Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
A mercenary, sometimes known as a soldier of fortune, is an individual who takes part in military conflict for personal profit, is otherwise an outsider to the conflict, is not a member of any other official military. Mercenaries fight for money or other forms of payment rather than for political interests. In the last century, mercenaries have come to be seen as less entitled to protections by rules of war than non-mercenaries. Indeed, the Geneva Conventions declare that mercenaries are not recognized as legitimate combatants and do not have to be granted the same legal protections as captured soldiers of a regular army. In practice, whether or not a person is a mercenary may be a matter of degree, as financial and political interests may overlap, as was the case among Italian condottieri. Protocol Additional GC 1977 is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions. Article 47 of the protocol provides the most accepted international definition of a mercenary, though not endorsed by some countries, including the United States.
The Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, 8 June 1977 states: Art 47. Mercenaries 1. A mercenary shall not have the right to be a prisoner of war. 2. A mercenary is any person who: is recruited locally or abroad in order to fight in an armed conflict. All the criteria must be met, according to the Geneva Convention, for a combatant to be described as a mercenary. According to the GC III, a captured soldier must be treated as a lawful combatant and, therefore, as a protected person with prisoner-of-war status until facing a competent tribunal; that tribunal, using criteria in APGC77 or some equivalent domestic law, may decide that the soldier is a mercenary. At that juncture, the mercenary soldier becomes an unlawful combatant but still must be "treated with humanity and, in case of trial, shall not be deprived of the rights of fair and regular trial", being still covered by GC IV Art 5; the only possible exception to GC IV Art 5 is when he is a national of the authority imprisoning him, in which case he would not be a mercenary soldier as defined in APGC77 Art 47.d.
If, after a regular trial, a captured soldier is found to be a mercenary he can expect treatment as a common criminal and may face execution. As mercenary soldiers may not qualify as PoWs, they cannot expect repatriation at war's end; the best known post-World War II example of this was on 28 June 1976 when, at the end of the Luanda Trial, an Angolan court sentenced three Britons and an American to death and nine other mercenaries to prison terms ranging from 16 to 30 years. The four mercenaries sentenced to death were shot by a firing squad on 10 July 1976; the legal status of civilian contractors depends upon the nature of their work and their nationalities with respect to that of the combatants. If they have not "in fact, taken a direct part in the hostilities", they are not mercenaries but civilians who have non-combat support roles and are entitled to protection under the Third Geneva Convention. On 4 December 1989, the United Nations passed resolution 44/34, the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use and Training of Mercenaries.
It entered into force on 20 October 2001 and is known as the UN Mercenary Convention. Article 1 contains the definition of a mercenary. Article 1.1 is similar to Article 47 of Protocol I, however Article 1.2 broadens the definition to include a non-national recruited to overthrow a "Government or otherwise undermining the constitutional order of a State. Critics have argued that APGC77 Art. 47 are designed to cover the activities of mercenaries in post-colonial Africa and do not address adequately the use of private military companies by sovereign states. The situation during the Iraq War and the continuing occupation of Iraq after the United Nations Security Council-sanctioned hand-over of power to the Iraqi government shows the difficulty of defining a mercenary soldier. While the United States governed Iraq, no U. S. citizen working as an armed guard could be classified as a mercenary because he was a national of a Party to the conflict. With the hand-over of power to the Iraqi government, if one does not consider the coalition forces to be continuing parties to the conflict in Iraq, but that their soldiers are "sent by a State, not a Party to the conflict on official duty as a member of its armed forces" unless U.
S. citizens working as armed guards are lawfully certified residents of Iraq, i.e. "a resident of territory controlled by a Party to the conflict", they are involved with
Skirmishers are light infantry or cavalry soldiers in the role of skirmishing—stationed to act as a vanguard, flank guard, or rearguard, screening a tactical position or a larger body of friendly troops from enemy advances. They are deployed in a skirmish line—an irregular open formation much more spread out in depth and breadth than a traditional line formation, their purpose is to harass the enemy—engaging them in only light or sporadic combat in order to delay their movement, disrupt their attack, or weaken their morale. Skirmishers' open formations and smaller numbers can give them superior mobility over the regular forces, allowing them to fight on more favorable terms, taking advantage of better position or terrain and withdrawing from any threat of superior enemy forces. Skirmishers can be either regular army units temporarily detached to perform skirmishing, or specialty units armed and trained for such low-level irregular warfare tactics. Light infantry, light cavalry, irregular units specialize in skirmishing.
Though critical in screening the main army from sudden enemy attacks, skirmishers are poor at taking and defending ground from heavy infantry or heavy cavalry. In modern times, following the obsolescence of such heavy troops, all infantry has become indistinguishable from skirmishers, the term has lost military meaning. A battle with only light indecisive combat is called a skirmish. In ancient warfare, skirmishers carried bows, javelins and sometimes light shields. Acting as light infantry with their light arms and minimal armour, they could run ahead of the main battle line, release a volley of arrows, sling stones, or javelins, retreat behind their main battle line before the clash of the opposing main forces; the aims of skirmishing were to disrupt enemy formations by causing casualties before the main battle, to tempt the opposing infantry into attacking prematurely, throwing their organization into disarray. Skirmishers could be used to surround opposing soldiers in the absence of friendly cavalry.
Once preliminary skirmishing was over, skirmishers participated in the main battle by shooting into the enemy formation, or joined in melée combat with daggers or short swords. Due to their mobility, skirmishers were valuable for reconnaissance in wooded or urban areas. In classical Greece, skirmishers had low status. For example, Herodotus, in his account of the Battle of Plataea of 479 BC, mentions that the Spartans fielded 35,000 armed helots to 5,000 hoplites yet there is no mention of them in his account of the fighting. Greek historians ignored them altogether, though Xenophon distinguished them explicitly from the statary troops, it was far cheaper to equip oneself as armed as opposed to a armed hoplite – indeed it was not uncommon for the armed to go into battle equipped with stones. Hence the low status of skirmishers reflected the low status of the poorer sections of society who made up skirmishers. Additionally, "hit and run" tactics contradicted the Greek ideal of heroism. Plato gives the skirmisher a voice to advocate "flight without shame," but only to denounce it as an inversion of decent values.
Skirmishers chalked up significant victories in this period, such as the Athenian defeat at the hands of the Aetolian javelin men in 426 BC and, in the same war, the Athenian victory of Sphacteria. Skirmisher infantry would gain more respect in the subsequent years as their usefulness was more recognised and as the ancient bias against them waned. Peltasts, light javelin infantry, played a vital role in the Peloponnesian War and well equipped skirmisher troops such as Thureophoroi and Thorakites would be developed to provide a strong mobile force for the Greek and Macedonian armies. Celts did not, in general, favour ranged weapons; the exceptions tended not to include the use of skirmishers. The Britons used the sling and javelin extensively, but for siege warfare, not skirmishing. Among the Gauls the bow was employed when defending a fixed position; the Celtic lack of skirmishers cost them dearly during the Gallic Invasion of Greece of 279 BC, where they found themselves helpless in the face of Aetolian skirmishing tactics.
In the Punic Wars, despite the Roman and Carthaginian armies' different organisations, skimishers had the same role in both: to screen the main armies. The Roman legions of this period had a specialised infantry class called Velites that acted as skirmish troops, engaging the enemy before the Roman heavy infantry made contact, while the Carthaginians recruited their skirmishers from native peoples across the Carthaginian Empire; the Roman army of the late republican and early imperial periods recruited foreign auxiliary troops to act as skirmishers to supplement the citizen Legions. The medieval skirmishers were armed with crossbows or longbows wielded by commoners. In the fourteenth century, although long held in disdain by Castilian heavy cavalry manned by the aristocracy, the crossbowmen contributed to the Portuguese victory at the Battle of Aljubarrota. English archers played a key role in the English victory over French heavy cavalry at Crécy. In the next century they repeated the feat at the Battle of Agincourt.
Such disasters have been seen as marking the beginning of the end of the dominance of the medieval cavalry in particular and heavy cavalry in general. The Seven Years' War and American Revolutionary War were two early conflicts in which the modern rifle began to make a significant contribution to warfare. Despite its lower rate-of-fire, its accuracy at long range offered advantages over the smoothbore musket in common use among regular armies of the time. In both t
Treviglio is a town and comune in the province of Bergamo, in Lombardy, Northern Italy. It lies 20 kilometres south of the province capital, in the lower territory called "Bassa Bergamasca". It's part of the geographic area named "Gera d'Adda", included among the rivers Fosso Bergamasco to the North, Adda to the West and Serio to the East. With 30,000 inhabitants, the comune is now the second most populous town in the province, it is called "The tractor town" for the presence of the SAME Deutz-Fahr headquarters or "The town of courtyards" for their preponderant presence in the Old Town. It is subdivided in five main quartiers: Old town, West zone, North zone, the recent built East zone and the PIP. Northward lie four frazioni: Geromina, Castel Cerreto and Pezzoli; the coat of arms is composed of a crenellated tower, which represents the city with its Ghibelline past. The area where Treviglio lies was firstly inhabited in particular Insubres. During the conquest of the Cisalpine Gaul by the Romans a castrum was built to guard an important trading crossway and the near villages.
Afterward a Roman settlement grew through trade and local goods manufacture. After the arrival of the Lombards the territory was included in the Fara Gera d'Adda and, after the fall of the Kingdom of the Lombards it became part of the Holy Roman Empire. Treviglio was founded in the Early Middle Ages as a fortified town, unifying three preexisting settlements: Cusarola and Portoli, thus the original town was divided into three districts, called'portae', each headed toward one of the settlements: "Porta Torre" to the village of Cusarola. The first official document found citing the new town dates back to November 964 D. C. Around the year 1000 Treviglio harbored the inhabitants of Oriano, a commune near Brescia, destroyed in the course of the struggle between Arduin of Ivrea and Henry II who were warring for the Imperial crown. During the wars that had taken place in Northern Italy the city of Treviglio grew harboring refugees in the new fourth district of "Porta Nova" called " Porta Oriano"; the Rozzoni family, at that time powerful, tried in vain a coup d'état, was as a consequence temporarily exiled in its property near Treviglio, "Castel Rozzone" that nowadays is a village independent from the city itself.
In 1167 Treviglio joined the first Lombard League, which had the aim of preserving local jurisdiction and droit de régale, a purpose, achieved with the victory over emperor Frederick I'Barbarossa', at the Battle of Legnano. The Statute, a copy of which dated 1392 is housed in the city's museum, describes a government held by sixty Consuls- twenty each for everyone of the original ethnic communities, thereafter fifteen for each district - these remaining in office for six months; this statute required that no noble could be allowed to live within the city walls - and therefore to be elected Consul - so as to prevent their possible involvements in the power strifes of the town and the town involvement in their struggles for power. In 1395 Treviglio gained formal autonomy from the Empire, which it held as a "Separate Land of the Duchy of Milan", excepting several brief Venetian occupations; these occupations are mentioned in a renowned Italian novel by Alessandro Manzoni. At the last withdrawal in 1509, the city was burnt down by the departing Venetian troops.
The French king Louis XII who witnessed the event, claimed to vindicate it in the subsequent Battle of Agnadello. On 28 February 1522 General Odet de Foix Viscount of Lautrec, leading the French army through Northern Italy on its way to the South, came to punish the town for the insolence shown by denying supplies to the French troops and resisting them; the chronicles tell of the general refusing the surrender of the city and the appeals of mercy of the parish priest and of the Duke of Milan himself. Warned of this portentous event, the General did check the building and its walls to verify the veracity of the miracle and persuaded, deposed helmet and sword at the feet of the fresco and left the city. Helmet and sword are still preserved in the Sanctuary, built with donations of the Treviglio's families only, in, transferred the miraculous fresco over which were added, crowns forged with the jewels of the virgins of Treviglio; this episode is celebrated every year with an historical parade and a novena.
After many long years of war, the French sold Treviglio to the Spaniards, albeit the town was formally still under the aegis of the Holy Roman Empire. During this last domination the town as well as the whole region, knew an initial period of prosperity followed by a gradual decline, aggravated in the 17th century by an epidemic of plague; the Spanish period ended transforming Treviglio in fief and auctioning it off to meet the debts
Battle of the Spurs
The Battle of the Spurs, or Battle of Guinegate, took place on 16 August 1513. It formed a part of the War of the League of Cambrai, during the ongoing Italian Wars. Henry VIII and Maximilian I were besieging the town of Thérouanne in Artois. Henry's camp was at Guinegate, now called Enguinegatte. A large body of French heavy cavalry under Jacques de La Palice was covering an attempt by light cavalry to bring supplies to the besieged garrison. English and Imperial troops routed this force; the battle was characterised by the precipitate flight and extensive pursuit of the French. During the pursuit a number of notable French leaders and knights were captured. After the fall of Thérouanne, Henry VIII took Tournai. Henry VIII had joined in the Holy League, as the League of Cambrai was known, on 13 October 1511 with Venice and Spain to defend the Papacy from its enemies and France with military force. Henry promised to attack France at Guyenne, landing 10,000 men at Hondarribia in the Basque Country in June 1512.
This army was conveyed by the admiral Edward Howard, commanded by Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset. It remained at Bayonne till October 1512 supporting Ferdinand II of Aragon's action in the Kingdom of Navarre, though undersupplied and in poor morale. Maximilian joined the league in November 1512. Louis XII of France hoped. In May 1513 English soldiers began to arrive in number at Calais to join an army commanded by George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Steward of the Household. Shrewsbury was appointed Lieutenant-General on 12 May, John Hopton commanded the troop ships. On 17 May Henry announced to the Cinque Ports and Edward Poynings, Constable of Dover Castle, that he would join the invasion in person, had appointed commissioners to requisition all shipping. In Henry's absence across the sea, Catherine of Aragon would rule England and Wales as Rector and Governor; the Chronicle of Calais recorded the names and arrivals of Henry's aristocratic military entourage from the 6 June 1513 onwards.
At the end of the month the army set out for Thérouanne. Shrewsbury commanded the vanguard of 8,000, Charles Somerset, Lord Herbert the rearward of 6,000. Henry VIII arrived in person at Calais on 30 June 1513 with the main grouping, of 11,000 men; the army was provided by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey as Almoner, comprised several different types of martial forces including cavalry, artillery and longbows using hardened steel arrows designed to penetrate armour more effectively. Eight hundred German mercenaries marched in front of Henry. Shrewsbury set up a battery and dug mines towards the town's walls, but made little progress against the defending garrison of French and German soldiers in July; the town was held for France by Antoine de Créquy, sieur de Pont-Remy who returned fire until the town surrendered, the English called one distinctive regular cannon shot the "whistle." Reports of setbacks and inefficiency reached Venice. On the way to Thérouanne two English cannon called "John the Evangelist" and the "Red Gun" had been abandoned, French skirmishing hampered their recovery with loss of life.
Edward Hall, the chronicle author, mentions the role of the Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex in this operation and the advice given by Rhys ap Thomas. An Imperial agent of Margaret of Savoy wrote that two "obstinate men" govern everything, these were Charles Brandon, Viscount Lisle who he called the "Grand Esquire" and the Almoner Wolsey. Henry camped to the east of Thérouanne at a defended position, described by English chronicles as environed with artillery, such as "falcons, cast hagbushes, tryde harowes, spine trestles," with Henry's field accommodation consisting of a wooden cabin with an iron chimney, with large tents of blue water-work and white fabric, topped by the King's beasts, the Lion, Greyhound and Dun Cow; the Emperor Maximilian came to Aire-sur-la-Lys in August. Henry donned light armour and dressed his entourage in cloth-of gold and came to Aire on 11 August, where Maximilian's followers were still dressed in black in mourning for his wife Bianca Maria Sforza. Henry hosted Maximilian at a tent with a gallery of cloth-of-gold at his camp over the weekend beginning 13 August 1513.
According to the chronicles, the weather on the day of the meeting was the "foulest ever." News of Henry's meeting with Maximilian in person delighted Catherine of Aragon, who wrote to Wolsey that it was an honour for Henry and would raise Maximilian's reputation. Louis XII of France determined to break the siege. In July a force of 800 Albanians commanded by Captain Fonterailles pushed through the besieger's lines and delivered gunpowder and supplies including bacon to the gates of the town, leaving 80 soldiers as reinforcements. Fonterailles was helped by covering artillery fire from the town. Reports sent to Venice mentioned 300 English casualties or more, Fonterailles' statement that the town could hold out till the feast day of the Nativity of the Virgin, on 8 September; the Venetians were aware that their French sources might have been misrepresenting the situation to gain their support. A second French attempt was organized for 16 August 1513, with a force assembled at Blangy to the south.
This French army was made up with some other troops as well. These included a type of French light cavalry called "stradiotes", equipped with short stirrups, beaver hats, light lances, Turkish swords; these may have been Albanian units. I
The Adda is a river in North Italy, a tributary of the Po. It flows through Lake Como; the Adda joins the Po a few kilometres upstream of Cremona. It is 313 kilometres long; the highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of la Spedla, at 4,020 metres. Towns along the river Adda include Bormio, Tirano, Sondrio and Lecco, Lodi; the Adda's true source is in some lakes near the head of the Fragile glen, but its volume is increased by the union with several smaller streams, near the town of Bormio, at the Raetian Alps. Thence it flows first southwest due west, through the fertile Valtellina, passing Tirano, where the Poschiavino falls in on the right bank, Sondrio, where is the junction with the Mallero on the right; this first half path of Adda makes it the only one big river of Northern Italy to flow from East to West. It falls into the Lake of Como, at its northern end, forms that lake. On issuing from its southeastern or Lecco arm, it crosses the plain of Lombardy where it is joined from the left by the Brembo and after a course of about 240 kilometres, joins the Po, 13 kilometres above Cremona.
The Trezzo sull'Adda Bridge, erected in 1377, holds the world record of 72 metres for the longest bridge arch built before the introduction of metal into bridge construction. The lower course of the Adda was the border between the Republic of Venice and the Duchy of Milan, after the Treaty of Lodi, 1454. Valtellina disaster Val Pola landslide Kayaking in the Adda river
Niccolò di Pitigliano
Niccolò di Pitigliano was an Italian condottiero best known as the Captain-General of the Venetians during the Most Serene Republic's war against the League of Cambrai. He was a member of the powerful feudal family of the Orsini, belonging to its Pitigliano line. Niccolò di Pitigliano was born in Pitigliano, in the Maremma, the son of Aldobrandino Paioletti ll, Count of Pitigliano and his wife Bartolomea, he was the descendant of a Romano Orsini, Count of Nola, who had acquired the Signoria of the tiny Tuscan citystate of Pitigliano in 1293 by marrying Anastasia de Montfort, heiress of the Aldobrandeschi Lords of the city. His parents both came from different branches of the Orsini clan. Equipped with the reputation that comes from a famous name, the connections and dynastic links with many of the ruling families of Italy, with their own private fief as a base, both Niccolò Paioletti, his father Aldobrandino Paioletti made careers as mercenaries taking Condotte with Florence, the Pope, the Kingdom of Naples at various times.
A chronological list of the Niccolò di Pitigliano's early contracts shows him moving among the same employers and taking service with the same State more than once. Niccolò di Pitigliano's significant Condotte were as follows: 1458 – Papacy 1463 – Kingdom of Naples 1473 – Florence, with the rank of Field Marshal of the Republic 1481 – Kingdom of Naples 1482 – Papacy 1485 – Florence, with the rank of Captain General of the Republic 1489 – Papacy, as Captain General of the Church 1495 – Venice From 1495 until the end of his life Niccolò di Pitigliano remained in Venetian service as Governatore Generale delle Milizie Veneziane; the highpoint of his career was the role that he played in the War between the Venetian Republic and the League of Cambrai. In the first decade of the sixteenth century Pope Julius II planned to curb the power of Venice in northern Italy and had, to this end, created the League of Cambrai, an alliance against the Republic that included, besides himself, Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian I, Ferdinand I of Spain.
On 15 April 1509, King Louis XII of France left Milan at the head of a French army and moved into Venetian territory. To oppose him, Venice fielded an army under the command of Niccolò di Pitigliano and his cousin Bartolomeo d'Alviano. Disagreements between Pitigliano and Alviano as the best way to stop the French advance prevented the two from uniting their forces to oppose the French; when Louis crossed the Adda River in early May and Alviano advanced to meet him, believing it best to avoid a pitched battle, moved away to the south. On 14 May, Alviano confronted the French at the Battle of Agnadello. Alviano, disregarding the new orders, continued the engagement. Pitigliano managed to avoid encountering Louis; the Venetian collapse was complete. The major cities that had not been occupied by the French—Padua and Vicenza—were left undefended by Pitigliano's withdrawal, surrendered to Maximilian when Imperial emissaries arrived in the Veneto. Julius, having in the meantime issued an interdict against Venice that excommunicated every citizen of the Republic, invaded the Romagna and seized Ravenna with the assistance of the Duke of Ferrara, who had joined the League and seized the Polesine for himself.
The newly arrived Imperial governors, however proved to be unpopular. In mid-July, the citizens of Padua, aided by detachments of Venetian cavalry under the command of the proveditor Andrea Gritti, revolted; the success of the revolt pushed Maximilian into action. In early August, a massive Imperial army, accompanied by bodies of French and Spanish troops, set out from Trento into the Veneto; because of a lack of horses, as well as general disorganization, Maximilian's forces would not reach Padua until September, giving Pitigliano the time to concentrate such troops as were still available to him in the city. The Siege of Padua began on 15 September. In mid-November, Pitigliano returned to the offensive. Although a subsequent attack on Verona failed, Pitigliano managed to destroy a Papal army under Francesco II of Gonzaga in the process. A river attack on Ferrara by the Venetian galley fleet under Angelo Trevisan failed, when the Venetian ships, anchored in the Po River, were sunk by Ferrarese artillery.
The War of the League of Cambrai continued, but in January 1510 Niccolò di Pitigliano died in Lonigo. He was interred in a traditional burial place of the doges. Niccolò di Pitigliano was married twice. Firstly, in 1467, to Elena dei Conti Montal