Mamelukes of the Imperial Guard
The Mamelukes of the Imperial Guard was a cavalry squadron of Napoleon Is Imperial Guard. Napoleon formed his own Mamluk corps, the last known Mamluk force, in the years of the 19th century. Napoleons famous bodyguard Roustam Raza was a Mamluk who had sold in Egypt. Throughout the Napoleonic era there was a special Mamluk corps in the French army, in his history of the 13th Chasseurs, Colonel Descaves recounts how Napoleon used the Mamluks during the French campaign in Egypt and Syria. On 14 September 1799 Kléber established a company of Mamluk auxiliaries. Menou reorganized the company on 7 July 1800, forming 3 companies of 100 men each, in 1801 General Jean Rapp was sent to Marseille to organize a squadron of 250 Mamluks. On 7 January 1802 the previous order was canceled and the reduced to 150 men. The list of effectives on 21 April 1802 reveals 3 officers and 155 other ranks, by decree of 25 December 1803 the Mamluks were organized into a company attached to the Chasseurs-à-Cheval of the Imperial Guard.
The officers were Frenchmen, the privates were Greeks, Georgians, every Mameluk was armed with two brace of pistols, a very curved saber, dagger and eventually a battle-ax. In 1804 the company of Mamelukes had,9 officers,10 NCO,10 brigadiers,2 trumpeters and 92 privates. Mamluks fought well at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805, and the regiment was granted a standard and its roster increased to accommodate a standard-bearer, a decree of 15 April 1806 defined the strength of the squadron as 13 officers and 147 privates. A famous painting by Francisco Goya shows a charge of Mamluks against the Madrilene on 2 May 1808, in 1813 the Mameluks were reinforced with Frenchmen who were designated as 2nd Mameluks. There were 2 companies of Mameluks, the 1st was ranked as Old Guard, the Squadron of Mameluks was attached to the Regiment of Guard Chasseurs. With the First Restoration, the company of the Mamluks of the Old Guard was incorporated in the Corps Royal des Chasseurs de France, the Mamluks of the Young Guard were incorporated into the 7th Chasseurs-à-Cheval.
Following the Second Bourbon Restoration of 1815 there were reprisals against individuals or groups identified with the defeated Napoleonic regime. These included the number of Mamluks still in service, eighteen of whom were massacred in Marseilles while awaiting transportation back to Egypt. Boots were of yellow, red, or tan soft leather, weapons consisted of an Oriental scimitar, a brace of pistols in a holder decorated with a brass crescent and star, and a dagger. After 1804, The cahouk became red with a crescent and star
Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey
He commanded the cavalry at the Battle of Benavente, where he defeated the elite chasseurs of the French Imperial Guard. During the Hundred Days he led the charge of the cavalry against Comte dErlons column at the Battle of Waterloo. At the end of the battle he lost part of one of his legs to a cannonball, in life he served twice as Master-General of the Ordnance and twice as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was born Henry Bayley, the eldest son of Henry Bayley-Paget, 1st Earl of Uxbridge and his wife Jane, daughter of the Very Reverend Arthur Champagné, Dean of Clonmacnoise and his father assumed the surname Paget in 1770. He was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Paget entered parliament at the 1790 general election as member for Carnarvon, a seat he held until the 1796 general election when his brother Edward was elected unopposed in his place. At the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars, Paget raised a regiment of Staffordshire volunteers and was given the rank of lieutenant-colonel-commandant in December 1793.
As the 80th Regiment of Foot, the took part in the Flanders Campaign of 1794 under Pagets command. He transferred to the command of the 16th Light Dragoons on 15 June 1795, in July 1795 he married Lady Caroline Elizabeth Villiers. Promoted to colonel on 3 May 1796, he was given command of the 7th Light Dragoons on 6 April 1797 and he commanded a cavalry brigade at the Battle of Castricum in October 1799 during the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. Paget was promoted to major-general on 29 April 1802 and lieutenant-general on 25 April 1808 and his only war service from 1809 to 1815 was in the disastrous Walcheren expedition in 1809, during which he commanded an infantry division. In 1810 he was divorced and married Lady Charlotte, who had divorced from her husband around the same time. He inherited the title of Earl of Uxbridge on his fathers death in March 1812 and was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 4 January 1815. During the Hundred Days he was appointed commander in Belgium.
One of the last cannon shots fired that day hit Paget in the right leg, necessitating its amputation. According to anecdote, he was close to Wellington when his leg was hit, according to his aide-de-camp, Thomas Wildman, during the amputation Paget smiled and said, I have had a pretty long run. I have been a beau these 47 years and it would not be fair to cut the young men out any longer, Paget was created Marquess of Anglesey on 4 July 1815. A 27-metre high monument to his heroism was erected at Llanfairpwllgwyngyll on Anglesey, close to Pagets country retreat at Plas Newydd and he was appointed a Knight of the Garter on 13 March 1818 and promoted to full general on 12 August 1819. He added the wish, May all your wives be like her, at the coronation of George IV in July 1821, Paget acted as Lord High Steward of England
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the prisoner of war dates to 1660. The first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite, typically, little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more likely to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture women, a known as raptio. Typically women had no rights, and were legally as chattel. For this he was eventually canonized, during Childerics siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response. Later, Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so, many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat, in Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable.
Examples include the 13th century Albigensian Crusade and the Northern Crusades, the inhabitants of conquered cities were frequently massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed, their families would have to send to their captors large sums of wealth commensurate with the status of the captive. In feudal Japan there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, in Termez, on the Oxus, all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, and divided in accordance with their usual custom, they were all slain. The Aztecs were constantly at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, for the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, between 10,000 and 80,400 persons were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims routinely captured large number of prisoners, aside from those who converted, most were ransomed or enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom.
The freeing of prisoners was highly recommended as a charitable act, there evolved the right of parole, French for discourse, in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain better accommodations, if he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Early historical narratives of captured colonial Europeans, including perspectives of literate women captured by the peoples of North America. The writings of Mary Rowlandson, captured in the fighting of King Philips War, are an example
Second Siege of Zaragoza
The Second Siege of Zaragoza was the French capture of the Spanish city of Zaragoza during the Peninsular War. It was particularly noted for its brutality, as a part of the Dos de Mayo uprising the city had already successfully resisted a first siege from 15 June 1808 to 14 August 1808. This was one of the first times in history that an army was defeated by irregulars in street fighting. The Spanish at this point missed their best chance to defeat the French and they did not appoint a Supreme Commander, so all the armies continued to operate independently. The main armies consisted of those of General Blake on the north coast, General Castaños around Tudela, Blake was the most active, but he was defeated at Zornoza on 31 October 1808. Napoleons plan was to attack in strength towards Burgos in between the armies of Blake and Castaños, once they broke through they were to swing both north and south to envelope the remaining armies. In order to achieve this, Napoleon wanted the exposed Spanish armies to remain in their current advanced positions, to achieve this Marshal Monceys 3rd Corps opposite General Castaños remained inactive from late October to 21 November.
The Spanish armies, moved constantly to no discernible effect, castanos was ill much of the time, leaving Palafox in command. He seemed reluctant to adopt a course of action. On 21 November 1808 the French 3rd Corps crossed the Ebro River at Logrono, Marshal Neys column reached the Upper Douro valley and headed for Tudela. These movements developed into the Battle of Tudela and this battle was a major victory for the French, but the armies of the Spanish generals were able to flee to Saragossa, escaping with the large majority of their war chests and cannons. The stage was now set for a second siege, considerable changes occurred in the defences of Saragossa after the first siege in June–August. In that siege, the city had few fortifications, except for the walls that could not withstand the French artillery bombardment. The defenders consisted of only a handful of troops and gunners. They had, been able to inflict casualties on the French at the barricades in the narrow winding streets. Since September 1808, Colonel San Genis had been working on a number of modern fortifications and these were overlooked by the city walls.
To the west, a solid rampart had been built outside the city walls and this provided a central gun battery, as well as a ditch that was 14-metres deep. San Lazaro was fortified with a protected by waterways and the two convents on the north side of the Ebro River had been made into fortresses
Siege of Roses (1808)
The Siege of Roses or Siege of Rosas from 7 November to 5 December 1808 saw an Imperial French corps led by Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr invest a Catalan and Spanish garrison commanded by Peter ODaly. Roses is located 43 kilometres northeast of Girona, the action occurred during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars. In the summer and fall of 1808, an Imperial French corps under Guillaume Philibert Duhesme was isolated in Barcelona by a 24, with 23,000 men, Gouvion Saint-Cyr moved from the French border to relieve Duhesmes troops. The first obstacle to Gouvion Saint-Cyrs mission was the haven of Rosas defended by a citadel with sea approaches defended by a headland castle. The 3,500 Catalan and Spanish defenders of Roses were mostly local miquelets stiffened by a unit of regulars from the Fija de Roses garrison. Gouvion Saint-Cyr still faced the problem of getting past Girona in order to succor Duhesmes soldiers, the French general made a bold but risky maneuver and the result was the Battle of Cardadeu on 16 December.
Emperor Napoleon I plotted to replace the family of the Kingdom of Spain. Pursuant to his design, he ordered several key points, including Barcelona, on 29 February, General of Division Giuseppe Lechis Imperial French troops were marching through Barcelona, ostensibly to help fight Portugal. Lechi staged a review, but it was a cover for gaining control of the citadel. As the soldiers marched past the gate of the fortress, they suddenly turned left. Without spilling a drop of blood, the Imperial troops herded the baffled Spanish garrison out of the fortifications, among other key points, the French grabbed San Sebastian and Figueras. On 2 May 1808, the infuriated Spanish people rose in rebellion against their French occupiers, a 12, 710-man Franco-Italian corps commanded by General of Division Guillaume Philibert Duhesme guarded Barcelona in June 1808. General of Division Joseph Chabrans 1st Division consisted of 6,050 soldiers in eight battalions, generals of Brigade Bertrand Bessières and François Xavier de Schwarz led 1,700 cavalrymen in nine squadrons, and there were 360 artillerists.
The French authorities in Madrid confidently expected that Duhesmes corps would quickly stamp out the rebellion in Catalonia, the miquelets, the Catalan militia, turned out in large numbers to harass their enemies. In June and Chabran were beaten at the Battles of the Bruch, finally awakening to reality, Napoleon ordered General of Division Honoré Charles Reille and a division of reinforcements to Duhesmes assistance. The troops were of low quality and scattered throughout southern France, joined by more of his division, he next marched on the port of Roses. Reille commanded 4,000 men and two cannons, Roses was held by about 800 men of the Fija de Roses regiment and 400 miquelets, the Catalan militia, with 5,000 more miquelets under Colonel Juan Clarós in the nearby hills. The defenders were given a boost when the British warship HMS Montagu, under Captain Robert Otway, appeared off the port, Reille launched an attack on 11 July 1808, but his troops were driven off with 200 casualties
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51
Battle of Corunna
The Battle of Corunna took place on 16 January 1809, when a French corps under Marshal of the Empire Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult attacked a British army under Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore. The battle took place amidst the Peninsular War, which was a part of the wider Napoleonic Wars, doggedly pursued by the French under Soult, the British made a retreat across northern Spain while their rearguard fought off repeated French attacks. Both armies suffered extremely from the winter conditions. Much of the British army, excluding the elite Light Brigade under Robert Craufurd, suffered from a loss of order and discipline during the retreat. When the British eventually reached the port of Corunna on the northern coast of Galicia in Spain a few days ahead of the French they found their transport ships had not arrived. During the battle, Sir John Moore, the British commander, was mortally wounded, dying after hearing all the French attacks had been repulsed. In addition, Sir David Baird in command of an expedition of reinforcements out of Falmouth consisting of 150 transports carrying between 12,000 and 13,000 men, convoyed by H. M. S.
Louie and Champion, entered Corunna Harbour on the 13 October, by November 1808 the British army, led by Moore, advanced into Spain with orders to assist the Spanish armies in their struggle against the invading forces of Napoleon. After the surrender of a French army corps at Bailén and the loss of Portugal Napoleon was convinced of the peril he faced in Spain, deeply disturbed by news of Sintra, the Emperor remarked, I see that everybody has lost their head since the infamous capitulation of Bailén. I realise that I must go there myself to get the machine working again, the French, all but masters of Spain in June, stood with their backs to the Pyrenees, clutching at Navarre and Catalonia. It was not known if even these two footholds could be maintained in the face of a Spanish attack, by October French strength in Spain, including garrisons, was about 75,000 soldiers. They were facing 86,000 Spanish troops with Spains 35,000 British allies en route, with the fall of the monarchy, constitutional power devolved to local juntas.
The British army in Portugal, was immobilized by logistical problems and bogged down in administrative disputes. Months of inaction had passed at the front, the revolution having temporarily crippled Patriot Spain at the moment when decisive action could have changed the whole course of the war. Certainly not your wretched Spanish troops who do not know how to fight, I shall conquer Spain in two months and acquire the rights of a conqueror. Starting in October 1808 Napoleon led the French on a brilliant offensive involving a double envelopment of the Spanish lines. The attack began in November and has described as an avalanche of fire. The main army, under Moore, had advanced to Salamanca and were joined by Hopes detachment on 3 December when Moore received news that the Spanish forces had suffered several defeats and he considered that to avoid disaster he must give up and retreat back to Portugal
Loftus William Otway
He worked training Portuguese troops and spent time serving in Ireland during the 1798 rebellion and Canada. Otway retired after the Peninsula War and was honoured several times for his war service by both the British and Spanish royal families, Otway was born the fourth of five sons to Cooke and Elizabeth Otway of Castle Otway, Tipperary. The family had a military tradition, Cooke Otway was an officer in the local militia and Loftuss elder brother Robert Waller Otway became an admiral. Otway joined the army aged 21 in 1796 during the French Revolutionary Wars, within months he had purchased advancement to lieutenant and was with the regiment when they were posted to Ireland in October 1796, prior to the outbreak of the 1798 Rebellion. Otway continued to use family and financial influence to climb the ranks, becoming a captain in October 1798, in 1804, Otway transferred to the 8th Dragoons and spent time in Canada in the adjutant-generals office. In the course of operations, Otway distinguished himself and captured a large quantity of enemy troops.
At the Battle of Albuera which followed the Campo Mayor action, the same day, Otway was placed on half-pay in reserve by Horse Guards as he was officially detached from his regiment. In 1812, Otway had returned to England but continued service, Otway returned to Portugal and was employed for the remainder of the Peninsula War training Portuguese and Spanish cavalry regiments. In 1813 he was promoted to full colonel, following the conclusion of the war, Otway retired from active military service although he remained a figure in military planning for the remainder of his life. In 1815 he was knighted by the Prince Regent in London, at the reformation of the Order of the Bath in June of the same year, Otway was made a companion. In 1819 he was promoted to major-general and in 1822 was made a Spanish Knight of the Order of Charles III, during this period he married Frances Blicke and had two children. In 1837 Otway was again promoted, to lieutenant general, in 1851 he was given a final promotion, to the rank of full general.
He died in his home at 17 Grosvenor Square in London in 1854 and was interred at Highgate Cemetery in North London, oxford Dictionary of National Biography, John Sweetman
10th Royal Hussars
The 10th Royal Hussars was a cavalry regiment of the British Army raised in 1715. It saw service for three including the First World War and Second World War but amalgamated with the 11th Hussars to form the Royal Hussars in October 1969. The regiment was raised at Hertford by Brigadier-General Humphrey Gore as Humphrey Gores Regiment of Dragoons in 1715 as part of the response to the Jacobite rising. The regiment was involved in cavalry charges at both the Battle of Falkirk Muir in January 1746 and the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 during the next Jacobite rising and it was retitled as the 10th Regiment of Dragoons in 1751. The regiment took part in the Raid on St Malo in June 1758 during the Seven Years War and it saw action at the Battle of Minden in August 1759, the Battle of Warburg in July 1760 and the Battle of Kloster Kampen in October 1760. At Kloster Kampen the regiments commanding officer, Colonel William Pitt, was badly wounded, the regiment went on to take part in the Battle of Villinghausen in July 1761.
In 1779, the troop was detached to form the 19th Regiment of Dragoons. In June 1794 Beau Brummell, who became an arbiter of fashion in regency London. In 1806, the regiment was again re-designated, this becoming a hussar regiment as the 10th Regiment of Dragoons. The regiment saw action at the Battle of Sahagún in December 1808, at Benavente the regiment captured General Charles Lefebvre-Desnouettes, the French cavalry commander. The regiment took part in the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 before returning to England. In 1813, having landed once more in Spain, the regiment fought at the Battle of Morales in June 1813, during the battle the regiment destroyed the 16th French Dragoons between Toro and Zamora, taking around 260 prisoners. As part of the 6th Cavalry Brigade, the regiment charged the French cavalry and infantry at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. The regiment was sent to India in 1846 and saw action at the Siege of Sevastopol in winter 1854, in 1861, it was renamed the 10th Royal Hussars.
The regiment saw action at the Battle of Ali Masjid in November 1878 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War and at the First, with the outbreak of the Second Boer War, the regiment sailed for South Africa in 1899. After fighting at Colesberg, the regiment participated in the relief of Kimberley in February 1900 and it was involved at the Battle of Diamond Hill in June 1900. The regiment was deployed in action on the North-West Frontier in 1909. After brief service in Ireland after the war, the regiment returned to the UK in 1921 and was retitled the 10th Royal Hussars, deploying to Egypt in 1929 and India in 1930, the regiment returned to the UK in 1936 and began the process of mechanisation. It was assigned to the 2nd Armoured Brigade of the 1st Armoured Division in 1939, at the same time, it became part of the Royal Armoured Corps
Battle of Cardedeu
The Battle of Cardadeu on 16 December 1808 saw an Imperial French corps led by Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr assault a Spanish force commanded by Juan Miguel de Vives y Feliu and Theodor von Reding. Saint-Cyr won the engagement by forming most of his troops into gigantic attack columns, Cardedeu is located 17 kilometres northeast of Barcelona, Spain. The action occurred during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars, by the fall of 1808, a French corps under Guillaume Philibert Duhesme was besieged in Barcelona by a 24, 000-man Spanish army led by Vives. With 23,000 Franco-Italian soldiers, Gouvion Saint-Cyr marched from France to relieve Duhesmes troops, first Saint-Cyr undertook the successful Siege of Roses. Confronted by the fortress of Girona, which had resisted two earlier attacks, the French general resorted to a risky strategy, leaving his artillery and most of his supplies behind, he avoided Girona by marching 16,500 men though the mountains and headed for Barcelona. Saint-Cyr completely outgeneraled Vives, who was able to marshal 9,000 troops to block his opponent.
Vives drew up his troops on high ground, but Saint-Cyrs huge columns proved unstoppable. The Spanish withdrew after suffering losses and Barcelona was soon relieved. As part of Emperor Napoleons plan to seize the Kingdom of Spain in a coup, several key points. Among other strong places, the French seized San Sebastián, Pamplona, on 2 May 1808, the Spanish people revolted against the Imperial French occupation in the Dos de Mayo Uprising. In the early summer of 1808, a 12, 710-man French corps commanded by General of Division Guillaume Philibert Duhesme was stationed at Barcelona. General of Division Joseph Chabrans 1st Division had 6,050 soldiers in eight battalions, the 1,700 cavalry were organized in nine squadrons under Generals of Brigade Bertrand Bessières and François Xavier de Schwarz. This modest-sized corps was instructed to put down the insurrection in Catalonia, to send assistance to Marshal Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey in his attempt to capture Valencia, considering the intensity of the rebellion, these orders were unrealistic.
Chabran and Schwarz were defeated at the Battles of the Bruch in mid-June, after securing the assistance of an improvised division commanded by General of Division Honoré Charles Reille, Duhesme initiated the Siege of Gerona. This unsuccessful operation lasted from 24 July to 16 August before Duhesme retreated to Barcelona, news of the French disaster at the Battle of Bailen on 22 July 1808 buoyed Spanish morale and depressed the Imperial troops. Duhesmes troops had to fight their way back through the hills and abandon their artillery in order to make it back to Barcelona. Meanwhile, Marquis Del Palacios division of regular Spanish troops arrived from the Balearic Islands, supported by thousands of miquelets the Spaniards blockaded Barcelona at the beginning of August. On 31 July, they captured the castle of Mougat and its garrison of 150 Neapolitans with the help of Captain Thomas Cochrane, though Duhesmes 10,000 surviving troops were in a tight spot, Del Palacio did not press them very hard
18th Royal Hussars
The 18th Royal Hussars was a cavalry regiment of the British Army, first formed in 1759. It saw service for two centuries, including the First World War before being amalgamated with the 13th Hussars to form the 13th/18th Royal Hussars in 1922. The regiment was first raised by Charles, Marquess of Drogheda as the 19th Regiment of Dragoons in 1759 and it was renumbered the 18th Regiment of Dragoons in 1763, and briefly the 4th Regiment of Light Dragoons in 1766 before reverting to the 18th in 1769. Arthur Wesley was briefly an officer in the regiment between October 1792 and April 1793. The regiment undertook a tour in Saint-Domingue between February 1796 and February 1797. It was in action at the Battle of Bergen in September 1799 during the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, in 1805 it took the title of the 18th Regiment of Dragoons, named for George III, and redesignated as hussars in 1807, becoming the 18th Regiment of Dragoons. The regiment landed at Lisbon in July 1808 for service in the Peninsular War, the regiment was ordered to support Sir Arthur Wellesleys Army on the Iberian Peninsula and landed at Lisbon in February 1813.
It saw action at the Battle of Morales in June 1813, the Siege of Burgos in September 1812 and it returned home in July 1814. The regiment took part in the Hundred Days landing at Ostend in April 1815 and it charged the centre of the French position at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815. It remained in France as part of the Army of Occupation brigaded with the 12th Royal Lancers under the command of Major-General Sir Hussey Vivian. It was disbanded in Ireland in 1821, the regiment was reformed in Leeds in 1858, as the 18th Regiment of Dragoons from a nucleus taken from the 15th Hussars, and was renamed the 18th Hussars in 1861. The regiment was to deployed to South Africa in 1899 for service in the Second Boer War, in 1903 it was named the 18th Hussars, for Princess Mary, being retitled the 18th Hussars in 1905 and the 18th Hussars in 1910 to mark her coronation as Queen Consort. The regiment was retitled as the 18th Royal Hussars in 1919 and it amalgamated with the 13th Hussars to form the 13th/18th Royal Hussars in 1922.
Julien, Bellewaarde, Somme 191618, Flers-Courcelette, Arras 1917, Scarpe 1917, Cambrai 191718, St. Historical records of the Eighteenth Hussars