Oxford History of the United States
The Oxford History of the United States is an ongoing multi-volume narrative history of the United States published by Oxford University Press. The series originated in the 1950s with a laid out by historians C. The project proved to be more challenging than initially envisioned, New fields of historical study emerged in the 1960s, and personal issues intervened for some of the authors. Among the historians connected with the series at one time or another were Willie Lee Rose, Morton Keller, John Lewis Gaddis, Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick. Though some of these historians completed books as a result of their respective assignments, the first volume published in the series, Robert Middlekauffs The Glorious Cause, The American Revolution, 1763–1789, finally was released in 1982. Two more volumes followed under Woodwards editorship, after Woodwards death in 1999, David Kennedy assumed the editorship of the series. Foreign Relations since 1776 by George C, published in October 2008, and Empire of Liberty, A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 by Gordon S.
Wood, published in September 2009. A volume written by H. W, for the most part, the publication of each volume has been greeted with laudatory reviews. Three of the volumes were awarded the Pulitzer Prize for History upon their publication, Middlekauffs Glorious Cause and Woods Empire of Liberty were finalists for the prize in 1982 and 2010, respectively. Pattersons Grand Expectations received the 1997 Bancroft Prize in American history, when originally published in hardcover, McPhersons Battle Cry of Freedom spent 16 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list, and an additional 3 months for the subsequent paperback edition. Schwarz wrote his review when only five volumes in the series were available, in 1927, Oxford University Press published a two-volume history of the United States by Samuel Eliot Morison, entitled The Oxford History of the United States, 1783–1917. Morison invited Henry Steele Commager to join him in preparing a revised and expanded version and this history in two volumes became the leading undergraduate American history textbook, it appeared in seven editions between 1930 and 1980.
In 1980, Leuchtenburg prepared a revised and condensed version, The Concise History of the American Republic, which saw a second edition in 1983
1918 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1918. January 1 – Popular British novelist and wartime propagandist Hall Caine is made a KBE, january 2 – Popular British novelist Marie Corelli is convicted under wartime legislation for hoarding food. January 23 – Robert Graves marries the painter Nancy Nicholson in London, wedding guests include Wilfred Owen, whose first nationally published poem appears 3 days and who will be killed by the end of the year. March The Telemachus episode of James Joyces Ulysses is published in the American journal The Little Review, English novelist Alec Waugh is made a prisoner of war, he will be incarcerated in Mainz Citadel with monologuist J. Milton Hayes and Hugh Kingsmill. English writer May Sinclair first uses the term Stream of consciousness to describe a narrative mode, may 3 – Katherine Mansfield marries her long-time partner John Middleton Murry at Kensington register office in London. June – English poet Basil Bunting is imprisoned as a conscientious objector, august 17 – Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon meet for the last time, in London, and spend what Sassoon describes as the whole of a hot cloudless afternoon together.
October 3 – Siegfried Sassoon visits his mentor Robbie Ross for the last time, Sassoon writes that Ross, in saying goodbye, gave him a presentiment of final farewell. November 4 – Wilfred Owen is killed in action, aged 25, news of his death reaches his parents in Shrewsbury a week on Armistice Day. He is awarded a posthumous Military Cross a year later, december 28 – Emperor Khải Định of Vietnam declares the traditional Chữ nôm script for writing the Vietnamese language to be abolished in favour of the Latin script Vietnamese alphabet. Winter – Parisian farceur Georges Feydeau contracts tertiary syphilis, the 2nd annual Pulitzer Prizes are awarded in the United States, including the first award for a novel
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century, Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is used in many other private and business organizations. Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections. To elect means to choose or make a decision, and so other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections. Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Rome, and throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor, in Vedic period of India, the raja of a gana was apparently elected by the gana. The raja belonged to the noble Kshatriya varna, and was typically a son of the previous raja, the gana members had the final say in his elections.
The Pala king Gopala in early medieval Bengal was elected by a group of feudal chieftains, such elections were quite common in contemporary societies of the region. In Chola Empire, around 920 CE, in Uthiramerur, palm leaves were used for selecting the village committee members, the leaves, with candidate names written on them, were put inside a mud pot. To select the members, a young boy was asked to take out as many leaves as the number of positions available. This was known as the Kudavolai system, ancient Arabs used election to choose their caliph and Ali, in the early medieval Rashidun Caliphate. Questions of suffrage, especially suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections, the dominate cultural group in North America and Europe, often dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries. Early elections in such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males. However, by 1920 all Western European and North American democracies had universal male suffrage.
Despite legally mandated universal suffrage for males, political barriers were sometimes erected to prevent fair access to elections. The question of who may vote is an issue in elections. In Australia Aboriginal people were not given the right to vote until 1962, suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country, though further limits may be imposed. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen, the nationality of the country of residence is not required
Gordon S. Wood
His book The Creation of the American Republic, 1776–1787 won a 1970 Bancroft Prize. In 2010 he was awarded the National Humanities Medal, Wood was born in Concord and grew up in Worcester and Waltham. He graduated summa cum laude from Tufts University in 1955 and has served as a trustee there, Wood has taught at Harvard, the College of William and Mary, the University of Michigan, Brown University, Cambridge University, and in 1982–83 he lectured for One Day University. He is a frequent contributor to The New York Review of Books, a recent project was the third volume of the Oxford History of the United States -- Empire of Liberty, A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 -- a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. Wood married the former Louise Goss on April 30,1956 and they have three children, Christopher and Amy. Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich publicly and effusively praised Woods The Radicalism of the American Revolution and he jokingly described Gingrichs praise in an interview on C-SPAN in 2002 as the kiss of death for me among a lot of academics, who are not right-wing Republicans.
He goes on to predict that a in his curriculum. The student begins to respond with a critique of Wood, which Hunting interrupts, the Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787, University of North Carolina Press,1969,1998. Representation in the American Revolution, University of Virginia Press,1969, the Rising Glory of America, 1760–1820, George Braziller,1971, revised edition, Northeastern University Press,1990. The Confederation and the Constitution, Brown,1973, Revolution and the Political Integration of the Enslaved and Disenfranchised, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research,1974. Leadership in the American Revolution, Library of Congress,1974, social Radicalism and the Idea of Equality in the American Revolution, University of St. Thomas,1976. The Great Republic, Brown,1977, 4th edition, the Making of the Constitution, Baylor University Press,1987. Rising Glory of America, 1760–1820, Northeastern University Press,1990, the Radicalism of the American Revolution, Alfred A.
Knopf,1992. Russian-American Dialogue on the American Revolution, University of Missouri Press,1995, wages of Independence, Capitalism in the Early American Republic, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers,1997. Imagined Histories, American Historians Interpret the Past, Princeton University Press,1998, monarchism and Republicanism in the Early United States, La Trobe University,2000. The American Revolution, A History, Modern Library,2001, the Americanization of Benjamin Franklin, Penguin Press,2004. Revolutionary Characters, What Made the Founders Different, Penguin Press,2006, the Purpose of the Past, Reflections on the Uses of History, Penguin Press,2008. Empire of Liberty, A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815, Reflections on the Birth of the United States
James M. McPherson
For the American Civil War general of similar name, see James B. James M. Jim McPherson is an American Civil War historian and he received the 1989 Pulitzer Prize for Battle Cry of Freedom, The Civil War Era. McPherson was the president of the American Historical Association in 2003, McPhersons works include The Struggle for Equality, awarded the Anisfield-Wolf Award in 1965. In 1988, he published his Pulitzer-winning book, Battle Cry of Freedom, and in 1998 another book, For Cause and Comrades, Why Men Fought in the Civil War, received the Lincoln Prize. In 2002, he published both a book, Crossroads of Freedom, Antietam 1862, and a history of the American Civil War for children. McPherson published This Mighty Scourge in 2007, a series of essays about the American Civil War, one essay describes the huge difficulty of negotiation when regime change is a war aim on either side of a conflict. For at least the past two centuries, nations have found it harder to end a war than to start one. Americans learned that lesson in Vietnam, and apparently having forgotten it, were forced to learn it all over again in Iraq.
One of McPhersons examples is the American Civil War, in both the Union and the Confederacy sought regime change. It took four years to end the war, in 2009, he was the co-winner of the Lincoln Prize for Tried by War, Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief. McPherson was named the 2000 Jefferson Lecturer in the humanities by the National Endowment for the Humanities, in 2007, he was awarded the $100,000 Pritzker Military Library Literature Award for lifetime achievement in military history and was the first recipient of the prize. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts, currently, McPherson resides in Princeton, New Jersey. He is married to Patricia and they have one child, McPherson is known for his outspokenness on contemporary issues and for his activism, such as his work on behalf of the preservation of Civil War battlefields. As president in 1993-1994 of Protect Historic America, he lobbied against the construction of a Disney theme park near Manassas battlefield. He has served on the boards of the Civil War Trust as well as the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites, from 1990 to 1993, he sat on the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission.
Along with several historians, McPherson signed a May 2009 petition asking U. S. President Barack Obama not to lay a wreath at the Confederate Monument Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery. This implies that the humanity of Africans and African Americans is of no significance, the monument gives encouragement to the modern neo-Confederate movement and provides a rallying point for them. The modern neo-Confederate movement interprets it as vindicating the Confederacy and the principles and ideas of the Confederacy, the presidential wreath enhances the prestige of these neo-Confederate events
Democracy, in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament. Democracy is sometimes referred to as rule of the majority, Democracy was originally conceived in Classical Greece, where political representatives were chosen by a jury from amongst the male citizens and poor. The English word dates to the 16th century, from the older Middle French, in the 5th century BC, to denote the political systems existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, the term is an antonym to aristocracy, meaning rule of an elite. While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically, the political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In 1906, Finland became the first government to harald a more inclusive democracy at the national level.
Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy, are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders, No consensus exists on how to define democracy, but legal equality, political freedom and rule of law have been identified as important characteristics. These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law, other uses of democracy include that of direct democracy. In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, in the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review, though the term democracy is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are applicable to private organisations.
Majority rule is listed as a characteristic of democracy. Hence, democracy allows for political minorities to be oppressed by the tyranny of the majority in the absence of legal protections of individual or group rights. An essential part of a representative democracy is competitive elections that are substantively and procedurally fair, i. e. just. It has suggested that a basic feature of democracy is the capacity of all voters to participate freely and fully in the life of their society. While representative democracy is sometimes equated with the form of government. Many democracies are constitutional monarchies, such as the United Kingdom, the term democracy first appeared in ancient Greek political and philosophical thought in the city-state of Athens during classical antiquity. The word comes from demos, common people and kratos, led by Cleisthenes, Athenians established what is generally held as the first democracy in 508–507 BC
Bibliography of Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th president of the United States following his success as military commander in the American Civil War. Under Grant, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military, the war, as president, Grant led the Radical Republicans in their effort to eliminate vestiges of Confederate nationalism and slavery, protect African American citizenship, and defeat the Ku Klux Klan. In foreign policy, Grant sought to increase American trade and influence, although his Republican Party split in 1872 as reformers denounced him, Grant was easily reelected. During his second term the economy was devastated by the Panic of 1873. The conservative white Southerners regained control of Southern state governments and Democrats took control of the federal House of Representatives, by the time Grant left the White House in 1877, his Reconstruction policies were being undone. After leaving office, Grant embarked on a world tour that included many enthusiastic receptions. In 1880, he made a bid for a third presidential term.
However, his memoirs, written as he was dying, were a critical and popular success, historical assessments of the Grant Administration have traditionally been critical, Grants presidency having been ranked among the lowest by historians. Grants reputation was marred by his defense of corrupt appointees and by his conservative deflationary policy during the Panic of 1873, There are abundant historical material resources on Grant and his role during the Civil War and thereafter. However, there have been few historical studies, mostly negative. Analysis of Grants presidency by some scholars, including Grant biographers Jean Edward Smith and H. W. Brands, have generally been more positive. Encyclopedic presidential summary biographies of Grant rely heavily on secondary sources, historian John Y. Simon edited Grants letters into a 32-volume scholarly edition published by Southern Illinois University Press. Grant in Peace, From Appomattox to Mount McGregor, the Man Who Saved The Union Ulysses S. Grant in War and Peace.
Brands, H. W. Presidents in Crisis Grant, Takes on the Klan, the campaign lives of Ulysses S. Grant, and Schyler Colfax. Broadwater, Robert P. Ulysses S. Grant, A Biography, Frank A. Newman, John Philip. A new and authentic record of the life and deeds of General U. S. Grant, Sylvanus,1955 Three years with Grant, as recalled by war correspondent Sylvanus Cadwallader Knopf Publishers, New York Carpenter, John A. Ulysses S. Grant. Ulysses S. Grant and the period of national preservation and reconstruction, how Judge Hoar Ceased to be Attorney General. From Cincinnati to the Colorado Ranger, The Horsemanship of Ulysses S. Grant and Sherman, The Friendship That Won the Civil War
United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, Articles Four and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government. Article Seven establishes the procedure used by the thirteen States to ratify it. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty, the majority of the seventeen amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures, Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S, according to the United States Senate, The Constitutions first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens.
From September 5,1774 to March 1,1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the government of the United States. The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a governing body. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States and it was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late-1777, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the governments power was quite limited. The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers, implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless, Congress could borrow money, but couldnt pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes, some paid nothing, some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt owed to their citizens, but no more.
No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments, by 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due. Internationally, the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States ability to defend its sovereignty, most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil. They had not been paid, some were deserting and others threatening mutiny, spain closed New Orleans to American commerce, U. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce, the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom, if any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the sentiments and interests of the various states
1917 in literature
This article presents lists of literary events and publications in 1917. January Francis Picabia produces the first issue of the Dada periodical 391 in Barcelona, J. R. R. February 4/5 – English writer Hugh Kingsmill is taken prisoner while fighting in France. February 16 – The publishing house of Boni & Liveright is established in New York City by Horace Liveright with Albert Boni, and establishes the Modern Library imprint. April – Leonard and Virginia Woolf take delivery of the printing press they require in order to establish the Hogarth Press at their home. Their first publication is Two Stories, june 4 – The first Pulitzer Prizes are awarded, Laura E. Richards, Maude H. Swope receives the first Pulitzer for journalism for his work for the New York World. June 18 – Luigi Pirandellos drama Right You Are is premièred in Milan, summer – The Siuru expressionistic and neo-romantic literary movement in Estonia is formed by a group of young poets and writers. October 20 – 51-year-old poet W. B, yeats marries 25-year-old Georgie Hyde-Lees at Harrow Road register office in London a couple of months after having had a proposal of marriage to his ex-mistresss daughter, Iseult Gonne, rejected.
December 25 – Jesse Lynch Williams Why Marry, the first dramatic play to win a Pulitzer Prize, opens at the Astor Theatre. The colonial government of the Dutch East Indies establishes the Kantoor voor de Volklectuur, the Marc Chagall illustrated version of The Magician by I. L. Peretz is published in Vilnius. This is the background to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyns novels in The Red Wheel sequence March 1917, august 18 – First meeting between Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon, the basis of Stephen MacDonalds drama Not About Heroes and Pat Barkers novel Regeneration
The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress determined King George IIIs rule to be tyrannical and infringing the rights as Englishmen. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were forced out of Boston in 1776, but captured and they blockaded the ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but failed to defeat Washingtons forces. After a failed Patriot invasion of Canada, a British army was captured at the Battle of Saratoga in late 1777, a combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States.
The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nations complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. Historians typically begin their histories of the American Revolution with the British victory in the French and Indian War in 1763, the lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies, in 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles, none did and Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes on the colonies for the first time.
All official documents, newspapers and pamphlets—even decks of playing cards—were required to have the stamps, the colonists did not object that the taxes were high, but because they had no representation in the Parliament. Benjamin Franklin testified in Parliament in 1766 that Americans already contributed heavily to the defense of the Empire, stationing a standing army in Great Britain during peacetime was politically unacceptable. London had to deal with 1,500 politically well-connected British officers who became redundant, in 1765, the Sons of Liberty formed. They used public demonstrations, boycott and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable, in Boston, the Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice admiralty court and looted the home of chief justice Thomas Hutchinson. Several legislatures called for united action, and nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City in October 1765, moderates led by John Dickinson drew up a Declaration of Rights and Grievances stating that taxes passed without representation violated their rights as Englishmen.
Colonists emphasized their determination by boycotting imports of British merchandise, the Parliament at Westminster saw itself as the supreme lawmaking authority throughout all British possessions and thus entitled to levy any tax without colonial approval