A film poster is a poster used to promote and advertise a film. Studios print several posters that vary in size and content for various domestic and international markets, they contain an image with text. Today's posters feature photographs of the main actors. Prior to the 1980s, illustrations instead of photos were far more common; the text on film posters contains the film title in large lettering and the names of the main actors. It may include a tagline, the name of the director, names of characters, the release date, etc. Film posters are displayed inside and on the outside of movie theaters, elsewhere on the street or in shops; the same images appear in the film exhibitor's pressbook and may be used on websites, DVD packaging, advertisements in newspapers and magazines, etc. Film posters have been used since the earliest public exhibitions of film, they began as outside placards listing the programme of films to be shown inside the hall or movie theater. By the early 1900s, they began to feature illustrations of a film scene or an array of overlaid images from several scenes.
Other posters have used artistic interpretations of a scene or the theme of the film, represented in a wide variety of artistic styles. The first film poster was based on an illustration by Marcellin Auzolle to promote the showing of the Lumiere Brothers film L'Arroseur arrosé at the Grand Café in Paris on December 26, 1895. Film posters were produced for the exclusive use by the theaters exhibiting the film the poster was created for, were required to be returned to the distributor after the film left the theater. In the United States, film posters were returned to a nationwide operation called the National Screen Service which printed and distributed most of the film posters for the studios between 1940 and 1984; as an economy measure, the NSS recycled posters that were returned, sending them back out to be used again at another theater. During this time, a film could stay in circulation for several years, so many old film posters were badly worn before being retired into storage at an NSS warehouse.
Those posters which were not returned were thrown away by the theater owner or damaged by being outside. Beginning in the 1980s, the American film studios began taking over direct production and distribution of their posters from the National Screen Service and the process of making and distributing film posters became decentralized in that country. After the National Screen Service ceased most of its printing and distribution operations in 1985, some of the posters which they had stored in warehouses around the United States ended up in the hands of private collectors and dealers. Today there is a thriving collectibles market in film posters; the first auction by a major auction house of film posters occurred on December 11, 1990, when proceeds of a sale of 271 vintage posters run by Bruce Hershenson at Christie's totaled US$935,000. The record price for a single poster was set on November 15, 2005 when $690,000 was paid for a poster of Fritz Lang's 1927 film Metropolis from the Reel Poster Gallery in London.
Other early horror and science fiction posters are known to bring high prices as well, with an example from The Mummy realizing $452,000 in a 1997 Sotheby's auction, posters from both Bride of Frankenstein and The Black Cat selling for $334,600 in Heritage auctions, in 2007 and 2009, respectively. Rare film posters have been found being used as insulation in attics and walls. In 2011, 33 film posters, including a Dracula Style F one-sheet, from 1930-1931 were discovered in an attic in Berwick and auctioned for $502,000 in March 2012 by Heritage Auctions. Over the years, old Bollywood posters with hand-painted art, have become collectors items; as a result of market demand, some of the more popular older film posters have been reproduced either under license or illegally. Although the artwork on reproductions is the same as originals, reproductions can be distinguished by size, printing quality, paper type. Several websites on the Internet offer "authentication" tests to distinguish originals from reproductions.
Original film posters distributed to theaters and other poster venues by the movie studios are never sold directly to the public. However, most modern posters are produced in large quantities and become available for purchase by collectors indirectly through various secondary markets such as eBay. Accordingly, most modern posters are not as valuable; however some recent posters, such as the Pulp Fiction "Lucky Strike" U. S. one sheet poster, are quite rare. Lobby cards are similar to posters but smaller 11 in × 14 in 8 in × 10 in before 1930. Lobby cards are collectible and values depend on their age and popularity. Issued in sets of eight, each featuring a different scene from the film. In unusual circumstances, some releases were promoted with smaller sets; the set for The Running Man, for example, had only six cards, whereas the set for The Italian Job had twelve. Films released by major production companies experiencing financial difficulties lacked lobby sets, such as Manhunter. A Jumbo Lobby Card is larger, 14 in x 17 in and issued in sets.
Prior to 1940 studios promoted major releases with the larger card sets. In addition to the larger size, the paper quality was better; the title card disp
Arthur Sofield Franz was an American B-movie and television actor, whose most notable feature film role was as Lieutenant, Junior Grade, H. Paynter Jr. in The Caine Mutiny. Franz was born in New Jersey, his interest in acting developed. During World War II, Franz served as a B-24 Liberator navigator in the United States Army Air Forces, he was shot down over Romania and incarcerated in a POW camp, from which he escaped. Franz's Broadway credits include Command Decision, The Moon Vine, Little Darling, Hope for a Harvest. Franz made his screen debut in Jungle Patrol, he appeared in Roseanna McCoy and Costello Meet the Invisible Man, Eight Iron Men, Invaders From Mars, The Unholy Wife, Monster on the Campus among many others. In The Sniper, he played a rare lead in the film's title role as a tormented killer. Franz's last role was in 1982 film That Championship Season. Franz portrayed automobile magnate Henry Ford in the 1955 television film, A Story About Henry Ford, with Karen Sharpe as Ford's wife, Clara Bryant Ford.
Franz was a familiar face on American television series. In 1958 he played the title role of Danny Harrison in "The Case of the Married Moonlighter," and in 1959 he played Richard Vanaman in "The Case of the Golden Fraud." In 1962, he played murderer Mr. Evans in "The Case of the Captain's Coin." In 1961, Franz was cast as the historical Paine Page Prim, a future chief justice of the Oregon Supreme Court, in the episode, "Justice at Jackson Creek", on the syndicated anthology series, Death Valley Days, hosted by Stanley Andrews. Prim is shown as a drunken, ostracized lawyer who hesitates to help a miner in legal trouble but must overcome his personal demons to excel at the law; the episode stars Dub Taylor as Jake. He appeared on dozens of other series, including Schlitz Playhouse, Science Fiction Theatre, Ripcord, Tarzan, Land of the Giants, The Alaskans, Mr. Novak, The F. B. I; the Mod Squad, Hawaii Five-O, Rich Man, Poor Man Book II, Mission: Impossible, The Rookies, Owen Marshall: Counselor at Law, Storefront Lawyers, The Six Million Dollar Man, The Invaders, The Waltons, Room 222, The Virginian, Rawhide, Police Story, Medical Story, The Outcasts, McCloud and Barnaby Jones.
Franz played the role of U. S. President James Madison in the 1965 episode "George Mason" of the NBC documentary series Profiles in Courage. William Bakewell played George Wythe, Laurence Naismith played the title role of George Mason. Franz portrayed U. S. Representative Charles A. Halleck of Indiana in the 1974 made-for-television film The Missiles of October, based on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Franz's third wife, Doreen Lang, died in 1999, he had been divorced twice. He married his fourth wife, Sharon, on February 14, 2006. Franz died in California, at the age of 86 from emphysema and heart disease. Arthur Franz on IMDb Arthur Franz at the Internet Broadway Database
Ivan Tors was a Hungarian playwright, film director and film and television producer with an emphasis on non-violent but exciting science fiction, underwater sequences, stories involving animals. He started a Miami-based film studio now known as Greenwich Studios, a music company. Tors wrote several plays in his native country Hungary before moving to the United States just prior to World War II, he arrived with his brother Ervin in July 1939 on the SS Hansa and had come to study at Fordham University in New York City. He subsequently enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps transferred to the Office of Strategic Services. Following the war he was contracted to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a screenwriter. In 1952 he made Storm over his first film as co-writer and producer, he began his partnership with his fellow Hungarian Andrew Marton with this film reusing much of Marton's footage from Demon of the Himalayas. Long interested in fact-based science fiction with an underwater setting, Tors partnered with actor Richard Carlson in the 1950s to create A-Men Films, a production company devoted to making movies about its own fictitious exploits.
Under the A-Men banner, Tors wrote and produced films such as The Magnetic Monster reusing footage from the 1934 German film Gold, Riders to the Stars and the television series Science Fiction Theatre, Sea Hunt, starred Lloyd Bridges, The Aquanauts, starred Keith Larsen, Jeremy Slate, Ron Ely renamed Malibu Run. He created the NBC's science fiction series The Man and the Challenge, starred George Nader and Jack Ging and was the executive producer of Ripcord, starred Larry Pennell and Ken Curtis, his Office of Scientific Investigation trilogy consisted of The Magnetic Monster, Riders to the Stars, Gog mentioned. Tors produced two Korean War films, Battle Taxi and Underwater Warrior. In the 1960s Tors left science fiction and concentrated on making films and television series involving animals, he would make a film first and develop a television series based on the film. His animal films included Flipper, Flipper's New Adventure, Zebra in the Kitchen, the Cross-Eyed Lion, Gentle Giant, Africa Texas Style.
He directed Rhino!, Galyon. His animal-themed television adventure series included Flipper, Gentle Ben, Cowboy in Africa, Jambo, a documentary series set in Africa, his production company, Ivan Tors Films, did the underwater filming for the James Bond film Thunderball as well as filming his own Around the World Under the Sea for MGM and Daring Game and Hello Down There for Paramount. Tors' studio filmed Soupy Sales' film debut in Birds Do It. Tors was married to film actress Constance Dowling from 1955 until her death in 1969. Tors died 14 years eight days before his 67th birthday, he died in Mato Grosso, where he was scouting a new television series. In 1989 the Academy of Underwater Arts & Sciences posthumously awarded Tors a NOGI Award in Arts. Ivan Tors on IMDb
Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw
The Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw was a multi-purpose helicopter used by the United States Army and United States Air Force. It was license-built by Westland Aircraft as the Westland Whirlwind in the United Kingdom. United States Navy and United States Coast Guard models were designated HO4S, while those of the U. S. Marine Corps were designated HRS. In 1962, the U. S. Navy, U. S. Coast Guard and U. S. Marine Corps versions were all redesignated as H-19s like their U. S. Army and U. S. Air Force counterparts. Development of the H-19 was initiated by Sikorsky without government sponsorship; the helicopter was designed as a testbed for several novel design concepts intended to provide greater load-carrying ability in combination with easy maintenance. Under the leadership of designer Edward F. Katzenberger, a mockup was designed and fabricated in less than one year; the first customer was the United States Air Force, which ordered five YH-19 aircraft for evaluation. This was followed by delivery of the first YH-19 to the U.
S. Air Force on 16 April 1950 and delivery of the first HO4S-1 helicopter to the U. S. Navy on 31 August 1950. A U. S. Air Force YH-19 was sent to Korea for service trials in March 1951, where it was joined by a second YH-19 in September 1951. On 27 April 1951, the first HRS-1 was delivered to the U. S. Marine Corps, on 2 May 1951, the first S-55 was delivered to Westland Aircraft.1,281 of the helicopters were manufactured by Sikorsky in the United States. An additional 447 were manufactured by licensees of the helicopter including Westland Aircraft, the SNCASE in France and Mitsubishi in Japan; the helicopter was exported, used by many other nations, including Portugal, Israel, South Africa and Turkey. In 1954 the Marines tested an idea to enhance lift in hot and high and/or loaded conditions by installing a rocket nozzle at the tip of each rotor blade with the fuel tank located in the center above the rotor blade hub. Enough fuel was provided for seven minutes of operation. Although tests of the system were considered successful, it was never adopted operationally.
Major innovations implemented on the H-19 were the forward placement of the engine below the crew compartment and in front of the main cabin, the use of offset flapping hinges located nine inches from the center of the rotor, the use of hydraulic servos for the main rotor controls. These features yielded an aircraft, far more capable in a transport role than previous Sikorsky designs; the forward engine location placed the main cabin in line with the main rotor's rotational axis and close to the aircraft center of gravity, making it easier to maintain proper weight and balance under differing loading conditions. The impetus for this design choice was the recent rejection of the Sikorsky XHJS by the U. S. Navy in favor of the tandem rotor Piasecki HUP Retriever. Another benefit of this engine location was ease of maintenance, as the engine could be accessed at ground level through dual clamshell-style doors; the offset flapping hinges and hydraulic servos gave more positive flight control under differing loading conditions, isolated the flight controls from vibration, lessened control forces.
The YH-19 prototypes featured a blunt aft fuselage and a single starboard-mounted horizontal tailplane with a small vertical fin at its outboard end. Initial production models added a large fillet-like fin behind the fuselage and under the tailboom, the tailplane configuration was changed to an inverted "V" shape. Early H-19 and HO4S variants were powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-1340-57 radial rated at 600 hp and used a centrifugal clutch that automatically engaged the main rotor when a preset engine speed was reached. However, the HO4S was deemed underpowered in U. S. Navy service with this powerplant, so the aircraft was re-engined with a 700 hp Wright R-1300-3 radial which the U. S. Navy found to be adequate in an air-sea rescue role; the R-1300 models used a single horizontal tailplane in place of the early inverted "V" style, a new hydro-mechanical clutch gave smoother and more rapid rotor acceleration during clutch engagement and allowed the engine to be started and operated at any speed while disengaged from the transmission and rotors.
Early civilian and military S-55 models offered a folding 400 lb capacity hoist above the starboard main cabin door, while models could be equipped with a more capable and reliable 600 lb capacity unit. Starting with the introduction of the S-55C in October 1956, the tailboom was inclined three degrees downward to provide more main rotor clearance during hard landings; the H-19 Chickasaw holds the distinction of being the U. S. Army's first true transport helicopter and, as such, played an important role in the initial formulation of Army doctrine regarding air mobility and the battlefield employment of troop-carrying helicopters; the H-19 underwent live service tests in the hands of the 6th Transportation Company, during the Korean War begin
United Artists Corporation doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American film and television entertainment studio. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios. UA was bought and restructured over the ensuing century; the current United Artists company exists as a successor to the original. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquired the studio in 1981 for a reported $350 million. On September 22, 2014, MGM acquired a controlling interest in Mark Burnett and Roma Downey's entertainment companies One Three Media and Lightworkers Media merged them to revive United Artists' TV production unit as United Artists Media Group. However, on December 14 of the following year, MGM wholly acquired UAMG and folded it into MGM Television. UA was revived yet again in 2018 as United Artists Digital Studios. Mirror, the joint distribution venture between MGM and Annapurna Pictures was renamed as United Artists Releasing in early February 2019 just in time for UA's 100th anniversary.
Pickford, Chaplin and Griffith incorporated UA as a joint venture on February 5, 1919. Each held a 25 percent stake in the preferred shares and a 20 percent stake in the common shares of the joint venture, with the remaining 20 percent of common shares held by lawyer and advisor William Gibbs McAdoo; the idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier. Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work, they were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began; when he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures said, "The inmates are taking over the asylum." The four partners, with advice from McAdoo, formed their distribution company. Hiram Abrams was its first managing director, the company established its headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.
The original terms called for each star to produce five pictures a year. By the time the company was operational in 1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and polished, running times had settled at around ninety minutes; the original goal was thus abandoned. UA's first film, His Majesty, the American, written by and starring Fairbanks, was a success. Funding for movies was limited. Without selling stock to the public like other studios, all United had for finance was weekly prepayment installments from theater owners for upcoming movies; as a result, production was slow, the company distributed an average of only five films a year in its first five years. By 1924, Griffith had dropped out, the company was facing a crisis. Veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president, he had produced pictures for a decade, brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton. Contracts were signed with independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes.
In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year, forming half of UA's schedule. Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name, they began international operations, first in Canada, in Mexico. By the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries; when he was denied an ownership share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures' merger with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox. Al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists in the 1930s including Walt Disney Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, Walter Wanger; as the years passed, the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn Productions and Disney went to Wanger to Universal Pictures. In the late 1930s, UA turned a profit.
Goldwyn was providing most of the output for distribution. He sued United several times for disputed compensation leading him to leave. MGM's 1939 hit Gone with the Wind was supposed to be a UA release except that Selznick wanted Clark Gable, under contract to MGM, to play Rhett Butler; that year, Fairbanks died. UA became embroiled in lawsuits with Selznick over his distribution of some films through RKO. Selznick considered UA's operation sloppy, left to start his own distribution arm. In the 1940s, United Artists was losing money because of poorly received pictures. Cinema attendance continued to decline; the company sold its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company. In 1941, Chaplin, Orson Welles, Selznick, Alexander Korda, Wanger—many of whom were members of United Artists--formed the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers. Members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol L
Boeing B-29 Superfortress
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, flown by the United States during World War II and the Korean War. It was one of the largest aircraft operational during World War II and featured state-of-the-art technology. Including design and production, at over $3 billion it was the most expensive weapons project in the war, exceeding the $1.9 billion cost of the Manhattan Project—using the value of dollars in 1945. Innovations introduced included a pressurized cabin, dual-wheeled, tricycle landing gear, an analog computer-controlled fire-control system directing four remote machine gun turrets that could be operated by one gunner and a fire-control officer. A manned tail gun installation was semi-remote; the name "Superfortress" continued the pattern Boeing started with its well-known predecessor, the B-17 Flying Fortress. Designed for the high-altitude strategic bombing, the B-29 excelled in low-altitude night incendiary bombing. One of the B-29's final roles during World War II was carrying out the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Because of the B-29's advanced design, unlike other wartime bombers, the Superfortress remained in service long after the war ended, with a few being employed as flying television transmitters for the Stratovision company. The B-29 served in various roles throughout the 1950s; the Royal Air Force flew the B-29 as the Washington until 1954. The Soviet Union produced an unlicensed reverse-engineered copy as the Tupolev Tu-4; the B-29 was the progenitor of a series of Boeing-built bombers, tankers, reconnaissance aircraft and trainers including the B-50 Superfortress, a re-engined B-29. The type was retired in the early 1960s. Dozens of B-29s remain as static displays but only two examples and Doc, have been restored to flying status, with Doc flying again for the first time from McConnell AFB on 17 July 2016. A transport developed from the B-29 was the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter, first flown in 1944, followed by its commercial airliner variant, the Boeing Model 377 Stratocruiser in 1947; this bomber-to-airliner derivation was similar to the B-17/Model 307 evolution.
In 1948 Boeing introduced a tanker variant of the B-29 as the KB-29, followed by the Model 377-derivative KC-97 introduced in 1950. A modified line of outsized-cargo variants of the Stratocruiser is the Guppy / Mini Guppy / Super Guppy, which remain in service with operators including NASA; the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress served as the United States' primary strategic bomber during World War II. However, this aircraft was deemed inadequate for use in the Pacific Theater; the United States Army Air Corps concluded that a long range bomber that could carry a larger payload over 3000 miles was necessary. In response, Boeing began work on pressurized long-range bombers in 1938. Boeing's design study for the Model 334 was a pressurized derivative of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress with nosewheel undercarriage. Although the Air Corps did not have money to pursue the design, Boeing continued development with its own funds as a private venture. In April 1939, Charles Lindbergh convinced general Henry H.
Arnold to produce a new bomber in large numbers to counter the Nazi production. The Air Corps issued a formal specification for a so-called "superbomber", capable of delivering 20,000 lb of bombs to a target 2,667 mi away and capable of flying at a speed of 400 mph in December 1939. Boeing's previous private venture studies formed the starting point for its response to this specification. Boeing submitted its Model 345 on 11 May 1940, in competition with designs from Consolidated Aircraft and Douglas. Douglas and Lockheed soon abandoned work on their projects, but Boeing received an order for two flying prototypes, given the designation XB-29, an airframe for static testing on 24 August 1940, with the order being revised to add a third flying aircraft on 14 December. Consolidated continued to work on its Model 33 as it was seen by the Air Corps as a backup in case of problems with Boeing's design. Boeing received an initial production order for 14 service test aircraft and 250 production bombers in May 1941, this being increased to 500 aircraft in January 1942.
The B-29 featured a fuselage design with circular cross-section for strength. The need for pressurization in the cockpit area led to the B-29 being one of few American combat aircraft of World War II to have a stepless cockpit design, without a separate windscreen for the pilots. Manufacturing the B-29 was a complex task, it involved four main-assembly factories: a pair of Boeing operated plants at Renton and Wichita, Kansas, a Bell plant at Marietta, Georgia near Atlanta, a Martin plant at Omaha, Nebraska. Thousands of subcontractors were involved in the project; the first prototype made its maiden flight from Boeing Field, Seattle on 21 September 1942. The combined effects of the aircraft's advanced design, challenging requirements, immense pressure for production, hurried development caused setbacks; the second prototype, unlike the unarmed first, was fitted with a Sperry defensive armament system using remote-controlled gun turrets sighted by periscopes, first flew on 30 December 1942, this flight being terminated due to a serious engine fire.
On 18 February 1943, the second prototype, flying out of Boeing Field in Seattle, experienced an engine fire and crashed. The crash killed Boeing test pilot Edmund T. Allen and his 10-man crew, 20 worker
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o