Hezekiah Niles, was an American editor and publisher of the Baltimore-based national weekly news magazine, Niles' Weekly Register and the Weekly Register. Niles was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, to a Quaker family, although his father quit the church to fight in the American Revolutionary War. In 1777, the family fled from Wilmington, ahead of the British army to the home of James Jefferis on the east side of the Brandywine Creek near Jefferis' Ford. Niles asserted in the Weekly Register that a Hessian mercenary threatened to bayonet his mother while pregnant with him; the family returned to Wilmington and after the war his father rejoined the Quakers. At 17, Niles apprenticed with a Philadelphia printer for three years, he worked in Wilmington for several years, attempting to establish a printing business that went bankrupt in 1801. In 1805 he published. In 1805, he moved to Baltimore, where until 1811 he edited a daily broadsheet, the Baltimore Evening Post, associated with the Democratic-Republican Party.
In 1811, he issued the prospectus for the Weekly Register and had 1,500 subscribers before the first issue had been published. Niles edited and published the Weekly Register until 1836, making it into one of the most circulated magazines in the United States and himself into one of the most influential journalists of his day; the Niles' Weekly Register covered not only politics, but economics, technology and literature. In the Register's discourse of politics, Niles used what he called "magnanimous disputation", trying to present the arguments of both sides and objectively, a policy which has made the paper an important source for the history of the period. In life, Niles was afflicted by a paralytic condition and retired to Wilmington, where he died in 1839. Hezekiah foresaw the possibility of the American Civil War as early as 1820, published articles in the Register which suggested efforts the South could make in modernizing their economy to a form, not dependent on slavery, publishing efforts which he hoped would help avoid conflict between the North and South.
Southern states rejected these suggestions that sought to alter their economic dependence on slavery. Niles and Niles, Ohio are named for him. Niles, Illinois may be named for him, but circumstances are unclear concerning the naming of the surrounding township in 1850. W. H. Earle. "Niles' Register, 1811-1849: Window on the World," Journal of the War of 1812 and the Era 1800 to 1840, Fall, 1996. Online version Kovarik, William, "To Avoid the Coming Storm: Hezekiah Niles Weekly Register as a Voice of North-South Moderation, 1811 - 1836," American Journalism, Summer, 1992. Online version Kovarik, William, "Niles Register," Encyclopedia of American Journalism History". Online version Luxon, Norval. Niles Weekly Register: News Magazine of the Nineteenth Century Stone, Richard G. Hezekiah Niles as an Economist, Frederick N. Rasmussen Hezekiah Niles: A Patriotic News Magazine Editor in the 19th Century, Baltimore Sun, Sept. 4, 2011. Biographical Sketch of Hezekiah Niles from The History of Chester County by Futhey and Cope Niles Weekly Register fulltext David D. Fowler, Niles' Florida.
A five-volume compilation of news articles, personal letters, anecdotes from early 19th century Florida. Thirty-eight years of Florida’s history between 1811 and 1849 from the Niles’ Weekly Register
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Sackets Harbor, New York
Sackets Harbor is a village in Jefferson County, New York, United States, on Lake Ontario. The population was 1,450 at the 2010 census; the village was named after land developer and owner Augustus Sackett, who founded it in the early middle 1700’s. Sackets Harbor is west of Watertown; the heart of the village, with a Main Street and well-preserved 17th century buildings, has been recognized as the Sackets Harbor Village Historic District and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. To support the War of 1812, the US Navy built a major shipyard and its headquarters for the Great Lakes at the village. Within a short period, more than 3,000 men worked at the shipyard; the Army constructed earthworks, forts and supporting infrastructure to defend the village and navy shipyard, its troops camped in the village. The thousands of military personnel made. By the fall of 1814, this was the third-largest population center in the entire state, after Albany and New York City. With its strategic protected harbor on Lake Ontario and military installations, the village had national importance through the 19th century.
Soon after the war, the Army strengthened its defenses on the northern frontier by constructing Madison Barracks. The village developed a commercial shipyard and many business connections to communities around the Great Lakes, its businessmen were connected to bases in the major markets of Louisville and New Orleans. In 1817 a consortium of local businessmen supported construction of the 240-ton Ontario, the first US steamboat on the Great Lakes. In July 1834, the commercial schooner Illinois from Sackets Harbor was the first to enter the harbor of the new settlement of Chicago. Sackets Harbor Battlefield State Historic Site commemorates a battle during the War of 1812 and the contribution of the area to the United States defense. Prior to the American Revolutionary War, this area had been inhabited for thousands of years by differing cultures of indigenous peoples; the historic tribe were the Iroquoian-speaking Onondaga, part of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. Long trading with the French and English, the Mohawk and most of the Six Nations allied with the British during the Revolution, hoping to dislodge the American colonists from their territory.
Following the war, they were forced to make major cessions of most of their land in New York to the United States. Most of the Iroquois settled on land granted by Great Britain. In the large-scale sales of 5 million acres of public lands in the postwar period, Sackets Harbor was founded in 1801 by Augustus Sackett, a land speculator from New York City, he and others had high hopes for trade across other parts of Canada. With one of the few natural harbors on Lake Ontario, Sackets Harbor was the most significant community in the area until the founding of the city of Watertown; the area attracted migrants from New England, as well as immigrants from Great France. The latter were fleeing the turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars, they cleared heavy forest and constructed houses for a village center. Edmund Luff, a young English immigrant, constructed a non-denominational meetinghouse, where all Christians met until they built their own churches in decades. Converted to a residence, the house still stands.
The American Revolution did not resolve all issues with Great Britain. Border issues and increasing tensions led the US to impose the Embargo Act of 1807 prohibiting trade with Great Britain, which included Canada. People on both sides of the border and American built up a vigorous smuggling trade across the waters and through the nearby Thousand Islands area along the St. Lawrence River, but the embargo reduced trade. The US government first stationed forces in the area to try to reduce smuggling. By the 1810 census, there were 943 qualified voters in the village. Sackets Harbor incorporated as a village in 1814, during the War of 1812; as tensions increased with Great Britain, the US began to build up its military forces at Sackets Harbor, including creating a major shipyard at what became Navy Point. The scale of buildup was such that the citizens were outnumbered on a scale of about 8:1 by thousands of sailors and soldiers, camp followers and traders; some 3,000 workers built the warships, most had been recruited from the New York City area.
Limited sanitary facilities and medical knowledge made the dense troop encampments breeding grounds for infectious diseases, such as typhus, which spread to villagers, too. By February 1813, Sackets Harbor was the largest community in the state north of the Mohawk River; the village was the site of two battles during the War of 1812. In the first battle in 1812, the brig USS Oneida and shore batteries repulsed an attacking force of five British ships; the village became a major base of operations for both the Navy and Army for the duration of the war. The Army built defensive earthworks around much of the village, Fort Tompkins with barracks near Navy Point. Local militia built Fort Volunteer north of the village main streets. Thousands of troops gathered to defend the shipyard and village, to attack Canada; the numbers of troops so exceeded what could be built to shelter them that in 1813 troops were housed with residents, in stores, in barns and in tents. Village women counted themselves lucky.
By the spring of 1813, the Army had gathered 5,200 men in the village. Most by 1813 the village