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Battle of Achelous (917)

The Battle of Achelous or Acheloos known as the Battle of Anchialus, took place on 20 August 917, on the Achelous River near the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, close to the fortress Tuthom between Bulgarian and Byzantine forces. The Bulgarians obtained a decisive victory which not only secured the previous successes of Simeon I, but made him de facto ruler of the whole Balkan Peninsula, excluding the well-protected Byzantine capital Constantinople and the Peloponnese; the battle, one of the biggest and bloodiest battles of the European Middle Ages, was one of the worst disasters to befall a Byzantine army, conversely one of the greatest military successes of Bulgaria. Among the most significant consequences was the official recognition of the Imperial title of the Bulgarian monarchs, the consequent affirmation of Bulgarian equality vis-à-vis Byzantium. After the Bulgarian victory in the War of 894–896, the Byzantines were forced to pay tribute to Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria. In 912 when the Byzantine emperor Leo VI died, his brother Alexander refused to pay tribute to the Bulgarians.

Simeon saw an opportunity to fulfill his ambitions to conquer Constantinople. Alexander died in the same year and the new government under the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos made desperate attempts to avoid the war, promising that the infant Emperor Constantine VII would marry one of Simeon's daughters. At some point, the patriarch and Simeon met outside the walls of Constantinople, performing a coronation ceremony. Thereafter, Simeon began using the title "Tsar of the Bulgarians", the Greek title basileus in his seals. After a plot in the Byzantine court in 914 however, the new regent Zoe, Constantine's mother, rejected the marriage. In answer the Bulgarians raided Eastern Thrace. Adrianople opened its gates to Simeon in September 914, its population recognised Simeon as their ruler, while the Byzantine army was occupied in the east. In the next year the Bulgarian armies attacked the areas of Thessalonica. Both sides prepared for a decisive end of the conflict. Empress Zoe wanted to swiftly make a peace settlement with the Arabs and to engage the whole army of the East in a war with Simeon and destroy him.

The Byzantines tried to find allies and sent emissaries to the Magyars and Serbs, but Simeon was familiar with the methods of Byzantine diplomacy and from the beginning took successful actions to subvert a possible alliance between his enemies. Thus the Byzantines were forced to fight alone. By 917, after a series of successful campaigns, the Byzantine Empire had stabilized its eastern borders, the generals John Bogas and Leo Phocas were able to gather additional troops from Asia Minor to reinforce the imperial tagmata and the European thematic troops, gathering a force of some 30,000 men; this was a large army by contemporary standards, its goal was the elimination of the Bulgarian threat from the north. The Byzantine commanders were convinced. Morale was raised; the spirit of the army was further raised as the troops were paid in advance and a fleet commanded by Romanus Lecapenus set off to the north at the mouth of the Danube. The Byzantines had tried to pay some Pecheneg tribes to attack, but Romanus would not agree to transport them across the Danube, instead they attacked Bulgarian territory on their own.

The size of the Bulgarian army under Simeon I of Bulgaria is unknown. Although they ruined the Byzantine negotiations, the Bulgarians were still afraid that the old allies of the Byzantines, the Pechenegs and the Hungarians, would attack them from the north, so two small armies were sent to protect the northern borders of the vast Bulgarian Empire that spread from Bosnia in the west to the Dnieper River in the east; however Miracula Sancti Georgii points that the Bulgarian army in the battle of Achelous was allied with Hungarian and Pecheneg troops, which helped to win the victory against the Byzantine army. In addition, Bulgarian forces under Marmais were deployed near the western borders with the Serb principalities to prevent possible unrest; the Byzantine army marched northwards and set its camp in the vicinity of the strong fortress of Anchialus. Leo Phocas intended to meet the Pechenegs and Lecapenus's troops in Dobrudzha. Simeon swiftly concentrated his army on the heights around the fortress.

On the morning of 20 August 917, the battle between the Bulgarians and the Byzantines began by the River Achelous near the modern village Acheloi, 8 kilometers to the north of Anchialus on Bulgaria's Black Sea coast. The Byzantine generals planned to outflank the Bulgarian right wing in order to detach Simeon's troops from the Balkan Passes; the Bulgarian ruler concentrated his most powerful forces in the two wings and left the centre weak in order to surround the enemy when the centre would yield to the Byzantine attack. Simeon himself was in charge of large cavalry reserves hidden behind the hills which were intended to strike the decisive blow; the Byzantine attack was fierce and it was not long before the Bulgarians began to retreat. The Byzantine cavalry charged the infantry in the centre killing many Bulgarians; the Bulgarian position became desperate as they could not manage to hold the heights to the south of the river and began a hasty retreat to the north. Elated, the Byzantines started a bitter chase and their battle formations soon began to break as a rumour spread that their commander, Leo Phocas, had been killed.

At this point, who had detected the disarray in the Byzantine formation, ordered his army to stand, and, at the head o

My Favourites

My Favourites is the third compilation album by German singer Sandra, released in 1999. 1999 saw the release of a double disc album. As the trend began with artists like Modern Talking to remix old material, My Favourites was released featuring remixes of her hits by long-time band companion Peter Ries, featuring some of Sandra's personal favourite ballads, it made its way into the Top 20 of the German album charts. "Secret Land'99" was taken as the single and showed Sandra sporting a short hairstyle in the music video. CD 1"Mirrored in Your Eyes'99" - 3:36 "Secret Land'99" - 3:19 "We'll Be Together'99" - 3:53 "Won't Run Away'99" - 4:03 " Maria Magdalena'99" - 3:53 "Heaven Can Wait'99" - 4:10 "Hiroshima'99" - 4:25 "Tell Me More'99" - 3:38 "Celebrate Your Life'99" - 3:38 "Around My Heart'99" - 3:42 "In the Heat of the Night'99" - 4:28 "Your Way to India'99" - 4:51CD 2"No Taboo" "Johnny Wanna Live" "Don't Be Aggressive" "One More Night" "Steady Me" "Love Turns to Pain" "Seal It Forever" "I Need Love'95" "When the Rain Doesn't Come" "Nights in White Satin" "First Lullaby" "Fading Shades"

Edward Nash (sportsman)

Edward Montague Nash was an English cricketer and footballer. In cricket, Nash was a right-handed batsman who fielded as a wicket-keeper, while in football he played as a goalkeeper, he was born at Swindon and died there on 9 May 1985. Nash made his debut in county cricket for Wiltshire in the 1923 Minor Counties Championship against the Surrey Second XI. Prior to the start of World War II in 1939, Nash made 110 appearances for Wiltshire in the Minor Counties Championship. In 1936, Nash made his first-class for a combined Minor Counties team against Oxford University at the University Parks. In a drawn match, Nash made scores of 45 not out in the Minor Counties first-innings, while in their second-innings he was dismissed for a duck by Peter Whitehouse; the following season, he made a second first-class appearance in a repeat of the previous season's fixture. Nash made scores of 9 not out in the Minor Counties first-innings, while in their second-innings he ended not out on 8. Oxford University won the match by 6 wickets.

Following the war, Nash made five further appearances in the Minor Counties Championship for Wiltshire, the last of which came against the Hampshire Second XI in 1950. Nash played football in his youth for North End Albion, he signed for Swindon Town on a youth contract in 1916, signing a professional contract with the club four years in 1920. Nash played for Swindon Town from the 1919/20 season to the 1929/30 season, making a total of 253 appearances in both league and cup competitions. Following the 1920/30 season, Nash left Swindon Town and signed for Brentford for the following season. Nash played for Brentford for two seasons, before moving to Crystal Palace, where he played for the club in the 1932/33 season, making a single appearance, he retired at the end of that season. Edward Nash at ESPNcricinfo Edward Nash at CricketArchive

Lucky Chinatown

Lucky Chinatown is a lifestyle mall development of Megaworld Lifestyle Malls located along Reina Regente St. corner Dela Reina St. in Binondo, Manila. Awarded the Shopping Center of the Year by the Philippine Retailers Association in 2015, Lucky Chinatown is the first full-scale lifestyle mall in the world’s oldest Chinatown, it is designed to offer a blend of history and modern shopping and leisure experience. The four-level, 108,000-square-metre shopping mall is envisioned as a heritage project that promotes Binondo’s tradition of commerce and tourism during modern times, it houses a wide selection of international fashion brands and high-end shopping to a part of the Manila known for bargain centers and budget shopping. Lucky Chinatown has establishments that cater to home improvement, convenience, as well as beauty and wellness. For budget shopping and pop up kiosks popular in Divisoria and other Chinatown markets in the world, Lucky Chinatown has the Annex A building. Aside shopping, Lucky Chinatown serves a variety of high end dining offerings with a mix of Asian and Oriental cuisines as well as a roster of coffee shops, tea houses, quick-service restaurants and confectionary stores for more affordable meal options.

For entertainment, Lucky Chinatown is equipped with four upscale movie theaters. Among the striking features of Lucky Chinatown Cinemas are the Emperor Twin Seats designed to accommodate two people with retractable middle armrests. Lucky Chinatown hosts community events – from small civic gatherings and activities to annual large-scale and traditional Chinese celebrations. Buddha’s Birthday – Lucky Chinatown hosts two celebrations in honor of the birthday of Buddha every May; the event is highlighted by the traditional bathing of the Buddha, where mall patrons are able to participate. Parian sa Binondo – Lucky Chinatown is a venue of the annual celebration of the National Heritage Month on May 19; the word “parian” is derived from the old Malay word similar to Filipino language “puntahan” or “padiyan,” which translates to going to a place of festivity. The event features cultural and traditional performances from Binondo-based schools and organizations. Mid-Autumn Festival – The annual Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the biggest celebrations in Chinatown.

The event hosts a variety of cultural activities including lantern and mural painting contests for young students, mooncake baking competition, cultural performances and traditional dice games. The festival features a Mooncake Fair, where guests are able to enjoy different kinds of this delicacy traditionally eaten during Mid-Autumn celebrations. On Sept. 2015, the Lucky Chinatown Mid Autumn Festival display, called Lanterns of Hope, set a Guinness World Record for the largest display of origami lanterns at 19,552. Chinese New Year - Since 2012, Lucky Chinatown celebrates the annual Chinese New Year with a Chinese New Year countdown event featuring lucky rituals, cultural events, food fairs, live bands and a grand fireworks display; the Chinatown Walk, is a promenade within Lucky Chinatown where people can try Filipino - Chinese products. It is inspired by Hong Kong and Shanghai market alleys where Chinese merchants sell exotic Chinese delicacies, herbal medicine, street food; the design and layout is inspired by the Manila Chinatown of the past.

Chinatown Museum is a newly opened museum located at the fourth level of Lucky Chinatown Annex Building A. The country’s first cultural museum is dedicated to the ‘World’s Oldest Chinatown’; the Chinatown Museum features 18 galleries, with each focusing on various influences and historical events that have shaped the cultural and economic threads of Binondo – from its establishment as a settlement for Christianized Chinese to the height of downtown Escolta on its way to becoming a bustling commercial downtown of colonial Manila. The new cultural landmark, recognized by the National Historical Commission and National Commission for the Culture and the Arts, is envisioned as a community space and heritage project that lends a visual retelling of the rich history of Binondo. Chinatown Museum is the second museum venture of Megaworld Corporation following the opening of the Iloilo Museum for Contemporary Art, the first museum of its kind in the Visayas and Mindanao region, inside its Iloilo Business Park township in Mandurriao, Iloilo City.

Chinatown Museum is connected directly to the main mall of Lucky Chinatown via a bridgeway at the fourth level and the newly-opened Hotel Lucky Chinatown. Metro Supermarket Lucky Chinatown Cinemas SM Appliances Toy Kingdom 158 Designer's Blvd. Lucky Chinatown Official Website

José Ortega Spottorno

José Ortega Spottorno was a Spanish journalist and publisher. Born in Madrid to famous philosopher José Ortega y Gasset and Rosa Spottorno Topete, José Ortega Spottorno was the founder of affordable paperback publishing firm Alianza Editorial and the Spanish daily newspaper El País, which became the bestselling Spanish newspaper, a crown it holds to this day, he was survived by his wife, Simone Ortega, three children, one of whom works as a journalist for El País. Ortega Spottorno was born and educated in Madrid, studying at the Baccalaureate School of the Institute of Madrid; this education has been described as setting the course for the rest of his life, emphasising as it liberalism and secularism. With the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, Ortega Spottorno's family became voluntary exiles, moving first to Geneva and to Paris. While Ortega Spottorno returned to Madrid after the Civil War had ended, his father travelled to and stayed in Latin America, where he became a professor at the University of San Marcos in Lima and from where he returned to Spain only after the end of World War II in 1946.

In his father's absence, Ortega Spottorno relaunched La Revista de Occidente, the monthly cultural magazine founded by Ortega y Gasset in 1923. Despite training as an agronomist and maintaining a key interest in the sciences throughout his life, it was this role as editor of La Revista de Occidente which established how he would spend the rest of his life: writing and publishing at the forefront of the industry in Spain. 1966 saw Ortega Spottorno establish the publishing house Alianza Editorial, intended to bring reading to the masses in Spain by publishing both classics and new literature from Spanish and foreign writers in the affordable paperback format. Alianza Editorial's books were noted for their sharp design and impressive appearance, a feature deliberately used by Ortega Spottorno in an attempt to inspire people to read, something important in a country where reading was not a popular pastime. While it was possible to found Alianza Editorial under Franco's rule, Ortega Spottorno's next project could not take place until the end of the Francoist State in Spain.

The death of Spain's caudillo Francisco Franco in 1975 gave Ortega Spottorno his chance to launch, in his words, a "liberal...independent concerned European" newspaper for the new post-Franco Spain. El País was founded in May 1976 with its founder Ortega Spottorno as editor, rose to attain the highest circulation of any newspaper in Spain. Described as "the banner of Spain's democratic transition", El País took on a strong pro-amnesty stance, demanding the freeing from jail of all those imprisoned by Franco for political crimes. Ortega Spottorno was a member of the constitutional assembly which crafted Spain's new democratic constitution, between 1977 and 1979. Ortega Spottorno stepped down from the board of El País in 1984, accepting an honorary chairmanship to acknowledge his role in founding the paper. On leaving the post, he explained that while it was prudent for those in power to "surrender their weapons before they reach old age", he had selfish reasons for the move: to write. Between leaving El País and his death, Ortega Spottorno published three novels and was close to finishing his magnum opus, a history of the Ortega family, when he died of cancer in 2002.

Francoist Spain Spanish transition to democracy

Bioenergy Action Plan

On April 25, 2006, Executive Order S-06-06, the Bioenergy Action Plan was issued by the governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger, outlining a set of target goals which would establish the increasing use and production of biofuels and biopower for both electricity generation and substitution of natural gas and petroleum within the state of California. The plan asked multiple state agencies to work towards the advancement of biomass programs in California; the order would help provide statewide environmental protection and economic advancement. The plan was passed on July 7, 2006 with progress reports issued in 2007 and 2009. An updated plan was released in 2011; the 2011 plan supports the goals of current California Governor Jerry Brown’s Clean Energy Jobs Plan. The 2011 plan evaluates strategies for overcoming the litigation challenges which deterred progress in the 2006 plan; the 2011 plan recommends new actions for environmental progress in the state of California Cellulosic feed stocks derived from forestry and urban wastes Gasification Pyrolysis Biomass-to-liquids conversions Landfill gas use in energy systems Capturing methane from landfills and converting manure for overall climate benefits Forest and agricultural waste biomass as a source of fuel Combining heat for energy Improving forest health and animal welfare via converting urban forestry and agricultural residues Enhancing rural economic development via the exportation of green fuels Creates local jobs Protects watersheds and helps to avoid wildfires Reducing statewide petroleum dependence Use the state and federal budgets to ease the passing of institutional and regulatory changes which are necessary for plan to be implemented.

Carry out the state’s target objectives. Prove the commercial readiness of production and conversion technologies for the expansion of biomass and biofuel energies. Develop and demonstrate projects for the biomass-fueled electricity plants and refineries. Help place a value and market potential on renewable sources of energy and chemicals. Produce and demonstrate new cropping, handling and distribution systems for renewable energy plants. Demonstrate efficient biomass harvesting systems at three sites. Communicate the benefits of bioenergy to the general public and policy makers. Research new sources of financing for future project development; the original plan was written based on reviews and recommendations from public workshops and more than 40 public documents, as well as multiple prior research programmes and policy developments around the world. Stakeholder considerations for California’s potential as a leader in renewable energies was taken into account; the plan established a biofuel production target of California producing a minimum of 20% its own biofuels by 2010, 40% by 2020, 75% by 2050.

The production target for the use of biomass electricity was a 20% increase from the prior in-state goals for renewable generation by both 2010 and 2020. The 2006 plan sought the building of at least four afforestation and carbon sequestration projects, across the state, which would supply three to five megawatts of biomass-fueled electricity to an electricity gasification plant or bio-refinery. Potential sources of energy and chemicals from forest fuel, harvest residues, other small wood forest products were identified, as well as the efficiency of harvesting small forest biomass; each individual agency had its own specific set of responsibilities towards meeting the goals of the Bioenergy Action Plan. The 2006 Bioenergy Action Plan outlined five statewide policy objectives: Maximize the contributions of bioenergy toward achieving the state’s petroleum reduction, climate change, renewable energy, environmental goals. Establish California as a market leader in technology innovation, sustainable biomass development, market development for bio-based products.

Coordinate research, development and commercialization efforts across federal and state agencies. Align existing regulatory requirements to encourage production and use of California’s biomass resources. Facilitate market entry for new applications of bioenergy including electricity and biofuels”. 19% of all power comes from biomass Biomass power facilities are producing nearly 1,000 megawatts of electrical generating capacity 950 million gallons of 5.7% ethanol gasoline and over 43 million gallons of biodiesel were consumed in 2006 compared to the 14.5 billion gallons of gasoline and 4 billion gallons of convention diesel consumed Existing ethanol facilities only produce nearly 68 million gallons, the proposed plants could produce up to 364 million gallons per year. The production of biodiesel provides another 14 million gallons Gasoline amendments passed which favor the use of 10% ethanol blends 96 electricity biomass facilities have been certified and 21 facilities have gone through pre-certification Between 285-391 megawatts of new renewable electricity was added in 2006 to the electricity grid 33 biomass power facilities are expanded which created 640 megawatts of new renewable energy capacity Emission rates and standards in preference for low-carbon sources of electricity have been adopted by Senate Bill 1368 10 dairy digesters have been installed across California, which generate 2.5 megawatts of electrical power from dairy manure or a mixture of manure, food-wastes and wastewater Specialty crops are being converted to energy New waste discharge regulations for dairies and dairy lagoons have been adopted 11% of electricity consumed comes from renewable resources Nearly 20% of renewable electricity generated came from biomass fuels 943 meg