Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy; the term, which designates the cultural and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War, until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, considered the completion of unification.
This view is followed, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was an absentee German-speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state. Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naples established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the Papal States; this situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period.
Italy, including the Papal States became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, the 15th century foreign policy of Cosimo De Medici and Lorenzo De Medici. Leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante, Boccaccio and Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated. Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the barbarians"; the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty, another branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession. A sense of Italian national identity was reflected in Gian Rinaldo Carli's Della Patria degli Italiani, written in 1764, it told how a stranger entered a café in Milan and puzzled its occupants by saying that he was neither a foreigner nor a Milanese.
"'Then what are you?' they asked.'I am an Italian,' he explained." The Habsburg rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, when a series of client republics were set up. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz; the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority. The French Republic spread republican principles, the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties; the reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, on 30 March 1815, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation, which called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers.
After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, the most powerful force against unification. An important figure of this period was Francesco Melzi d'Eril, serving as vice-president of the Napoleonic Italian Republic and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian Risorgimento shortly after his death. Meanwhile and literary sentiment turned towards nationalism.
Domenico Giovanni Giuseppe Maria Lanza was an Italian politician and the eighth Prime Minister from 1869 to 1873. Lanza was born in the Piedmontese city of Casale Monferrato, he studied medicine at Turin, capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia returned to Casale where he divided his energies between practising medicine and developing his 33 hectare estate in nearby Roncaglia. He wrote on agriculture developments in both the practical and social aspects. Lanza was among the first in Monferrato to introduce modern equipment as iron ploughs and seed drills, involved himself in the agricultural education of poor children, hoping to achieve at once “the betterment of our agriculture and the moral and intellectual betterment of our agricultural workers.”Lanza was an active member of the Subalpine Agricultural Association of Turin and became its secretary. The association was concerned for reform in the political and economic spheres, as well as in that of agriculture, its identification with the cause of liberal nationalism—with the Risorgimento—was underlined at the September 1847 agrarian congress in Casale, when Lanza raised the cry of “Viva l’Italia libera ed indipendente!”
He commented on that event: “I did not join the association purely to improve the cultivation of cabbages.”, Lanza took an active part in the rising of 1848 and was elected to the Piedmontese parliament in that year. He attached himself to the party of Cavour and devoted his attention chiefly to questions of economy and finance, he became minister of public instruction in 1855 in the cabinet of Cavour, in 1858 minister of finance. Lanza followed Cavour into his temporary retirement in July 1859 after the Treaty of Villafranca, for a year was chairman of the House, he was minister of the interior in the La Marmora cabinet, arranged the transference of the capital to Florence. He maintained a resolute opposition to the financial policy of Menabrea, who resigned when Lanza was a second time elected, in 1869, chairman of the House. Lanza formed a new cabinet. With Quintino Sella as minister of finance he sought to reorganize Italian budget, resigned office when Sella's projects were rejected in 1873.
His cabinet had seen the accomplishment of Italian unity and the installation of an Italian government in Rome after the defeat of the Papal States in late 1870. Works by or about Giovanni Lanza at Internet Archive
Marco Minghetti was an Italian economist and statesman. Minghetti was born at Bologna part of the Papal States, he signed the petition to the Papal conclave, 1846, urging the election of a liberal pope, was appointed member of the state council summoned to prepare the constitution for the Papal States. With Antonio Montanan and Rodolfo Audinot he founded at Bologna Il Felsineo. In the first constitutional cabinet of the Papal States, presided over by Cardinal Antonelli, Minghetti held the portfolio of public works, but after Pius IX publicly spoke against the Italian Risorgimento he resigned and joined the Piedmontese army as captain on the general staff. Returning to Rome in September 1848, he refused to form a cabinet after the assassination of Pellegrino Rossi, spent the next eight years in study and travel. Summoned to Paris by Cavour in 1856 to prepare the memorandum on the Romagna provinces for the Paris congress resolving the Crimean War, he was in 1859 appointed by Cavour secretary-general of the Piedmontese Foreign Office.
In the same year he was elected president of the assembly of the Romagna after the rejection of pontifical rule by those provinces, prepared their annexation to Piedmont. Appointed Piedmontese minister of the interior, he resigned office shortly after Cavour's death, but was subsequently chosen to be minister of finance by Farini, whom he succeeded as Prime Minister in 1863. With the help of Emilio, marquis Visconti-Venosta he concluded the September Convention with France, whereby Napoleon III agreed to evacuate Rome, Italy to transfer her capital from Turin to Florence; the convention excited violent opposition at Turin, in consequence of which Minghetti was obliged to resign office. He took little part in public life until 1869, when he accepted the portfolio of agriculture in the Menabrea Cabinet. Both in and out of office he exercised his influence against an Italo-French alliance and for an immediate advance upon Rome, in 1870 was sent to London and Vienna by the Lanza-Sella Cabinet to organize a league of neutral powers on the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War.
In 1873 he overthrew the Lanza-Sella Cabinet and regained the premiership, with the portfolio of finance, he held until the fall of the Right from power on 18 March 1876. During his premiership he inaugurated the rapprochement between Italy and Germany, reformed the naval and military administration. After the advent of the Left, Minghetti remained for some years in opposition, but towards 1884 joined Depretis in creating the Trasformismo, which consisted in bringing Conservative support to Liberal cabinets. Minghetti, drew from it no personal advantage, died at Rome on 10 December 1886 without having returned to power, his writings include: Della economia pubblica e delle sue attinenze con la morale e col diritto, La Chiesa e lo Stato. I partiti politici e la ingerenza loro nella giustizia e nell' amministrazione Della economia pubblica: e delle sue attinenze colla morale e col. diritto Des rapports de l'économie publique avec la morale et le droit Stato e chiesa By Marco Minghetti L'état et l'église La convenzione di settembre: un capitolo dei miei ricordi Scritti vari This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Minghetti, Marco". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 523
Gerolamo Induno was an Italian painter and soldier, best known for his military scenes. His older brother, was a well-known artist and they worked together, he was born in Milan, where his father was a butler at the Milanese court. He took his first formal art lessons at the Brera Academy, where he studied with Luigi Sabatelli from 1839 to 1846, his first exhibit was in 1845. In 1848, he and Domenico were participants in the Five Days of Milan and had to flee to avoid reprisals by the Austrian government, they spent two years in Ticino returned and settled in Florence. His brother went back to painting, but he enlisted in a volunteer regiment led by General Giacomo Medici and fought against the French during their siege of Rome, he managed to produce numerous sketches of the war. While engaged in the defense of the Villa del Vascello, near Porta San Pancrazio, he was stabbed with several bayonets and wounded while leading a charge. After a long recovery, he was able to return to Milan under the protection of Count Giulio Litta, a composer and avid art collector.
Because of his injuries, he was exempt from being inducted into the Austrian army and went to work in his brother's studio. In the following years, he created many works based on the events of the Risorgimento, as well as genre works, influenced by his brother. From 1854 to 1855, during the Crimean War, he was back in uniform. Once again, he made numerous sketches that were turned into lithographs; these included a depiction of the Battle of the Chernaya, purchased by King Victor Emmanuel II. Some of his works were exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in Paris. In 1859, despite lingering health issues, he enlisted in the Hunters of the Alps and came to be recognized by Garibaldi as the official painter of the Risorgimento on matters of an official character, his genre scenes became entirely devoted to military themes. During the 1860s, in addition to his patriotic canvases, he created some large decorative works. In 1861, he received a gold medal at an exhibition in Florence for his painting of the Battle of Magenta, but gave it up in solidarity with the painters, overlooked.
After unification had been achieved, his genre works tended to focus on scenes from the seventeenth century and he began to exhibit paintings on a wider variety of topics outside Italy, including Vienna, Paris and London. His best-known work from this period is "A Game of Chess", a scene from a play of the same name by Giuseppe Giacosa, he died in Milan after a long illness. Giuliano Matteucci, Domenico e Gerolamo Induno: La storia e la cronoca scritte con il pennello, Fondazione Cassa di risparmio di Tortona, 2006 ISBN 978-88-422-1460-1 Giorgio Nicodemi, Domenico e Gerolamo Induno, G. G. Gorlich, 1945 Fernando Mazzocca, Una raccolta di disegni di Gerolamo Induno. Episodi di vita risorgimentale, Gallerie Salamon Agustoni Algranti, Milan 1984 Laura Casone, Gerolamo Induno, catalogo online Artgate della Fondazione Cariplo, 2010 ArtNet: More works by Induno. Archivio Induno @ Studio Manusardi Gerolamo Induno @ Trombealvento
A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. The term Mother Goose rhymes is interchangeable with nursery rhymes. From the mid-16th century nursery rhymes begin to be recorded in English plays, most popular rhymes date from the 17th and 18th centuries; the first English collections, Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, were published before 1744. Publisher John Newbery's stepson, Thomas Carnan, was the first to use the term Mother Goose for nursery rhymes when he published a compilation of English rhymes, Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle; the oldest children's songs of which we have records are lullabies, intended to help a child fall asleep. Lullabies can be found in every human culture; the English term lullaby is thought to come from "lu, lu" or "la la" sounds made by mothers or nurses to calm children, "by by" or "bye bye", either another lulling sound or a term for good night.
Until the modern era lullabies were only recorded incidentally in written sources. The Roman nurses' lullaby, "Lalla, Lalla, aut dormi, aut lacta", is recorded in a scholium on Persius and may be the oldest to survive. Many medieval English verses associated with the birth of Jesus take the form of a lullaby, including "Lullay, my liking, my dere son, my sweting" and may be versions of contemporary lullabies. However, most of those used today date from the 17th century. For example, a well known lullaby such as "Rock-a-bye, baby on a tree top", cannot be found in records until the late-18th century when it was printed by John Newbery. A French poem, similar to "Thirty days hath September", numbering the days of the month, was recorded in the 13th century. From the Middle Ages there are records of short children's rhyming songs as marginalia. From the mid-16th century they begin to be recorded in English plays. "Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker's man" is one of the oldest surviving English nursery rhymes.
The earliest recorded version of the rhyme appears in Thomas d'Urfey's play The Campaigners from 1698. Most nursery rhymes were not written down until the 18th century, when the publishing of children's books began to move from polemic and education towards entertainment, but there is evidence for many rhymes existing before this, including "To market, to market" and "Cock a doodle doo", which date from at least the late 16th century; the first English collections, Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, are both thought to have been published by Mary Cooper in London before 1744, with such songs becoming known as'Tommy Thumb's songs'. John Newbery's stepson, Thomas Carnan, was the first to use the term Mother Goose for nursery rhymes when he published a compilation of English rhymes, Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle; these rhymes seem to have come from a variety of sources, including traditional riddles, ballads, lines of Mummers' plays, drinking songs, historical events, and, it has been suggested, ancient pagan rituals.
About half of the recognised "traditional" English rhymes were known by the mid-18th century. In the early 19th century printed collections of rhymes began to spread to other countries, including Robert Chambers's Popular Rhymes of Scotland and in the United States, Mother Goose's Melodies. From this period we sometimes know the origins and authors of rhymes—for instance, in "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" which combines the melody of an 18th-century French tune "Ah vous dirai-je, Maman" with a 19th-century English poem by Jane Taylor entitled "The Star" used as lyrics. Early folk song collectors often collected nursery rhymes, including in Scotland Sir Walter Scott and in Germany Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim in Des Knaben Wunderhorn; the first, the most important academic collection to focus in this area was James Orchard Halliwell's The Nursery Rhymes of England and Popular Rhymes and Tales in 1849, in which he divided rhymes into antiquities, fireside stories, game-rhymes, alphabet-rhymes, nature-rhymes and families, superstitions and nursery songs.
By the time of Sabine Baring-Gould's A Book of Nursery Songs, folklore was an academic study, full of comments and footnotes. A professional anthropologist, Andrew Lang produced The Nursery Rhyme Book in 1897; the early years of the 20th century are notable for the illustrations to children's books including Caldecott's Hey Diddle Diddle Picture Book and Arthur Rackham's Mother Goose. The definitive study of English rhymes remains the work of Peter Opie. Many nursery rhymes have been argued to have hidden origins. John Bellenden Ker, for example, wrote four volumes arguing that English nursery rhymes were written in'Low Saxon', a hypothetical early form of Dutch, he then'translated' them back into English, revealing in particular a strong tendency to anti-clericalism. Many of the ideas about the links between rhymes and historical persons, or events, can be traced back to Katherine Elwes's book The Real Personages of Mother Goose, in which she linked famous nursery-rhyme characters with real people, on little or no evidence.
She assumed that children's songs were a peculiar form of coded historical narrative, propaganda or covert protest, considered that they could have been written for entertainment. There have been several attempts, across the world. In the late 18th century we can sometimes see how rhymes like "Little Rob
Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving for over 31 years. During his pontificate, Pius IX convened the First Vatican Council, which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short owing to the loss of the Papal States. Europe, including the Italian peninsula, was in the midst of considerable political ferment when the bishop of Imola, Giovanni Maria Cardinal Mastai-Ferretti, was elected pope, he took the name Pius, after his generous patron and the long-suffering prisoner of Napoleon, Pius VII. He had been elected by the faction of cardinals sympathetic to the political liberalization coursing across Europe, his initial governance of the Papal States gives evidence of his own moderate sympathies. A series of terrorist acts sponsored by Italian liberals and nationalists, which included the assassination of his Minister of the Interior, Pellegrino Rossi, which forced Pius himself to flee Rome in 1848, along with widespread revolutions in Europe, led to his growing skepticism towards the liberal, nationalist agenda.
Through the 1850s and 1860s, Italian nationalists made military gains against the Papal States, which culminated in the seizure of the city of Rome in 1870 and the dissolution of the Papal States. Thereafter, Pius IX refused to accept the Law of Guarantees from the Italian government, which would have made the Holy See dependent on legislation that the Italian parliament could modify at any time. Pius refused to leave Vatican City, declaring himself a "prisoner of the Vatican", his ecclesiastical policies towards other countries, such as Russia, Germany or France, were not always successful, owing in part to changing secular institutions and internal developments within these countries. However, concordats were concluded with numerous states such as Austria-Hungary, Spain, Tuscany, Venezuela, Honduras, El Salvador, Haiti. Pius was a Marian pope. In 1854, he promulgated the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, articulating a long-held Catholic belief that Mary, the Mother of God, was conceived without original sin.
He conferred the title Our Mother of Perpetual Help on a famous Byzantine icon from Crete entrusted to the Redemptorists. In 1862, he convened 300 bishops to the Vatican for the canonization of Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan, his 1864 Syllabus of Errors stands as a strong condemnation against liberalism, moral relativism and separation of church and state. Pius definitively reaffirmed Catholic teaching in favor of the establishment of the Catholic faith as the state religion in nations where the majority of the population is Catholic. However, his most important legacy is the First Vatican Council, convened in 1869, which defined the dogma of papal infallibility, but was interrupted as Italian nationalist troops threatened Rome; the council is considered to have contributed to a centralization of the church in the Vatican, while clearly defining the Pope's doctrinal authority. Many recent ecclesiastical historians and journalists question his approaches, his appeal for public worldwide support of the Holy See after he became "the prisoner of the Vatican" resulted in the revival and spread to the whole Catholic Church of Peter's Pence, used today to enable the Pope "to respond to those who are suffering as a result of war, natural disaster, disease".
After his death in 1878, his canonization process was opened on 11 February 1907 by Pope Pius X, it drew considerable controversy over the years. It was closed on several occasions during the pontificates of Pope Benedict XV and Pope Pius XI. Pope Pius XII re-opened the cause on 7 December 1954, Pope John Paul II proclaimed him Venerable on 6 July 1985, he was beatified on 3 September 2000 after the recognition of a miracle. Pius IX was assigned the liturgical feast day of the date of his death. Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti was born on 13 May 1792 in Senigallia, he was the ninth child born into the noble family of Girolamo dei conti Ferretti, was baptized on the same day of his birth with the name of Giovanni Maria Giambattista Pietro Pellegrino Isidoro. He was educated in Rome; as a young man in the Guardia Nobile the young Count Mastai was engaged to be married to an Irishwoman, Miss Foster, arrangements were made for the wedding to take place in the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi. Mastai's parents opposed the marriage and, in the event, he did not appear at the church on the appointed day.
As a theology student in his hometown Sinigaglia, in 1814 he met Pope Pius VII, who had returned from French captivity. In 1815, he was soon dismissed after an epileptic seizure, he threw himself at the feet of Pius VII, who elevated him and supported his continued theological studies. The pope insisted that another priest should assist Mastai during Holy Mass, a stipulation, rescinded, after the seizure attacks became less frequent. Mastai was ordained a priest on 10 April 1819, he worked as the rector of the Tata Giovanni Institute in Rome. Shortly before his death, Pius VII sent him as Auditor to Chile and Peru in 1823 and 1825 to assist the Apostolic Nuncio, Monsignore Giovanni Muzi and Monsignore Bradley Kane, in the first mission to post-revolutionary South America; the mission had the o
Italian irredentism was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population. The movement promoted the annexation to Italy of territories inhabited by an Italian indigenous population, but retained by the Austrian Empire after Third Italian War of Independence in 1866. During the period of Risorgimento in 1860 to 1861, Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, leading the Risorgimento effort, faced the view of French Emperor Napoleon III who indicated that France would support militarily the Italian unification provided that France was given Nice and Savoy that were held by Piedmont-Sardinia, as France did not want a powerful state having control of the passages of the Alps; as a result, Piedmont-Sardinia was pressured to cede Nice and Savoy to France in exchange for France accepting and sending troops to help the unification of Italy.
These included Trentino and Trieste, but multilingual and multiethnic areas within the northern Italian region encompassed by the Alps, with German, Slovene, Croatian and Istro-Romanian population such as South Tyrol, a part of Istria and Gradisca and part of Dalmatia. The claims were extended to the city of Fiume, the island of Malta, the County of Nice and Italian Switzerland. To avoid confusion and in line with convention, this article uses modern English place names throughout. However, most places have alternative names in Italian. See List of Italian place names in Dalmatia. Italian irredentism was not a formal organization as it was an opinion movement, advocated by several different groups, claiming that Italy had to reach its "natural borders" or unify territories inhabited by Italians. Similar nationalistic ideas were common in Europe in the late 19th century; the term "irredentism" was coined from the Italian word in many countries in the world. This idea of Italia irredenta is not to be confused with the Risorgimento, the historical events that led to irredentism, nor with nationalism or Imperial Italy, the political philosophy that took the idea further under fascism.
The beginning of irredentism in Italy was originated as a consequence of the French expansion in Italy that started with the annexation of Corsica in 1768 and was followed by Napoleon's inclusion – inside the territories of France's First French Empire – of the regions of Piedmont and Tuscany. Indeed, the Corsican revolutionary Pasquale Paoli was called "the precursor of Italian irredentism" by Niccolò Tommaseo because he was the first to promote the Italian language and socio-culture in his island, his Corsican Constitution of 1755 was written in Italian and the short-lived university he founded in the city of Corte in 1765 used Italian as the official language. During the 19th century, the Italian irredentism developed the characteristic of defending the Italian language from other people's languages like, for example, German in Switzerland and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire or French in Nice; the liberation of Italia irredenta was the strongest motive for Italy's entry into World War I and the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 satisfied many irredentist claims.
Indeed, Italian irredentism has the characteristic of being moderate, requesting only the return to Italy of the areas with Italian majority of population, but after World War I it became aggressive – under fascist influence – and claimed to the Kingdom of Italy areas where Italians were minority or had been present only in the past. In the first case there were the Risorgimento claims on Trento, while in the second there were the fascist claims on the Ionian Islands and Malta. After the Italian unification and Third Italian War of Independence in 1866, there were areas with Italian-speaking communities within the borders of several countries around the newly created Kingdom of Italy; the irredentists sought to annex all those areas to the newly unified Italy. The areas targeted were Corsica, Gorizia, the Ionian islands, Malta, County of Nice, small parts of Grisons and of Valais, Trentino and Fiume. Different movements or groups born in this period: in 1877 the Italian politician Matteo Renato Imbriani invented the new term terre irredente.
The movement can be described as part of the more general nation-building process in Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries when the multi-national Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires were being replaced by nation-states. The Italian nation-building process can be compared to similar movements in Germany, Serbia and in pre-1914 Poland. In many parts of 19th century Europe liberalism and nationalism were ideologies which were coming to the forefront of political culture. In Eastern Europe, where the Habsburg Empire had long asserted control over a variety of ethnic and cultural groups, nationalism appeared in a standard format; the beginning of the 19th century "was the period when the smaller indigenous nationalities of the empire – Czechs, S