Battle of the Bidassoa
In the Battle of the Bidasoa on 7 October 1813 the Allied army of Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington wrested a foothold on French soil from Nicolas Soults French army. The Allied troops overran the French lines behind the Bidassoa River on the coast, the nearest towns to the fighting are Irun on the lower Bidassoa and Bera on the middle Bidasoa. The battle occurred during the Peninsular War, part of the wider Napoleonic Wars, Wellington aimed his main assault at the lower Bidasoa, while sending additional troops to attack Soults center. Believing his coastal sector secure, Soult held the right flank with a weak force while concentrating most of his strength on his left flank in the mountains. However, the British general obtained local intelligence that indicated that water levels on the river were much lower than the French suspected. After careful planning, Wellington launched an assault which easily overran the French left flank defenses. In the center, his army won through the French defenses, at the beginning of the fighting, Soult realized that his left flank was in no danger, but it was too late to reinforce his positions on the right.
Some French generals were shocked at how poorly their soldiers fought, in the Battle of San Marcial on 31 August and 1 September 1813, Soults army was repelled in its final bid to advance into Spain. After a costly assault followed by a sack of the city. A French garrison held out in the Siege of Pamplona which would end in a surrender on October 31, Wellington determined to create a bridgehead across the Bidassoa River. If successful, his army would be the first Allied army to establish itself on French soil, the British commander wanted to capture French positions that overlooked the Allied lines on the west side of the Bidassoa. He had to hold a 48 km front in the Pyrenees mountains, the area was highly defensible, but lateral communications were poor. Deciding that the sector was the strongest part of his line. Reilles command included General of Division Antoine Louis Popon de Maucunes 3, 996-strong 7th Division and General of Division Pierre François Joseph Boyers 6, Maucune held the lower Bidassoa on the Bay of Biscay, while Boyer defended the stream farther inland.
Behind them was the camp of Bordagain and the port of St-Jean-de-Luz which were held by General of Division Eugene-Casimir Villattes 8. General of Division Bertrand Clausel held the center with 15,300 men under Generals of Division Nicolas François Conroux, Jean-Pierre Maransin, on the right, near the Bidassoa, stood the La Bayonette redoubt. Mont La Rhune rose in the center of Clausels sector and his left touched the Nivelle River near Ainhoa. Conrouxs 4th Division numbered 4,962 men, Maransins 5th Division counted 5,575 troops, Taupins 8th Division had 4,778 soldiers, Soults gunners and other troops added up to 2,000 and his total forces numbered 55,088 effectives
Battle of Nivelle
The Battle of Nivelle took place in front of the River Nivelle near the end of the Peninsular War. After the Allied siege of San Sebastian, Wellingtons 80,000 British, after the Light Division, the main British army was ordered to attack and the 3rd Division split Soults army into two. By 2 oclock, Soult was in retreat and the British in an offensive position. Soult had lost 4,351 men to Wellingtons 2,450, in the Siege of San Sebastian, the Anglo-Portuguese stormed and captured the port at the beginning of September 1813. In the Battle of San Marcial on 31 August, Soult failed to break through the Spanish defences in his attempt to relieve the siege. The French army fell back to defend the Bidassoa River, at dawn on 7 October the Anglo-Allied army overran the French river defences in the Battle of the Bidassoa in a surprise crossing. During this action, the allies captured several fortified positions in the area of La Rhune mountain, both sides lost about 1,600 men in these actions. Soults lines stretched from the shores of the Atlantic on the French right flank to the pass of Roncesvalles on the left.
With only 60,000 men, Soult was stretched to an almost impossible point and this means that he could not hold troops back as reserves, something which may have turned the tide of the battle. As Soult moved back to his base at Bayonne, his position strengthened but he was not quick enough, the French position was dominated by the Greater Rhune, a gorse-covered, craggy mountain nearly 3,000 feet high. Separated from the Greater Rhune by a ravine, roughly 700 yards below it, is the Lesser Rhune along the precipitous crest of which the French had constructed three defensive positions. If the French defences on La Rhune could be taken Soults position would become dangerous as it would open him to attack from all elements of the British three point pincer plan. Wellingtons plan was to distribute troops along the whole of Soults line, any breakthrough in the centre or the French left flank would enable the British to cut off the French right Flank. So, Wellington ordered that the British left would be led by Sir John Hope and would involve the 1st, Wellington decided to attack on the 10th of November.
The battle started just before dawn as the Light Division headed towards the plateau on the summit of the Greater Rhune, the objective of the division was to sweep the three defensive forts the French had constructed out of the battle. They moved down into the ravine in front of the Lesser Rhune and were ordered to lie down, after the signal from a battery of cannon, the offensive began. It started with the men of the 43rd, 52nd and 95th - with the 17th Portuguese Caçadores in support - storming the redoubts on the crest of the Rhune. Despite this being a move and the men being almost exhausted
Battle of Feistritz
The Battle of Feistritz saw an Imperial French corps led by Paul Grenier attack an Austrian brigade under August von Vécsey. After putting up a resistance, the outnumbered Austrians were defeated and forced to retreat. The clash occurred during the War of the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, Feistritz im Rosental is located on the Drau River near the southern border of Austria, about 16 kilometres southwest of Klagenfurt. When hostilities commenced between the Austrian Empire and Imperial France, Johann von Hiller led an Austrian army to attack the Illyrian Provinces, when the Austrian general established a second bridgehead at Feistritz, Eugène sent Grenier to wipe it out. The minor victory only delayed the inevitable, and within a few weeks Eugène was compelled to abandon Illyria, in 1812, the best French and Italian units from the French Army of Italy were assigned to the IV Corps for the French invasion of Russia. The troops fought well under the command of Eugène de Beauharnais, to rebuild his army in Germany for the 1813 campaign, Emperor Napoleon transferred four more divisions from the garrison of Italy to join the newly established IV and XII Corps.
The emperor gave his stepson Eugène permission to organize a new out of French. By May 1813, the new army began forming around the French 46th, 47th, and 48th Divisions, the Italian 49th Division, and one cavalry division. In fact, only 13,000 French conscripts joined the army, since military equipment was scarce, some soldiers were sent to the front dressed in police uniforms. Nevertheless, the continued to expand and Eugène eventually renumbered his divisions 1 through 6. Meanwhile, the Austrian Empire prepared for war with Napoleon by expanding their army, while their main army was based in Bohemia, Austria stationed one army corps on the Danube and another in the Duchy of Carinthia. The troops in Carinthia were placed under the command of Feldzeugmeister Johann von Hiller, since it was considered a minor theater, Hillers army only counted 35,000 soldiers and 120 artillery pieces in August. This total was smaller than the number of troops in his opponents army, the Austrian general had veteran division and brigade commanders, but he was handicapped by a clumsy command system and large numbers of indifferently-equipped conscripts in the ranks.
Though the Danube corps remained in place, reinforcements were continually switched from there to the Army of Inner Austria throughout the autumn, the Advanced Guard had two Grenz infantry battalions and two hussar squadrons. Frimonts division had three brigades led by General-majors Franjo Vlašić, Ferdinand Daniel Pulszky, and August von Vécsey. Vlašićs light brigade comprised one jäger and one Grenz battalion and six squadrons, Pulszkys brigade consisted of four line battalions. Marzianis division was made up of a brigade led by General-major Johann Mayer von Heldensfeld with seven line battalions. Sommarivas division counted three brigades commanded by Generals-major Joseph Xaver von Stutterheim, Joseph von Fölseis, and Georg Johann von Wrede
Battle of Hanau
The Battle of Hanau was fought on between Karl Philipp von Wrede’s Austro-Bavarian corps and Napoleons retreating French during the War of the Sixth Coalition. Following Napoleons defeat at the Battle of Leipzig earlier in October, Napoleon began to retreat from Germany into France, Wrede attempted to block Napoleon’s line of retreat at Hanau on 30 October. Napoleon arrived at Hanau with reinforcements and defeated Wrede’s forces, on 31 October Hanau was in French control, opening Napoleon’s line of retreat. The Battle of Hanau was a battle, but an important tactical victory allowing Napoleon’s army to retreat onto French soil to recover. The Battle of Leipzig, the largest and bloodiest encounter of the Napoleonic Wars, began on 16 October 1813, Napoleon was forced to abandon central Germany to the coalition and hastily retreated westwards. His strategy was to all his available forces on the shores of the Rhine. The Emperors concern was that his battered army might be forced to fight against superior forces again.
With military action confined to secondary rearguard actions, Napoleon was able to install his headquarters at Erfurt on 23 October, on 26 October, he sent orders to the various corps, directing them to Frankfurt via Eisenach and Fulda. Their assigned destination was the city of Mainz, by the Rhine river, the coalition was buoyed by the news that Bavaria, a former French ally, agreed to join the Sixth Coalition according to the Treaty of Ried concluded just before the Battle of Leipzig. From Würzburg, Wrede moved towards the city of Hanau. Wrede’s advance guard reached Hanau on 28 October and took possession of the city and they were under the overall command of Bavarian General Karl Philipp von Wrede. The Austrian Corps, under the command of Field-Marshal-Lieutenant Baron Fresnet and these men were organised in three divisions, the 1st division under General Bach, the 2nd division under General Trautenberg, and the 3rd division under General Spleny. The Bavarian Corps, under Wredes direct command, numbered 18,000 men,15,000 infantrymen,3,000 cavalrymen, the French Grande Armée had suffered horrendous casualties at the battle of Leipzig, which left the French Corps at a fraction of its prior strength.
Emperor Napoleon I was in command of the French forces in the battle. Guard units aside, many of the French battalions at Hanau were only 100-man strong, and the cavalry squadrons were much smaller. Of these men, only one division of Marshal Claude Victor-Perrins IInd Corps, Cavalry support came from Sébastianis IInd Cavalry Corps, some 3,000 sabres, and Nansoutys Imperial Guard cavalry, some 4,000 sabres. The entirety of the Imperial Guard infantry and artillery, some 6,000 men and 52 cannons, were committed, Napoleon thus commanded a total of about 20,000 men at the battle of Hanau. On 29 October, having correctly reckoned that his force was enough to block the retreat of a disorganised enemy army
Prince Frederik of Hesse
Prince Frederik of Hesse, Count or Landgreve Friedrich of Hesse-Cassel was a Danish nobleman and governor of Norway and the duchies Schleswig and Holstein. He was born at Gottorp as a son of Landgrave Charles of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Louise of Denmark, prins Frederik married Klara von Brockdorff in Norway on 21 May 1813. Because the marriage was a one, she was not awarded the title of princess. Frederick was a member of the Dano-Norwegian royal family, and had a career from a very young age. He became Colonel already in 1778, Major General in 1783 and he headed the Kings Regiment from 1795 to 1800, and from 1800 to 1808 Prince Frederick was governor in Rendsborg and Inspector-General for the footmen in the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. In 1808 he was made General in the infantry, the following year, he was appointed to lead a Danish army from Zealand to Scania, as a part of the Dano-Swedish War. The campaign was dropped by the Danish government, in July 1809 the prince was sent to serve in Norway.
The reason was that the Governor-General, Christian August of Augustenborg was suspected to drop his loyalty to King Frederick VI in order to be adopted as the Swedish throne heir, Frederick was the commanding general in the southern part of the country. Christian August left Norway for Sweden on 7 January 1810, during his period in Norway, he served as praeses of the Royal Norwegian Society for Development. However, King Frederick VI eventually felt the need to replace him with his heir, Crown Prince Christian Frederick, around this time, Frederick parted ways with his longtime aide-de-camp, Hans Henrik Rode. In 1813–1814, the led the Danish Auxiliary Corps in Holstein. This was during the War of the Sixth Coalition, in which Denmark-Norway fought on the French side, the main task for his corps was to assist the forces of Louis-Nicolas Davout. When France suffered a loss at the Battle of Leipzig, Fredericks corps had to retreat and he even led his troops to a victory in the Battle of Sehested on 10 December 1813.
He planned an attack on the Russian and Swedish occupational forces in Holstein and this attack was abandoned after the peace settlement between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, the Treaty of Kiel of 14 January 1814. From 1815 to 1818, the led the Danish occupational forces in France. After returning home, he was again made commanding general in Schleswig and Holstein. From 1836 to 1842 he served as Governor-General over Schleswig and Holstein, Frederick was promoted to field marshal. He had been decorated with the Order of the Elephant in 1801, Prince Frederick spent his last years at the family estate Panker by the Baltic Sea
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe