Cisalpine Gaul was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Conquered by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC, it was a Roman province from c. 81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into Roman Italy. Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul that part of Gaul on the "hither side of the Alps", as opposed to Transalpine Gaul. Gallia Cisalpina was further subdivided into Gallia Cispadana and Gallia Transpadana, i.e. its portions south and north of the Po River, respectively. The Roman province of the 1st century BC was bounded on the north and west by the Alps, in the south as far as Placentia by the river Po, by the Apennines and the river Rubicon, in the east by the Adriatic Sea. In 49 BC all inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul received Roman citizenship, the province was divided among four of the eleven regions of Italy: Regio VIII Gallia Cispadana, Regio IX Liguria, Regio X Venetia et Histria and Regio XI Gallia Transpadana; the Canegrate culture may represent the first migratory wave of the proto-Celtic population from the northwest part of the Alps that, through the Alpine passes and settled in the western Po valley between Lake Maggiore and Lake Como.
They brought a new funerary practice -- cremation --. It has been proposed that a more ancient proto-Celtic presence can be traced back to the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, when North Western Italy appears linked regarding the production of bronze artifacts, including ornaments, to the western groups of the Tumulus culture; the bearers of the Canegrate culture maintained its homogeneity for only a century, after which it melded with the Ligurian aboriginal populations and with this union gave rise to a new phase called the Golasecca culture, nowadays identified with the Celtic Lepontii. Livy has the Bituriges, Senones, Ambarri and Aulerci led by Bellovesus, arrive in northern Italy during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, occupying the area between Milan and Cremona. Milan itself is a Gaulish foundation of the early 6th century BC, its name having a Celtic etymology of " in the middle of the plain". Polybius in the 2nd century BC wrote about co-existence of the Celts in northern Italy with Etruscan nations in the period before the Sack of Rome in 390 BC.
Ligures lived in Northern Mediterranean Coast straddling South-east French and North-west Italian coasts, including parts of Tuscany, Elba island and Corsica. Ligurian tribes were present in Latium and in Samnium. According to Plutarch they called themselves Ambrones, which could indicate a relationship with the Ambrones of northern Europe. Little is known of the Ligurian language. Only place-names and personal names remain, it appears to be an Indo-European branch with both Italic and strong Celtic affinities. Because of the strong Celtic influences on their language and culture, they were known in antiquity as Celto-Ligurians. Modern linguists, like Xavier Delamarre argues that Ligurian was a Celtic language, similar to, but not the same as Gaulish; the Ligurian-Celtic question is discussed by Barruol. Ancient Ligurian is either listed as Celtic, or Para-Celtic; the Veneti were an Indo-European people who inhabited north-eastern Italy, in an area corresponding to the modern-day region of the Veneto and Trentino.
By the 4th century BC the Veneti had been so Celticized that Polybius wrote that the Veneti of the 2nd century BC were identical to the Gauls except for language. The Greek historian Strabo, on the other hand, conjectured that the Adriatic Veneti were descendant from Celts who in turn were related to Celtic tribe of the same name who lived on the Armorican coast and fought against Julius Caesar, he further suggested that the identification of the Adriatic Veneti with the Paphlagonian Enetoi led by Antenor — which he attributes to Sophocles — was a mistake due to the similarity of the names. In 391 BC, Celts "who had their homes beyond the Alps, streamed through the passes in great strength and seized the territory that lay between the Appennine mountains and the Alps" according to Diodorus Siculus; the Roman army was routed in the battle of Allia, Rome was sacked in 390 BC by the Senones. The defeat of the combined Samnite and Etruscan alliance by the Romans in the Third Samnite War ending in 290 BC sounded the beginning of the end of the Celtic domination in mainland Europe.
At the Battle of Telamon in 225 BC, a large Celtic army was trapped between two Roman forces and crushed. In the Second Punic War, the Boii and Insubres allied themselves with the Carthaginians, laying siege to Mutina. In response, Rome sent an expedition led by L. Manlius Vulso. Vulso's army was ambushed twice, the Senate sent Scipio with an additional force to provide support; these were the Roman forces encountered by Hannibal after his crossing of the Alps. The Romans were defeated in the Battle of the Ticinus, leading to all the Gauls except for the Cenomani to join the insurgency. Rome sent the army of Tiberius Sempronius Longus who engaged Hannibal in the Battle of the Trebia resulting in a Roman defeat, forcing Rome to temporarily abandon Gallia Cisalpina altogether, returning only after the defeat of Carthage in 202 BC. Rome conquered the last remaining independent Celtic kingdom in Italy in 192 BC. Sometimes referred to as Gallia Citerior ("Hither Gaul
Manius Curius Dentatus
Manius Curius Dentatus, son of Manius, was a three-time consul and a plebeian hero of the Roman Republic, noted for ending the Samnite War. According to Pliny, he was born with teeth, thus earning the cognomen Dentatus, "Toothed."Dentatus was a tribune of the plebs sometime between 298 and 291 BC. As tribune, he foiled efforts by the interrex Appius Claudius Caecus to keep plebeian candidates out of the consular elections. If his tribunate is dated to 291, his actions advanced his own candidacy, but since Appius served three times as interrex, the earliest date accords better with the timeline of Dentatus's own career. Dentatus served his first term as consul in 290 BC, during which time he defeated both the Samnites and Sabines and celebrated two triumphs. Returning home he took on a massive public works project draining Lake Velinus. In 283, Dentatus filled the praetorship of L. Caecilius Metellus Denter after the latter was killed in the Battle of Arretium. Polybius says Dentatus drove the Gauls from their territory, clearing the way for the establishment of a colony at Sena.
As consul again in 275 BC, Dentatus fought Pyrrhus in the inconclusive Battle of Beneventum which forced Pyrrhus out of Italy. As a result, he held a consecutive consulship, defeating the Lucani in the following year and earning an ovation, he was censor in 272, in 270 he was elected as one of two commissioners to oversee construction of the Anio Vetus, Rome's second aqueduct, for which he used his personal share of the booty from his recent victories. He died during the project, completed under his fellow commissioner M. Fulvius Flaccus. Dentatus is supposed to have been frugal, he refused the gifts, saying that he preferred ruling the possessors of gold over possessing it himself. Although the truth of this story is unclear — it may have been an invention of Cato — it was the inspiration for a number of paintings by Jacopo Amigoni, Govert Flinck, others, his praenomen is sometimes given erroneously as Marcus because the standard abbreviation of Manius is confused with the M. that abbreviates Marcus.
The Dutch Study Association'S. V. T. B. Curius' at Delft University of Technology is named after him. Pliny vii. 16 Florus ii. 18 Juvenal xi. 78 Polybius ii. 19 Eutropius ii. 9, 14 Livy, epitome, 11-14 Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 25 Cicero, De Senectute, 16 Valerius Maximus iv. 3, 5, vi. 3, 4 "Dentatus, Manius Curius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Senigallia is a comune and port town on Italy's Adriatic coast. It is situated in the province of Ancona in the Marche region and lies 30 kilometers north-west of the provincial capital city Ancona. Senigallia's small port is located at the mouth of the river Misa. Senigallia was first settled in the 4th century BC by the gallic tribe of the Senones who first settled this coastal area. In 284 BC, the settlement was taken over by Romans. "Sena" is a corrupted form of "Senones" and "Gallica" distinguished it from Saena in Etruria. In the prelude to the battle of the Metaurus between Romans and Carthaginians in 207 BC, Sena Gallica was the southernmost point of Carthaginian General Hasdrubal Barca's invasion of Italy. Senigallia was ravaged by Alaric during the decline of the Roman Empire and fortified when it became part of the Byzantine Empire, it was again laid waste by the Lombards by the Saracens in the 9th. It was one of the five cities of the medieval Adriatic duchy of Pentapolis; the diocese and the bishopric had long been established, the city saw economic development, including the establishment of the so-called Magdalena Fair around the 13th century.
The fair's popularity grew when Sergius, count of Senigallia, became engaged to the daughter of the count of Marseilles. On his engagement, the count of Marseilles presented Sergius with relics, said to be of Mary Magdalene; the fair was visited by merchants from the Levant. In the 15th century, Senigallia was captured and recaptured many times by opposing sides during the Guelph and Ghibelline war. Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta of Rimini fortified the town in the years 1450-1455. Pope Pius II made his nephew Antonio Piccolomini Lord of Senigallia in but in 1464 the residents pledged loyalty to Pope Paul II. In 1472, Giacomo Piccolomini tried but failed to seize the town In 1503, Cesare Borgia carried out a bloody coup at Senigallia, against some of his disloyal supporters. Sixtus IV assigned the lordship to the Della Rovere family. In 1516 this was revoked by Pope Leo X who transferred the Lordship to his nephew, Lorenzo II de Medici. Since 1624, Senigallia has been part of the Papal State's legation of Urbino.
During The Great War significant damage was caused to the port installations and the town by intensive bombardment by units of the Austro-Hungarian navy led by the battleship SMS "Zrínyi". The municipality borders Belvedere Ostrense, Monte San Vito, Morro d'Alba and Trecastelli; the municipality includes the hamlets of Bettolelle, Borgo Bicchia, Borgo Catena, Borgo Passera, Cannella, Cesanella, Ciarnin, Gabriella, Mandriola, Montignano, Sant'Angelo, San Silvestro and Vallone. Though traces of the city's history are still visible, much of today's city is modern. Visitor attractions include: Palazzo Comunale, from the 17th century. Rocca Roveresca - castle of Gothic origins, restored by Baccio Pontelli in 1492, it has a square plan with four large round tower. The Cathedral, erected after 1787. Santa Maria delle Grazie - one of the only two churches attributed to Baccio Pontelli, it once housed the painting of Madonna di Senigallia by Piero della Francesca. Chiesa della Croce Rotonda a mare, an art nouveau pier Chester, United Kingdom Lörrach, Loerrach International Germany Sens, France Roman Catholic Diocese of Senigallia U.
S. Vigor Senigallia This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Senigallia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 644. Official website v Senigallia In a Nutshell: An Illustrated Guidebook to Senigallia "Sinigaglia" — article on the Catholic diocese, from the New Advent Catholic Encyclopædia
Arezzo is a city and comune in Italy and the capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany. Arezzo is about 80 kilometres southeast of Florence at an elevation of 296 metres above sea level, it is 30 km west of Città di Castello. In 2013 the population was about 99,000. Described by Livy as one of the Capitae Etruriae, Arezzo is believed to have been one of the twelve most important Etruscan cities—the so-called Dodecapolis, part of the Etruscan League. Etruscan remains establish that the acropolis of San Cornelio, a small hill next to that of San Donatus, was occupied and fortified in the Etruscan period. There is other significant Etruscan evidence: parts of walls, an Etruscan necropolis on Poggio del Sole, most famously, the two bronzes, the "Chimera of Arezzo" and the "Minerva" which were discovered in the 16th century and taken to Florence. Increasing trade connections with Greece brought some elite goods to the Etruscan nobles of Arezzo: the krater painted by Euphronios c. 510 BC depicting a battle against Amazons is unsurpassed.
Conquered by the Romans in 311 BC, Arretium became a military station on the via Cassia, the road by which Rome expanded into the basin of the Po. Arretium sided with Marius in the Roman Civil War, the victorious Sulla planted a colony of his veterans in the half-demolished city, as Arretium Fidens; the old Etruscan aristocracy was not extinguished: Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, whose name is eponymous with "patron of the arts", was of the noble Aretine Etruscan stock. The city continued to flourish as Arretium Vetus, the third largest city in Italy in the Augustan period, well known in particular for its exported pottery manufactures, the characteristic moulded and glazed Arretine ware, bucchero-ware of dark clay and red-painted vases. Around 261 AD the town council of Arezzo dedicated an inscription to its patron L. Petronius Taurus Volusianus. See that article for discussion of the possible political/military significance of Volusianus's association with the city. In the 3rd to 4th century Arezzo became an episcopal seat: it is one of the few cities whose succession of bishops are known by name without interruption to the present day, in part because they were the feudal lords of the city in the Middle Ages.
The Roman city was demolished through the Gothic War and the invasion of the Lombards dismantled, as elsewhere throughout Europe, the stones reused for fortifications by the Aretines. Only the amphitheater remained; the commune of Arezzo threw off the control of its bishop in 1098 and was an independent city-state until 1384. Ghibelline in tendency, it opposed Guelph Florence. In 1252 the city founded the Studium. After the rout of the Battle of Campaldino, which saw the death of Bishop Guglielmino Ubertini, the fortunes of Ghibelline Arezzo started to ebb, apart from a brief period under the Tarlati family, chief among them Guido Tarlati, who became bishop in 1312 and maintained good relations with the Ghibelline party; the Tarlati sought support in an alliance with Forlì and its overlords, the Ordelaffi, but failed: Arezzo yielded to Florentine domination in 1384. During this period Piero della Francesca worked in the church of San Francesco di Arezzo producing the splendid frescoes restored, which are Arezzo's most famous works.
Afterwards the city began an economical and cultural decay, which ensured that its medieval centre was preserved. In the 18th century the neighbouring marshes of the Val di Chiana, south of Arezzo, were drained and the region became less malarial. At the end of the-century French troops led by Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Arezzo, but the city soon turned into a resistance base against the invaders with the "Viva Maria" movement, winning the city the role of provincial capital. In 1860 Arezzo became part of the Kingdom of Italy. City buildings suffered heavy damage during World War II; the Commonwealth War Graves Commission's Arezzo War Cemetery, where 1,266 men are buried, is located to the North West of the city. Pope Benedict XVI visited Arezzo and two other Italian municipalities on May 13, 2012. Arezzo is set on a steep hill rising from the floodplain of the River Arno. In the upper part of the town are the cathedral, the town hall and the Medici Fortress, from which the main streets branch off towards the lower part as far as the gates.
The upper part of the town maintains its medieval appearance despite the addition of structures. Arezzo's city proper is near the high risk areas for earthquakes, but located in a transitional area where the risk for severe earthquakes is much lower than in nearby Umbria and Abruzzo, albeit it is more vulnerable than Florence. Notable earthquakes are still a rare phenomenon in the province, with a 4.6 quake 25 kilometres to its north-east that claimed no lives on 26 November 2001 the exception. Under the Köppen climate classification Arezzo is either a humid subtropical climate or an oceanic climate, having traditionally leaned towards the latter, it has uncharacteristically hot summer days for a maritime climate, with the lows moderating the average temps and bringing it to sit right on the border with subtropical. The Piazza Grande is
Appian of Alexandria was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan and Antoninus Pius. He was born c. 95 in Alexandria. After holding the chief offices in the province of Aegyptus, he went to Rome c. 120, where he practised as an advocate, pleading cases before the emperors. It was in 147 at the earliest that he was appointed to the office of procurator in Egypt, on the recommendation of his friend Marcus Cornelius Fronto, a well-known litterateur; because the position of procurator was open only to members of the equestrian order, his possession of this office tells us about Appian's family background. His principal surviving work was written in Greek in 24 books, before 165; this work more resembles a series of monographs than a connected history. It gives an account of various peoples and countries from the earliest times down to their incorporation into the Roman Empire, survives in complete books and considerable fragments; the work is valuable for the period of the civil wars.
The Civil Wars, five of the books in the corpus, concern the end of the Roman Republic and take a conflict-based view and approach history. Despite the apparent lack of sources for his works, his books 13–17 of the Roman History are the only comprehensive description of these nine momentous centuries of the Roman Empire. Little is known of the life of Appian of Alexandria, he wrote an autobiography, completely lost. Information about Appian is distilled from his own writings and a letter by his friend Cornelius Fronto. However, it is certain that Appian was born around the year AD 95 in Alexandria, the capital of Roman Egypt. Since his parents were Roman citizens capable of paying for their son's education, it can be inferred that Appian belonged to the wealthy upper classes, it is believed. In the introduction to his Roman History, he boasts "that he pleaded cases in Rome before the emperors." The emperors he claims to have addressed must have been either Hadrian or Marcus Aurelius and Antoninus Pius, for Appian remained in Egypt at least until the end of the reign of Trajan.
In the letter of Cornelius Fronto, it is revealed that a request on behalf of Appian to receive the rank of procurator occurred during the co-regency of Marcus Aurelius and his brother Lucius Verus between 147 and 161. Although Appian won this office, it is unclear whether it was an honorific title; the only other certain biographical datum is that Appian's Roman History appeared sometime before 162. This is one of the few primary historical sources for the period. Appian began writing his history around the middle of the second century AD. Only sections from half of the original 24 books survive today; the most important remnants of Appian's work are the five books on the Civil Wars—books 13–17 of the Roman History. These five books stand out because they are the only comprehensive, meticulous source available on an significant historical period, during which Roman politics were in turmoil because of factional strife. Notable is this work's ethnographic structure. Appian most used this structure to facilitate his readers' orientation through the sequence of events, which are united only by their relationship to Rome.
A literary example of this can be found from Appian's Civil Wars. It states, "And now civil discord broke out again worse than and increased enormously…so in the course of events in the Roman empire was partitioned…by these three men: Antony and the one, first called Octavius…shortly after this division they fell to quarrelling among themselves…Octavius…first deprived Lepidus of Africa…and afterward, as the result of the battle of Actium, took from Antony all the provinces lying between Syria and the Adriatic gulf." One might expect that a historical work covering nine centuries and countless different peoples would involve a multitude of testimonials from different periods. However, Appian's sources remain uncertain, as he only mentions the source of his information under special circumstances, he may have relied on one author for each book, whom he did not follow uncritically, since Appian used additional sources for precision and correction. At our present state of knowledge questions regarding Appian’s sources cannot be resolved.
Appiani Alexandrini Historia Publio Candido interprete Ac praeterea Anonymi Compendium historiae ab excessu Constantini usque ad Ioannem XXIII. World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-02-28. Editio princeps, 1551 Schweighäuser, 1785 Bekker, 1852 Ludwig Mendelssohn, 1878–1905, Appiani Historia Romana, Bibliotheca Teubneriana Paul Goukowsky, 1997–, Appien. Histoire romaine, Collection Budé. Carsana, Chiara. Commento storico al libro II delle Guerre Civili di Appiano. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, 2007. 309 pp.. English translationsW. B. 1578 – William Barker – used by Shakespeare J. D, 1679 Horace White, 1899. Books XIII–XVII, trans. John Carter, Harmondsworth, 1996 William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Vol. 1, pp. 247–248 Works written by or about Appian at Wikisource Appian's Foreign Wars at Livius.org Appian's Civil Wars at La
The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
Battle of Telamon
The Battle of Telamon was fought between the Roman Republic and an alliance of Celtic tribes in 225 BC. The Romans, led by the consuls Gaius Atilius Regulus and Lucius Aemilius Papus, defeated the Celts led by the Gaesatae kings Concolitanus and Aneroëstes; this removed the Celtic threat from Rome and allowed the Romans to extend their influence over northern Italy. Rome had been at peace with the tribes of Cisalpine Gaul, the area along the Po valley in northern Italy, since inconclusive skirmishing ceased in 238 BC. Indeed, when a force of Transalpine Celts had crossed the Alps into Italy in 230 BC, it had been the Boii of Cisalpine Gaul who had repelled them; the Romans found that it was not needed. However, when the Romans partitioned the formerly-Celtic territory of Picenum in 234 BC, they created resentment among its neighbours, the Boii and the Insubres; this was deepened in 232 BC when the Romans passed a law allocating large areas of formally Celtic land to poorer citizens. These actions were recognised at the time as being provocative to the Celts and attracted some opposition because of it.
In 225 BC, the Boii and Insubres paid large sums of money to the Gaesatae, mercenaries from Transalpine Celtic territories led by Aneroëstes and Concolitanus, to fight with them against Rome. The Romans, alarmed by the Celtic mobilisation, made a treaty giving Carthaginian General Hasdrubal the Fair unimpeded control of Hispania so that they could concentrate on the threat closer to home; the Romans called upon their allies in Italy to supply troops. Consul Lucius Aemilius Papus had four legions of Roman citizens, 22,000 men in total, as well as 32,000 allied troops, he stationed the majority of his forces at Ariminum. He placed 54,000 Sabines and Etruscans on the Etruscan border under the command of a praetor, sent 40,000 Umbrians, Sarsinates and Cenomani to attack the home territory of the Boii to distract them from the battle; the other Consul, Gaius Atilius Regulus, had an army the same size as that of Papus but was stationed in Sardinia at the time. There was a reserve of 21,500 citizens and 32,000 allies in Rome itself and one legion in each of Sicily and Tarentum.
The Celts began to march to Rome. The Roman troops who were stationed on the Etrurian border met them at Clusium, three days march from Rome, where both sides made camp; that night, the Celts, leaving their cavalry and their camp fires as a decoy, withdrew to the town of Faesulae and built defensive obstacles. In the morning, the cavalry withdrew in full view of the Romans, thinking that the enemy were retreating, pursued them; the Celts gave battle from behind their defences and, with the advantage of position, were victorious after a hard battle. Six thousand Romans were killed, the rest fell back to a defensible hill; that night Papus made camp nearby. Aneroëstes persuaded the Celts to withdraw along the Etruscan coast with their booty and renew the war when they were unencumbered. Papus did not risk a pitched battle; the other Consul, had crossed from Sardinia, landed at Pisa, was marching towards Rome. His scouts met the Celts' advance guard head in an area called Campo Regio. Regulus put his troops in fighting order and advanced in an attempt to occupy a hill above the road which would block the Celts retreat.
The Celts, unaware of Regulus' arrival, assumed that Papus had sent some of his cavalry ahead and so sent some of their own cavalry and light infantry to contest the hill. As soon as they realised that they faced a second full Roman army they deployed their infantry facing both front and rear, they placed the Gaesatae and Insubres at the rear against Papus and the Boii and Taurisci at the front against Regulus, with their flanks protected by wagons and chariots. A small force guarded the booty on another hill nearby; the battle over the main hill was fierce, although Papus sent cavalry to assist, Regulus was killed and his head brought to the Celtic leaders. However, the Roman cavalry secured possession of the hill; the Romans advanced from both directions, throwing volleys of javelins, which devastated the vulnerable Gaesatae at the rear, who were fighting naked with small shields. Some were slaughtered. Others withdrew into the body of their retreat causing disorder among their allies; the Roman javelin-throwers withdrew into the ranks, the infantry advanced in maniples.
The Insubres and Taurisci held their ground tenaciously, but the Roman shields and short thrusting swords were more effective in close combat than the Celtic smaller shields and long slashing swords, which allowed the Romans to gain the upper hand. The Roman cavalry rode down the hill into the flank of the exhausted Celts, who broke; the Celtic infantry was slaughtered and their cavalry put to flight. Around 40,000 Celts were killed and 10,000, including Concolitanus, taken prisoner. Aneroëstes escaped with a small group of followers. After the battle Papus marched the combined armies into Liguria and the territory of the Boii to conduct punitive actions. Papus was awarded a triumph for his part in the victory, which ended forever the Celtic threat to the Roman capital. In 224 BC two Roman armies forced the Boii to submit. In 223 and 222 BC further major Roman victories followed and the Celts surrendered, giving up large tracts of land. Roman citizens were settled to the frustrated resentment of the Celts.
This resentment played a significant role in the Celts going over to Hannibal when he crossed the Alps in 218 BC as part of the Second Punic War. Roman Republican governors of Gaul Goldworthy, Adrian