Simon Thassi was the second son of Mattathias and thus a member of the Hasmonean family. The name "Thassi" has a connotation of "the Wise", a title that can mean "the Director", "the Guide", "the Man of Counsel", "the Zealous", he took a prominent part in the Jewish revolt against the Seleucid Empire led by his brothers, Judas Maccabaeus and Jonathan Apphus. The successes of the Jews rendered it expedient for the pretenders to the throne of Syria to show them special favor, therefore Antiochus VI. appointed Simon strategus, or military commander, of the coastal region stretching from the Ladder of Tyre to Egypt. As strategus Simon conquered the cities of Beth-zur and Joppa, garrisoning them with Jewish troops, built the fortress of Adida in the plainAfter the capture of Jonathan, Simon was elected leader by the people, assembled at Jerusalem. Since Trypho could gain nothing by force, he demanded a ransom for Jonathan and the surrender of Jonathan's sons as hostages. Although Simon was aware that Trypho would deceive him, he acceded to both demands, so that the people might see that he had done everything possible for his brother.
Jonathan was treacherously assassinated, the hostages were not returned. Simon thus became the sole leader of the people; as the opponent of Trypho, Simon had every reason to side with Demetrius II. to whom he sent a deputation requesting freedom from taxation for the country. The fact that his request was granted implied the recognition of the political independence of Judea, he became the first prince of the Hebrew Hasmonean Dynasty. He reigned from 142 to 135 BCE; the Hasmonean Dynasty was founded by a resolution, adopted in 141 BCE, at a large assembly "of the priests and the people and of the elders of the land, to the effect that Simon should be their leader and high priest forever, until there should arise a faithful prophet". Recognition of the new dynasty by the Roman Republic was accorded by the Senate about 139 BCE, when the delegation of Simon was in Rome. Simon made the Jewish people semi-independent of the Seleucid Empire. In February 135 BCE, he was assassinated at the instigation of his son-in-law and rival Ptolemy, son of Abubus.
Simon was followed by his third son, John Hyrcanus, whose two brothers and Judah, had been murdered, together with their father. List of Hasmonean and Herodian rulers
The Maccabees spelled Machabees, were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire. They founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled from 167 BCE to 37 BCE, being a independent kingdom from about 110 to 63 BCE, they reasserted the Jewish religion by forced conversion, expanded the boundaries of Judea by conquest and reduced the influence of Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism. The name Maccabee is used as a synonym for the entire Hasmonean dynasty, but the Maccabees proper were Judah Maccabee and his four brothers; the name Maccabee was a personal epithet of Judah, the generations were not his direct descendants. One explanation of the name's origins is that it derives from the Aramaic maqqəḇa, "the hammer", in recognition of Judah's ferocity in battle; the traditional Jewish explanation is that Maccabee is an acronym for the Torah verse, the battle-cry of the Maccabees, "Mi chamocha ba'elim YHWH", "Who is like You among the heavenly powers, Lord!", as well as an acronym for "Matityahu haKohen ben Yochanan.
The correlating Torah verse Exodus 15:11, The song of Moses and the Children of Israel by the Sea, makes a reference to elim, with a mundane notion of natural forces, heavenly might and governmental powers. The scholar and poet Aaron Kaminka argues that the name is a corruption of Machbanai, a leading commando in the army of King David. In the 2nd century BCE, Judea lay between the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Seleucid empire, monarchies which had formed following the death of Alexander the Great. Judea had come under Ptolemaic rule, but fell to the Seleucids around 200 BCE. Judea at that time had been affected by the Hellenization initiated by Alexander the Great; some Jews those of the urban upper class, notably the Tobiad family, wished to dispense with Jewish law and to adopt a Greek lifestyle. According to the historian Victor Tcherikover, the main motive for the Tobiads' Hellenism was economic and political; the Hellenizing Jews built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, competed in international Greek games, "removed their marks of circumcision and repudiated the holy covenant".
When Antiochus IV Epiphanes became ruler of the Seleucid Empire in 175 BCE, Onias III held the office of High Priest in Jerusalem. To Antiochus, the High Priest was a local governor within his realm, a man whom he could appoint or dismiss at will, while orthodox Jews saw the holder of the High Priesthood as divinely appointed. Jason, the brother of Onias, bribed Antiochus to make him High Priest instead of Onias. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and "received from Antiochus permission to convert Jerusalem into a Greek polis called Antioch". In turn, Menelaus bribed Antiochus and was appointed High Priest in place of Jason. Menelaus had Onias assassinated. Menelaus' brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from the Temple. Menelaus was arrested for Onias' murder, was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed his way out of trouble. Jason subsequently became High Priest again. Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and "led captive the women and children". From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy in the Seleucid satrapies of Coele Syria and Phoenicia.
The author of the First Book of Maccabees regarded the Maccabean revolt as a rising of pious Jews against the Seleucid king and against the Jews who supported him. The author of the Second Book of Maccabees presented the conflict as a struggle between "Judaism" and "Hellenism", concepts which he coined. Most modern scholars argue that King Antiochus reacted to a civil war between traditionalist Jews in the Judean countryside and Hellenized Jews in Jerusalem, though the king's response of persecuting the religious traditionalists was unusual in antiquity, was the immediate provocation for the revolt. According to Joseph P. Schultz, modern scholarship "considers the Maccabean revolt less as an uprising against foreign oppression than as a civil war between the orthodox and reformist parties in the Jewish camp", but John J. Collins writes that while the civil war between Jewish leaders led to the king's new policies, it is wrong to see the revolt as a conflict between Hellenism and Judaism, since "he revolt was not provoked by the introduction of Greek customs but by the persecution of people who observed the Torah by having their children circumcised and refusing to eat pork."
In the conflict over the office of High Priest, traditionalists with Hebrew/Aramaic names like Onias contested with Hellenizers with Greek names like Jason and Menelaus. Some scholars point to economic factors in the conflict. What began as a civil war took on the character of an invasion when the Hellenistic kingdom of Syria sided with the Hellenizing Jews against the traditionalists; as the conflict escalated, Antiochus prohibited the practices of the traditionalists, thereby, in a departure from usual Seleucid practice, banning the religion of an entire people. The motives of Antiochus remain unclear: he may have been incensed at the overthrow of his appointee, Menelaus, or - encouraged by a group of radical Hellenizers among the Jews, he may have been responding to an orthodox Jewish revolt that drew on the Temple and the Torah for its strength. Other scholars argue that, while the rising began as a religious rebellion, it was transformed into a war of national liberation. According to 1 Maccabees, Antiochus bann
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars. Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor; the Spanish word "guerrilla" is the diminutive form of "guerra". The term became popular during the early-19th century Peninsular War, when the Spanish and Portuguese people rose against the Napoleonic troops and fought against a superior army using the guerrilla strategy. In correct Spanish usage, a person, a member of a "guerrilla" unit is a "guerrillero" if male, or a "guerrillera" if female; the term "guerrilla" was used in English as early as 1809 to refer to the fighters, to denote a group or band of such fighters. However, in most languages guerrilla still denotes the specific style of warfare; the use of the diminutive evokes the differences in number and scope between the guerrilla army and the formal, professional army of the state. Guerrilla warfare is a type of asymmetric warfare: competition between opponents of unequal strength.
It is a type of irregular warfare: that is, it aims not to defeat an enemy, but to win popular support and political influence, to the enemy's cost. Accordingly, guerrilla strategy aims to magnify the impact of a small, mobile force on a larger, more-cumbersome one. If successful, guerrillas weaken their enemy by attrition forcing them to withdraw. Tactically, guerrillas avoid confrontation with large units and formations of enemy troops, but seek and attack small groups of enemy personnel and resources to deplete the opposing force while minimizing their own losses; the guerrilla prizes mobility and surprise, organizing in small units and taking advantage of terrain, difficult for larger units to use. For example, Mao Zedong summarized basic guerrilla tactics at the beginning of the Chinese "Second Revolutionary Civil War" as:"The enemy advances, we retreat. At least one author credits the ancient Chinese work The Art of War with inspiring Mao's tactics. In the 20th century, other communist leaders, including North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh used and developed guerrilla warfare tactics, which provided a model for their use elsewhere, leading to the Cuban "foco" theory and the anti-Soviet Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.
In addition to traditional military methods, guerrilla groups may rely on destroying infrastructure, using improvised explosive devices, for example. They also rely on logistical and political support from the local population and foreign backers, are embedded within it, many guerrilla groups are adept at public persuasion through propaganda. Many guerrilla movements today rely on children as combatants, porters, informants, in other roles, which has drawn international condemnation. There is no accepted definition of "terrorism", the term is used as a political tactic by belligerents to denounce opponents whose status as terrorists is disputed. Contrary to some terrorist groups, guerrillas work in open positions as armed units, try to hold and seize land, do not refrain from fighting enemy military force in battle and apply pressure to control or dominate territory and population. While the primary concern of guerrillas is the enemy's active military units, terrorists are concerned with non-military agents and target civilians.
Guerrilla forces principally fight in accordance with the law of war. In this sense, they respect the rights of innocent civilians by refraining from targeting them. According to the Ankara Center for Crisis and Policy Studies, terrorists do not limit their actions and terrorise civilians by putting fear in people's hearts and kill innocent foreigners in the country. Irregular warfare, based on elements characteristic of modern guerrilla warfare, has existed throughout the battles of many ancient civilizations; the growth of guerrilla warfare in the 20th century was inspired in part by theoretical works on guerrilla warfare, starting with the Manual de Guerra de Guerrillas by Matías Ramón Mella written in the 19th century and, more Mao Zedong's On Guerrilla Warfare, Che Guevara's Guerrilla Warfare, Lenin's text of the same name, all written after the successful revolutions carried by them in China and Russia, respectively. Those texts characterized the tactic of guerrilla warfare as, according to Che Guevara's text, being"used by the side, supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for use in defense against oppression".
The Chinese general and strategist Sun Tzu, in his The Art of War or 600 BC to 501 BC, was the earliest to propose the use of guerrilla warfare. This directly inspired the development of modern guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla tactics were employed by prehistoric tribal warriors against enemy tribes. Evidence of conventional warfare, on the other hand, did not emerge until 3100 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Since the Enlightenment, ideologies such as nationalism, liberalism and religious fundamentalism have played an important role in shaping insurgencies and guerrilla warfare; the Moroccan national hero Mohamed ben Abdelkrim el-Khattabi, along with his father, unified the Moroccan
Dathema or Diathema was the name of a fortress in Gilead to which the Jews fled when hard pressed by Timotheus of Ammon. There they shut themselves in, prepared for a siege, sent to Judah Maccabee for aid. Dathema was one of many places in a similar plight, seems, from the description of it, to have been enough fortified to necessitate "an innumerable people bearing ladders and other engines of war" to take it. Judah attacked in three divisions, drove off Timotheus, killed eight thousand of the enemy, saved the city; the Peshitta reads "Rametha," from which George Adam Smith infers that it was Ramath Gilead. Conder suggests the modern Dameh on the southern border of the Lejah district, it can not, however, be positively identified. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore. "Dathema". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls
Battle of Beth Horon (66)
The Battle of Beth Horon was a battle fought in 66 CE between the Roman army and Jewish rebels in the First Jewish–Roman War. Judea came under Roman influence in 63 BCE, when Roman general Pompey arrived in the Levant as part of the Roman campaign against Mithridates VI of Pontus. In 37 BC Rome installed Herod the Great as a client king of Judea, helping him oust the Parthian-backed leader Antigonus II Mattathias. Shortly after Herod's death, Judea was partitioned among his sons as tetrarchy, but due to disturbances by 6 CE it came under direct Roman control and, with the exception of a small autonomous region in the north, became a Roman province, ruled by prefects appointed by Rome. In 66 CE, long-standing Greek and Jewish religious tensions worsened after Jewish worshippers witnessed Greek civilians sacrificing birds in front of a local synagogue in Caesarea and complained to the authorities; the Roman garrison did not intervene, leading to the triggering of popular protests against Roman taxation.
The protests were ignored by the governor until public attacks in Jerusalem on Roman citizens and others accused of having Roman sympathies, led the army garrison to intervene. The soldiers were attacked as they moved through the city by an increasing proportion of the Jewish residents; as news of this action spread, many other towns and Jews joined the rebellion. Fearing the worst, the pro-Roman king Agrippa II and his sister Berenice fled Jerusalem to the Galilee. Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, marched on Jerusalem with Legio XII Fulminata and auxiliary troops, with an aim of crushing the rebels and restoring order; such had been the standard Roman reaction to uprisings at the time. All available troops were formed into a column and sent to confront its perceived centre. Ideally, such a show of force would have allowed the Romans to regain the initiative and prevent the rebellion from developing and growing stronger. Gallus conquered Bezetha, in the Jezreel Valley, soon to be the seat of the Great Sanhedrin, but was unable to take the Temple Mount.
Withdrawing towards the coast from Jerusalem, the Romans were pursued by rebel scouts. As they neared the pass of Beth Horon, they were ambushed and came under attack from massed missile fire and arrows, they were suddenly rushed by a large force of rebel Judean infantry. The Romans could not get into formation within the narrow confines of the pass and lost cohesion under the fierce assault; the equivalent of an entire legion was destroyed, with 6,000 troops killed, many wounded and the rest fleeing in disarray. Gallus succeeded in escaping with a fraction of his troops to Antioch by sacrificing the greater part of his army and a large amount of materiel. After the battle, the Jewish rebels went through the Roman dead stripping them of their armor, helmets and weapons. Soon after his return, Gallus died, was succeeded in the governorship by Mucianus; this major Roman defeat encouraged many more volunteers and towns in Judea to throw their lot in with the rebels. A full-scale war was inevitable.
The shock of the defeat convinced the Romans of the need to commit to crushing the rebellion regardless of the effort it would require. Emperor Nero and the senate appointed Vespasian, the future Emperor, to bring the Roman army to Judea and crush the rebellion with a force of four Legions. In Manda Scott's historical novel, Rome: The Eagle of the Twelfth, the author describes the Battle of Beth Horon and the destruction of the XII legion. Davis, Paul K.. 100 Decisive Battles. Oxford University Press. ISBN 1-57607-075-1
Sufganiyah is a round jelly doughnut eaten in Israel and around the world on the Jewish festival of Hanukkah. The doughnut is deep-fried, filled with jam or custard, topped with powdered sugar; the Hebrew word sufganiyah is a neologism for pastry, based on the Talmudic words sofgan and sfogga, which refer to a "spongy dough". The word has been compared to the Modern Hebrew word for sponge. Sfenj, a Maghrebi doughnut, comes from the same root. A popular Israeli folktale holds that the word "sufganiyah" comes from the Hebrew expression "Sof Gan Yud-Heh", meaning "the end of the Garden of the Lord". According to the legend, when Adam and Eve were thrown out of the Garden by the Lord, He cheered them up by feeding them sufganiyot. No known commentator on the Tanakh supports this interpretation. On Hanukkah, Jews observe the custom of eating fried foods in commemoration of the miracle associated with the Temple oil; the tradition of eating deep-fried pastries on Hanukkah was considered ancient in the time of the 12th-century rabbi Maimonides, whose father, Rabbi Maimon ben Yosef, wrote that "one must not make light of the custom of eating sofganim on Chanukah.
It is a custom of the Kadmonim ". These sofganim were syrup-soaked fried cakes, akin to modern zalabiya in the Arab world. Pastries similar to sufganiyot were prepared in the Jewish diaspora before the advent of the state of Israel; these were called bimuelos by Sephardi Jews, ponchiks by Ashkenazi Jews. Until the 1920s, sufganiyot and latkes were of comparable popularity in Palestine during Hanukkah; the Histadrut, Israel's national labor union formed in 1920, pushed to replace the homemade latke with the sufganiyah as Israel's quintessential Hanukkah food in order to provide more work for its members. Commercial bakeries began selling sufganiyot days and weeks before Hanukkah began, lengthening the employment period, their effort was successful, sufganiyot became the most popular food for Hanukkah in Israel. Some sources report that something similar happened with sfenj and sufganiyot, though this is less well-supported. By the 21st century, more Israeli Jews report eating sufganiyot on Hanukkah than fasting on Yom Kippur.
The ponchik-style sufganiyah was made from two circles of dough surrounding a jelly filling, stuck together and fried in one piece. Although this method is still practiced, an easier technique used today is to deep-fry whole balls of dough, inject them with a filling through a baker's syringe. Modern-day sufganiyot in Israel are made from sweet yeast dough, filled with plain red jelly, topped with powdered sugar, they cost about $0.30 each. More expensive versions are stuffed with dulce de leche, chocolate cream, vanilla cream, halva, creme espresso, chocolate truffle, or araq, topped with various extravagant toppings, from coconut shavings and tiny vials of liquor to meringue and fruit pastes. In 2014 one Jerusalem bakery produced sufganiyah dough saturated with flavored vodka. Bakeries and grocery stores build excitement for the approaching holiday by selling sufganiyot individually and by the box. Angel Bakeries, the largest bakery in Israel fries up more than 25,000 sufganiyot every day during the eight-day Hanukkah festival.
Each batch makes 1,600 sufganiyot. Local newspapers add to the excitement by rating the "best sufganiyah in town"; the Ministry of Defense buys upwards of 400,000 sufganiyot for its soldiers each Hanukkah. As the troops overwhelmingly prefer jelly-filled doughnuts, the Defense Ministry purchases 80% with jelly filling and 20% with chocolate filling. In 2016, Israeli bakeries began downsizing sufganiyot to appeal to health-conscious consumers, following an anti-junk food campaign by Health Minister Yaakov Litzman; the usual 100-gram size, packing 400 to 600 calories, now appears in 50-gram size with different fillings and toppings, earning the name "mini." Savory sufganiyot, though rare, do exist. Versions include: Panzerotti in Italy, filled with tomato sauce. Lachmazikas in Spain, filled with everything from lamb and mushrooms to whitefish, ricotta and herbs. Sambusa-inspired savory sufganiyot, filled with lentils and peas, are popular among Iraqi Jews in Israel. "SufganiKing," sold by Burger King in Israel for Hanukkah 2016: a hamburger, complete with lettuce, tomato and ketchup, inside an enormous sufganiyah, though this "sufganiyah" was unfilled, sweetened puff pastry.
The "SufganiKing" sold for NIS 14.90. List of doughnut varieties Latkes Berliner Pączki Gogoși Israeli cuisine Culture of Israel Making non-traditional sufganiyot: a demonstration video with Phyllis Glazer Sufganiyot – The Best The best Hanukkah sufganiyot in Israel
Mattathias ben Johanan was a Kohen whose role in the religion-driven Maccabean Revolt against the Greek Seleucid Empire is related in the Books of the Maccabees. Mattathias is accorded a central role in the story of Hanukkah and, as a result, is named in the Al HaNissim prayer Jews add to the Birkat Hamazon and the Amidah during the festival's eight days; the father of Judas Maccabeus, Eleazar Avaran, Simon Thassi, John Gaddi, Jonathan Apphus, Mattathias was from a rural priestly family from Modi'in. Like all fit priests, he served in the Temple in Jerusalem, he was a son of Yohannan, grandson of Simeon, the Hasmonean, great-grandson of Asmon or Hasmonaeus, a Levite of the lineage of Joarib for being the fifth grandson of Idaiah, son of Joarib and grandson of Jachin, in turn a descendant of Phinehas, third High Priest of Israel, according to Mattathias' own words in 1 Maccabees. After the Seleucid persecutions began, Mattathias returned to Modi'in. In 167 BCE, when asked by a Seleucid Greek government representative under emperor Antiochus IV Epiphanes to offer sacrifice to the Greek gods, he not only refused to do so, but slew with his own hand the Jew who had stepped forward to do so.
He killed the government official that required the act. Let everyone who has zeal for the Law and who stands by the covenant follow me! Upon the edict for his arrest, he took refuge in the wilderness of Judea with his five sons and called upon all Jews to follow him. Many responded to his call; this was the first step in the Maccabean Revolt, the result of, Jewish independence, which had not been enjoyed for more than 400 years. The events of the war of the Maccabees form the basis for the holiday of Hanukkah, celebrated by Jews on the 25th of Kislev; the story of the Maccabees can be found in the deuterocanonical books of 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, in Josephus, in Talmudic references. The "Al HaNisim" prayer, added into the Amidah and Birkat Hamazon on Chanukah, refers to the story of the Maccabees and to Mattathias by name. Jewish leadership Hasmonean dynasty Weir, William. 50 Battles That Changed the World: The Conflicts That Most Influenced the Course of History. Savage, Md: Barnes and Noble Books.
ISBN 0-7607-6609-6. Mattathias ben Johanan entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed.. "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne