 118, Number 11, May 25, 1983 edition ^ Alliance Life magazine, Volume 126, Number 11, May 22, 1991 edition ^ Alliance Life magazine, Volume 131, Number 5, Feb 28, 1996 edition
This is a list of Carolina Hurricanes award winners. It includes players and data from the previous incarnation of the franchise, the Hartford Whalers; the NHL First and Second Team All-Stars consists of the top players at each position as voted on by the Professional Hockey Writers' Association. The NHL All-Rookie Team consists of the top rookies at each position as voted on by the Professional Hockey Writers' Association; the National Hockey League All-Star Game is a mid-season exhibition game held annually between many of the top players of each season. Thirty-three All-Star Games have been held since the Carolina Hurricanes entered the NHL as the Hartford Whalers in 1979, with at least one player chosen to represent the franchise in each year except 1998, 2004 and 2012; the All-Star game has not been held in various years: 1979 and 1987 due to the 1979 Challenge Cup and Rendez-vous'87 series between the NHL and the Soviet national team 1995, 2005, 2013 as a result of labor stoppages, 2006, 2010, 2014 because of the Winter Olympic Games.
The franchise has hosted two of the games. Hartford hosted the 38th at the XL Center known as the Hartford Civic Center, Carolina hosted the 58th at PNC Arena known as the RBC Center. Selected by fan vote All-Star Game Most Valuable Player The following is a list of Carolina Hurricanes who have been enshrined in the Hockey Hall of Fame. One member of the Carolina Hurricanes organization has been honored with the Foster Hewitt Memorial Award; the award is presented by the Hockey Hall of Fame to members of the radio and television industry who make outstanding contributions to their profession and the game of ice hockey during their broadcasting career. The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League and USA Hockey since 1966 to honor a recipient's contribution to ice hockey in the United States; this list includes all personnel who have been employed by the Carolina Hurricanes franchise in any capacity and have received the Lester Patrick Trophy. The Carolina Hurricanes have retired three of their jersey numbers and taken two other numbers out of circulation.
Prior to the franchise's move to Carolina, the Hartford Whalers retired Rick Ley's number 2, Gordie Howe's number 9, John McKenzie's number 19. Numbers 2 and 19 were returned to circulation when the franchise moved to Carolina, but the number 9 remains unofficially retired for Howe; the number 3 was removed from circulation following Steve Chiasson's death in 1999. Out of circulation is the number 99, retired league-wide for Wayne Gretzky on February 6, 2000. Gretzky did not play for the Hurricanes franchise during his 20-year NHL career and no player in franchise history had worn the number 99 prior to its retirement; the Josef Vasicek Award is an annual award given by the Carolina chapter of the Professional Hockey Writers' Association for "outstanding cooperation with the local media." The Most Valuable Player award is an annual award given by the Carolina chapter of the Professional Hockey Writers' Association to the team's MVP. The Steve Chiasson Award is an annual award given to the player who "best exemplifies determination and dedication while proving to be an inspiration to his teammates through his performance and approach to the game" as selected by his teammates.
Statistical learning is the ability for humans and other animals to extract statistical regularities from the world around them to learn about the environment. Although statistical learning is now thought to be a generalized learning mechanism, the phenomenon was first identified in human infant language acquisition; the earliest evidence for these statistical learning abilities comes from a study by Jenny Saffran, Richard Aslin, Elissa Newport, in which 8-month-old infants were presented with nonsense streams of monotone speech. Each stream was composed of four three-syllable "pseudowords". After exposure to the speech streams for two minutes, infants reacted differently to hearing “pseudowords” as opposed to “nonwords” from the speech stream, where nonwords were composed of the same syllables that the infants had been exposed to, but in a different order; this suggests that infants are able to learn statistical relationships between syllables with limited exposure to a language. That is, infants learn which syllables are always paired together and which ones only occur together rarely, suggesting that they are parts of two different units.
This method of learning is thought to be one way that children learn which groups of syllables form individual words. Since the initial discovery of the role of statistical learning in lexical acquisition, the same mechanism has been proposed for elements of phonological acquisition, syntactical acquisition, as well as in non-linguistic domains. Further research has indicated that statistical learning is a domain-general and species-general learning mechanism, occurring for visual as well as auditory information, in both primates and non-primates; the role of statistical learning in language acquisition has been well documented in the area of lexical acquisition. One important contribution to infants' understanding of segmenting words from a continuous stream of speech is their ability to recognize statistical regularities of the speech heard in their environments. Although many factors play an important role, this specific mechanism is powerful and can operate over a short time scale, it is a well-established finding that, unlike written language, spoken language does not have any clear boundaries between words.
This lack of segmentation between linguistic units presents a problem for young children learning language, who must be able to pick out individual units from the continuous speech streams that they hear. One proposed method of how children are able to solve this problem is that they are attentive to the statistical regularities of the world around them. For example, in the phrase "pretty baby," children are more to hear the sounds pre and ty heard together during the entirety of the lexical input around them than they are to hear the sounds ty and ba together. In an artificial grammar learning study with adult participants, Saffran and Aslin found that participants were able to locate word boundaries based only on transitional probabilities, suggesting that adults are capable of using statistical regularities in a language-learning task; this is a robust finding, replicated. To determine if young children have these same abilities Saffran Aslin and Newport exposed 8-month-old infants to an artificial grammar.
The grammar was composed of four words, each composed of three nonsense syllables. During the experiment, infants heard a continuous speech stream of these words; the speech was presented in a monotone with no cues to word boundaries other than the statistical probabilities. Within a word, the transitional probability of two syllable pairs was 1.0: in the word bidaku, for example, the probability of hearing the syllable da after the syllable bi was 100%. Between words, the transitional probability of hearing a syllable pair was much lower: After any given word was presented, one of three words could follow, so the likelihood of hearing any given syllable after ku was only 33%. To determine if infants were picking up on the statistical information, each infant was presented with multiple presentations of either a word from the artificial grammar or a nonword made up of the same syllables but presented in a random order. Infants who were presented with nonwords during the test phase listened longer to these words than infants who were presented with words from the artificial grammar, showing a novelty preference for these new nonwords.
However, the implementation of the test could be due to infants learning serial-order information and not to learning transitional probabilities between words. That is, at test, infants heard strings such as dapiku and tilado that were never presented during learning. To look more at this issue, Saffran Aslin and Newport conducted another study in which infants underwent the same training with the artificial grammar but were presented with either words or part-words rather than words or nonwords; the part-words were syllable sequences composed of the last syllable from one word and the first two syllables from another. Because the part-words had been heard during the time when children were listening to the artificial grammar, preferential listening to these part-words would indicate that children were learning not only serial-order information, but the statistical likelihood of hearing particular syllable sequences. Again, infants showed greater listening times to the novel words, indicating that 8-mon
The Municipal Council of Quatre Bornes known as Municipality is the local authority responsible for the administration of the town of Quatre Bornes, Plaines Wilhems District, Mauritius. The actual Mayor is Mr SONOO Atmaram and the Deputy Mayor is Mrs KOENIG Arline. In 2015, three former councilors were convicted of conflict of interest. According to the Local Government Act 2011 PART III Section 11, election of councillors to Municipal Town Council shall be held in 2012 and thereafter every 6 years on such date as the President shall appoint; the council is composed of 15 councillors including the Mayor and Deputy Mayor, elected for a period of 2 years, while each of the councillors represent wards throughout the town. In the last elections in November 2012 the town was subdivided into 5 wards, the number of registered voters was 57,474. Official website