Battle of Kozludzha
Battle of Kozludzha fought on 20 June 1774 near the village of Kozludzha was one of the final and decisive battles of the Russo-Turkish War. The Russians managed scoring a major victory; this battle, alongside several others in this campaign, established the reputation of the Russian general Alexander Suvorov as a brilliant commander of his era. The Ottoman forces are estimated at about 40,000. Russian numbers were much lower, 8,000 men in total; the Ottoman forces had poor logistics. The Russian army under Generals Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kamensky encountered the Ottoman forces of General Abdul-Rezak Pasha. After scouts reported to Suvorov, he ordered the attack; the Russian army, divided into four squares, attacked the Ottomans. Ottoman cavalry charges were repulsed by the Russians, while a Russian cavalry attack from the rear resulted in the capture of all of the Ottoman artillery. Russian artillery fire is said to have been devastating to the Ottoman forces. Casualties were 209 for the Russians.
The Russians captured the Ottoman camp with its supplies, while the Ottomans abandoned Kozludzha and retreated to Shumla, where they were soon blockaded, suffering from further defeats and attrition. The Russian victory was one of the major reasons why a month on 21 July, the Ottomans were forced to sign the unfavorable Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
Battle of Maritsa
The Battle of Maritsa, or Battle of Chernomen took place at the Maritsa River near the village of Chernomen on 26 September 1371 between the forces of Ottoman commanders Lala Shahin Pasha and Evrenos and Serbian commanders King Vukašin Mrnjavčević and his brother Despot Jovan Uglješa who wanted to get revenge after the First Battle of Maritsa. Before the Battle of Maritsa, Vukašin had the intention to recapture Skadar for the Serbian Empire; the army led by King Vukašin and his son Prince Marko came under Skadar in June 1371, but when they were informed about a large Ottoman army advancing from the east they headed east to prepare for the Battle of Maritsa. The Serbian army numbered 20,000–70,000 men. Most sources agree on the higher number. Despot Uglješa wanted to make a surprise attack on the Ottomans in their capital city, while Murad I was in Asia Minor; the Ottoman army was much smaller, Byzantine Greek scholar Laonikos Chalkokondyles and other sources give the number of 800 men, but due to superior tactics, by conducting a night raid on the Serbian camp, Şâhin Paşa was able to defeat the Serbian army and kill King Vukašin and despot Uglješa.
Thousands of Serbs were killed, thousands drowned in the Maritsa river when they tried to flee. After the battle, the Maritsa ran scarlet with blood. Parts of Macedonia and Thrace fell under Ottoman power after this battle; the battle was a part of the Ottoman campaign to conquer the Balkans and was preceded by the Ottoman capturing of Sozopol in modern Bulgaria and succeeded by the capture of the cities of Drama, Kavála and Serrai in modern Greece. The battle preceded the 1389 Battle of Kosovo, was one of many in history of the Serbian-Turkish wars. Battle of the Maritsa River Encyclopædia Britannica
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Battle of Nicopolis
The Battle of Nicopolis took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Bulgarian, French, Burgundian and assorted troops at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444. There were many minor crusades in the 14th century, undertaken by individual knights. Most there had been a failed crusade against Tunisia in 1390, there was ongoing warfare in northern Europe along the Baltic coast. After their victory at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the Ottomans had conquered most of the Balkans, had reduced the Byzantine Empire to the area surrounding Constantinople, which they proceeded to besiege. In 1393 the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman had lost Nicopolis — his temporary capital — to the Ottomans, while his brother, Ivan Stratsimir, still held Vidin but had been reduced to an Ottoman vassal.
In the eyes of the Bulgarian boyars and other independent Balkan rulers, the crusade was a great chance to reverse the course of the Ottoman conquest and free the Balkans from Islamic rule. In addition, the frontline between Islam and Christianity had been moving towards the Kingdom of Hungary; the Kingdom of Hungary was now the frontier between the two religions in Eastern Europe, the Hungarians were in danger of being attacked themselves. The Republic of Venice feared that an Ottoman control of the Balkan peninsula, which included Venetian territories like parts of Morea and Dalmatia, would reduce their influence over the Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea and Aegean Sea; the Republic of Genoa, on the other hand, feared that if the Ottomans were to gain control over River Danube and the Turkish Straits, they would obtain a monopoly over the trade routes between Europe and the Black Sea, where the Genoese had many important colonies like Caffa and Amasra. The Genoese owned the citadel of Galata, located at the north of the Golden Horn in Constantinople, to which Bayezid had laid siege in 1395.
In 1394, Pope Boniface IX proclaimed a new crusade against the Turks, although the Western Schism had split the papacy in two, with rival popes at Avignon and Rome, the days when a pope had the authority to call a crusade were long past. The two decisive factors in the formation of the last crusade were the ongoing Hundred Years' War between Richard II's England and Charles VI's France and the support of Philip II, Duke of Burgundy. In 1389, the war had ground to one of its periodic truces. Further, in March 1395, Richard II proposed a marriage between himself and Charles VI's daughter Isabella in the interests of peace and the two kings met in October 1396 on the borders of Calais to agree to the union and agree to lengthen the Truce of Leulinghem; the support of Burgundy, among the most powerful of the French nobles was vital. In 1391, trying to decide between sending a crusade to either Prussia or Hungary, sent his envoy Guy de La Trémoille to Venice and Hungary to evaluate the situation.
Burgundy envisioned a crusade led by himself and the Dukes of Orléans and Lancaster, though none would join the eventual crusade. It was unlikely that defense against the Turks was considered a important goal of the crusade. Burgundy's interest in sponsoring the crusade was in increasing his and his house's prestige and power and, historian Barbara Tuchman notes, "since he was the prince of self-magnification, the result was that opulent display became the dominant theme. In 1394, Burgundy extracted 120,000 livres from Flanders, sufficient to begin preparations for a crusade, in January 1395 sent word to King Sigismund of Hungary that an official request to the King of France would be accepted. In August, Sigismund's delegation of four knights and a bishop arrived in the court of Paris to paint a description of how "40,000" Turks were despoiling and imperiling Christian lands and beg, on Sigismund of Hungary's behalf, for help. Charles VI, having secured a peace with England through the marriage of his daughter, was able to reply that it was his responsibility to protect Christianity and punish Sultan Bayezid.
French nobility responded enthusiastically to the declaration. The number of combatants is contested in historical accounts. Historian Tuchman notes, "Chroniclers habitually matched numbers to the awesomeness of the event," and the Battle of Nicopolis was considered so significant that the number of combatants given by medieval chroniclers ranges as high as 400,000, with each side insisting that the enemy outnumbered them two-to-one, which for the crusaders offered some solace for their defeat and for the Turks increased the glory of their victory; the oft-given figure of 100,000 crusaders is dismissed by Tuchman, who notes that 100,000 men would have taken a month to cross the Danube at Iron Gate, while the crusaders took eight days. The closest record to a first-person account was made by Johann Schiltberger, a German follower of a Bavarian noble, who witnessed the battle at the age of 16 and was captured and enslaved for 30 years by the
Battle of Kosovo
The Battle of Kosovo took place on 15 June 1389 between an army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and an invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr. The army under Prince Lazar consisted of his own troops, a contingent led by Serbian nobleman Vuk Branković, a contingent sent from Bosnia by King Tvrtko I, commanded by Vlatko Vuković. Prince Lazar was the ruler of Moravian Serbia and the most powerful among the Serbian regional lords of the time, while Vuk Branković ruled District of Branković located in Kosovo and other areas, recognizing Lazar as his overlord; the battle was fought on the Kosovo field in the territory ruled by Branković, in what is today Kosovo. Its site is about 5 kilometers northwest of the modern city of Pristina. Reliable historical accounts of the battle are scarce; the bulk of both armies were wiped out in the battle, both Lazar and Murad were killed. Although the Ottomans managed to annihilate the Serbian army, they suffered huge casualties that delayed their progress.
The Serbs were left with too few men to defend their lands, while the Turks had many more troops in the east. One after the other, the Serbian principalities that were not Ottoman vassals became so in the following years. Emperor Stefan Uroš IV Dušan "the Mighty" was succeeded by his son Stefan Uroš V "the Weak", whose reign was characterized by the decline of central power and the rise of numerous independent principalities. Uroš V was neither able to sustain the great empire created by his father nor repulse foreign threats and limit the independence of the nobility. Prince Lazar, ruler of the northern part of the former empire of, was aware of the Ottoman threat and began diplomatic and military preparations for a campaign against them. After the defeat of the Ottomans at Pločnik and Bileća, Murad I, the reigning Ottoman sultan, moved his troops from Philippoupolis to Ihtiman in the spring of 1388. From there they traveled across Kratovo. Though longer than the alternative route through Sofia and the Nišava Valley, this led the Ottoman forces to Kosovo, one of the most important crossroads in the Balkans.
From Kosovo they could attack the lands of either Prince Lazar or Vuk Branković. Having stayed in Kratovo for a time and his troops marched through Kumanovo, Preševo and Gnjilane to Priština, where he arrived on June 14. While there is less information about Lazar's preparations, he gathered his troops near Niš, on the right bank of the South Morava, his forces remained there until he learned that Murad had moved to Velbužd, whereupon he moved across Prokuplje to Kosovo. This was the best place he could choose as a battlefield, as it gave him control of all the routes that Murad could take. Reliable historical accounts of the battle are scarce. Murad's army numbered between 40,000 men; these 40,000 included no more than 2,000 Janissaries, 2,500 of Murad's cavalry guard, 6,000 sipahis, 20,000 azaps and akincis, 8,000 troops from his vassals. Marko and Dragaš, although Ottoman vassals, did not participate in the battle; the Ottoman army was supported by the forces of the Anatolian Turkoman Beylik of Isfendiyar.
Lazar's army numbered between 12,000 and 30,000. According to a Yugoslav encyclopaedia, there were 30,000 fighters present. Present were Knights Hospitaller led by the Croatian knight John of Palisna. Several thousand were knights. Furthermore, there have been several anachronistic accounts that have mentioned the "Christian army" of Lazar was far greater, that it included contingents of other nations, although these cannot be verified; the armies met at the Kosovo field. Murad headed the Ottoman army, with his sons Bayezid on Yakub on his left. Around 1,000 archers were in the front line in the wings, backed up by akinci. One of the Ottoman commanders was Pasha Yiğit Bey; the Serbian army had Vuk on the right and Vlatko on the left. At the front of the army were the heavy cavalry and archer cavalry on the flanks, with the infantry to the rear. While parallel, the dispositions of the armies were not symmetrical, as the Serbian center had a broader front than the Ottoman center. Serbian and Turkish accounts of the battle differ, making it difficult to reconstruct the course of events.
It is believed that the battle commenced with Ottoman archers shooting at Serbian cavalry, who made ready for the attack. After positioning in a wedge formation, the Serbian cavalry managed to break through the Ottoman left wing, but were not as successful against the center and the right wing; the Serbs had the initial advantage after their first charge, which damaged the Ottoman wing commanded by Yakub Çelebi. When the knights' charge was finished, light Ottoman cavalry and light infantry counterattacked and the Serbian heavy armor became a disadvantage. In the center, Serbian troops managed to push back Ottoman forces, except for Bayezi
Aspindza is a daba in southern Georgia's region of Samtskhe-Javakheti with a population of 2,793 ethnic Georgians. It is located at around 41°34′26″N 43°15′22″E; the word "Aspindza" derives from a Persian word "اسب انداز", which means "a place to rest". The year of the foundation the town is considered to be 888, as Leonti Mroveli tells - The run away Nasra was caught near Samtskhe, killed by Aspindza in the year 888 By the end of the 16th century Aspindza had been conquered by the Ottoman Turks. According to their census, "Aspindza was a big village, that consisted of 50 families with gardens and orchards"; the village is mentioned in chronicle of Sumbat Vakhushti. Georgian Soviet Encyclopedia, article ასპინძა. Samtskhe-Javakheti Aspindza District
Battle of Dubravnica
The Battle of Dubravnica was fought in the summer of 1380 or December 1381, on the Dubravnica River near Paraćin in today's central Serbia, between the Serbian forces of Prince Lazar of Serbia led by commanders Vitomir and Crep and the invading Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I. Vitomir and Crep were the regional lords, one of their fortresses, was in the vicinity of the battle. Battle of Dubravnica was the first historical mention of any Ottoman movements into Prince Lazar's territory; the Serbian army emerged victorious. After this battle the Turks didn't linger into Serbia until 1386, when their armies were routed near Pločnik. Battle of Pločnik Battle of Bileća Battle of Kosovo Battle of Kosovo, about the battle and surrounding facts