First French Empire
The First French Empire, Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire, a series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. The plot included Bonapartes brother Lucien, serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, on 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, the Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleons Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie, on 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif, a general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life, pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the Recess of 1803, which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to Frances side. The memories of imperial Rome were for a time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, did little other than create a more unified Germany to threaten France. On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, to create satellite states, Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations, in addition to the vassal titles, Napoleons closest relatives were granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power, Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal and this, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt, the Eylau and the Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Greats formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.
The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe, the two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes
Campo Maior, Portugal
Campo Maior, is a municipality in the Portalegre District, Alentejo Region, Portugal. The population in 2011 was 8,456, in an area of 247.20 square kilometres and it is bordered by Spain on the North and East, by Elvas Municipality on the Southeast, and by Arronches Municipality on the West. In 1219, it was conquered by Christian knights, the Pérez de Badajoz family, who granted the village. On May 31,1255, King Alfonso X of Castile promoted the village to town status, in 1260, Bishop Friar Pedro Pérez, the Town Lord, granted the first charter to the inhabitants of Campo Maior. He introduced the towns first coat-of-arms, showing Our Lady, the castle east of the village was rebuilt by King Denis in 1310. In the 17th and 18th Centuries, other fortifications were built, as a reflex of the influence of Castile in Campo Maior, the population and the garrison sided with Castile following the 1383–1385 Crisis. King John I of Portugal and Constable Nuno Álvares Pereira led their armies to Campo and besieged the town for six weeks, finally occupying it at the end of 1388.
King John II granted a new coat-of-arms to Campo Maior, a shield, with the Arms of Portugal on one side. In 1512, King Manuel I renewed the charter of Campo Maior, from the late 15th Century, many of those persecuted by the Inquisition in Castile took refuge in Portugal. Many of them settled in Campo Maior, which saw its population increase substantially, the war with Spain in 1640 brought major changes to the fortress. Due to these efforts, the garrison substantially grew in size and it is estimated that, in late 17th Century, one out of four inhabitants of Campo Maior was employed by the military. Campo Maior was became the headquarters of the mercenary Dutch troops that fought in Alentejo, the town was at that time the second most important garrison in the Alentejo region, second only to the city of Elvas. In 1712, during the Spanish War of Succession, the Castle of Campo Maior was besieged by the Spanish Army, commanded by the French Alexandre Maître, Marquis de Bay. For 36 days, he launched tons of projectiles on the town, upon crossing the breach, the Spanish Army suffered heavy casualties and retreated in defeat.
On September 16,1732, at 3 am, a hit the Armory, located in the Castles main tower. A violent explosion ensued, followed by a fire and this event caused signifgant damage to the fortress and injured two thirds of the inhabitants of the fort. King John V ordered the reconstruction of the Castle. The town slowly rose from the ruins and will eventually regained its role both in times of war and in times of peace, and it became a trading post
Castle of Campo Maior
It is a walled bulwark of the modern era, highlighted by a Renaissance-era window in the northern tower of the castle. It has been listed as a National monument since 1911, owing the regions occupation by successive tribes of Celts and Muslims, it is likely that the territory of Campo Maior has been settled during the pre-historic epochs. The land of Campo Maior was definitively conquered from the Moors by the forces of Kingdom of León in 1230, the first foral was issued by the Bishop of Badajoz thirty years after this event. Eventually, the castle was conquered by the Portuguese in 1295-1296, in order to maintain the peace between Spain and Portugal, King Denis ordered the reconstruction of the fortress in 1310, oriented toward his Iberian rivals. These fortifications were extended and rehabilitation during the 15th and 16th century completed, during the reigns of his successors John and Manuel, following the decision of John IV, work began in 1645 under the supervision of João Cosmander to reconstruct the bulwarks.
After 1644, many of the reconstruction of the fortress was handled by Nicolau de Langres, in 1662, Luís Serrão Pimentel continued work on the walls. During the Spanish War of Succession, in 1712, the square was besieged by Spanish forces, the powder magazine was reconstructed by order of John V of Portugal in 1735, under the meticulous care of Manuel de Azevedo Fortes. On 2 July 1736, Diogo Lopes de Sepúlveda was awarded the commission to the post of Sargent-Major, but, in 1762, Spanish forces, once again, invaded the territory (during the Seven Years War and meeting the Portuguese in Campo Maior. During the Peninsular War, during the Battle of the Oranges, after a small victory, these forces recapitulated in 1811. On 18 March 1911, the structure was classified as a monument by Decree. In the first half of the 1940s, the Direcção-Geral dos Edifícios e Monumentos Nacionais began works to restore the group of structures. A second phase of construction was begun in the 1960s, and extended into the 1970s, marked by interventions in the castle walls, owing to bad weather in 2010, the castle walls were partially destroyed. A heavily walled fortification, formed of a ten-sided polygon curtain of walls, the fortification includes a gap and counterescarp in part of its extension, namely in the south and northeastern parts, as well as four turrets. A number of military edifices have occupied the spaces within the castle, the castle retains two of its six original towers, an irregular rectangular space with walls forming a trapezoid space, with battlements and adarve permitting access to the remaining towers.
The towers have battlements and walls, terminating in a frusto-pyramidal domes, each tower has a vaulted ceiling at the adarve, with the northern tower exemplified by a decorated Renaissance window. The walls are lower, in order to support barbettes and canon emplacements, one of the towers, in the southwest, along one of the false gates has battlements. To the southeast is, the Chapel of Senhor dos Aflitos, the castle grounds are semi-/permanently occupied by cultural and equipment. Recordações dos Últimos Quarenta Anos, Esboços Humorísticos
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
His defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 put him in the top rank of Britains military heroes. Wellesley was born in Dublin, belonging to the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland and he was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons and he was a colonel by 1796, and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, following Napoleons exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the army which defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellesleys battle record is exemplary, he participated in some 60 battles during the course of his military career. Wellington is famous for his defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses.
He is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, after ending his active military career, Wellington returned to politics. He was twice British prime minister as part of the Tory party, from 1828 to 1830 and he oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832. He continued as one of the figures in the House of Lords until his retirement. As such, he belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy and his biographers mostly follow the contemporary newspaper evidence in saying that he was born 1 May 1769, the day that he was baptised. He was most likely born at his parents townhouse,24 Upper Merrion Street, but his mother Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. He spent most of his childhood at his familys two homes, the first a house in Dublin and the second Dangan Castle,3 miles north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthurs father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his fathers earldom and he went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr Whytes Academy when in Dublin, and Browns School in Chelsea when in London.
He enrolled at Eton, where he studied from 1781 to 1784, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of funds due to his fathers death, forced the young Wellesley. Until his early twenties, Arthur showed little sign of distinction and his mother grew concerned at his idleness, stating. A year later, Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed significantly, becoming a good horseman and learning French, upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km². Its urban area extends beyond the administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people. About 2.8 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and it is continental Europes westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean, the westernmost areas of its metro area is the westernmost point of Continental Europe. Lisbon is recognised as a city because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade, education. It is one of the economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector. Humberto Delgado Airport serves over 20 million passengers annually, as of 2015, and the motorway network, the city is the 7th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Istanbul, Barcelona, Madrid and Milan, with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any region in Portugal.
Its GDP amounts to 96.3 billion USD and thus $32,434 per capita, the city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, in 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbons status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. It has one of the warmest winters of any metropolis in Europe, the typical summer season lasts about four months, from June to September, although in April temperatures sometimes reach around 25 °C.
Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, another conjecture based on ancient hydronymy suggests that the name of the settlement derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbons name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela and it was referred to as Olisippo by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. The Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population and this indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects
King's German Legion
The Kings German Legion was a British Army unit of mostly expatriate German personnel during the period 1803–16. The Legion achieved the distinction of being the only German force to fight without interruption against the French during the Napoleonic Wars, the Legion was formed within months of the dissolution of the Electorate of Hanover in 1803, and constituted as a mixed corps by the end of 1803. The Legion was disbanded in 1816, several of the units were incorporated into the army of the Kingdom of Hanover, and became a part of the Imperial German Army after unification in 1871. The British German Legion, recruited for the Crimean War, is erroneously referred to as the Kings German Legion. After the occupation of Hanover by Napoleonic troops the Convention of Artlenburg, called the Convention of the Elbe, was signed on 5 July 1803, the Electors army was disbanded. Many former Hanoverian officers and soldiers fled the French occupation of Hanover to Britain, George III, the same year, Major Colin Halkett and Colonel Johann Friedrich von der Decken were issued warrants to raise a corps of light infantry, to be named The Kings German Regiment.
On 19 December 1803, Halketts and von der Deckens levies were combined as a basis of a mixed corps renamed the Kings German Legion, the KGL infantry were quartered in Bexhill-on-Sea and the cavalry in Weymouth, Dorset. Some units were involved in a fight in Tullamore, Ireland with a British Light infantry unit in the so-called Battle of Tullamore. The number of Officers and Other Ranks grew over time to approximately 14,000 and it saw active service as an integral part of the British Army from 1805–1816, after which its units were disbanded. In the Peninsular Campaign, the Germans enhanced the veteran core of the British army, at Sabugal, in April 1811, several hundred German hussars augmented the Light Division, and the Hussars found the proper ford of the Coa River. At the Battle of Garcia Hernandez, the Dragoons performed the feat of smashing two French square formations in a matter of minutes. At the Battle of Waterloo, the 2nd Light Battalion — with members of the 1st Light Battalion, after a six-hour defence, without ammunition, or reinforcements, the Germans were forced to abandon the farm, leaving the buildings in shambles and their dead behind.
The Legion was known for its excellent discipline and fighting ability, the cavalry was reputed to be among the best in the British army. According to the historian Alessandro Barbero, the Kings German Legion had such a degree of professionalism that it was considered equal in every way to the best British units. After the victory at Waterloo, the Electorate of Hanover was re-founded as the Kingdom of Hanover, the army of Hanover had been reconstituted even before the final battle, so that there were two Hanoverian armies in existence. In 1816 the Legion was dissolved and some officers and men were integrated into the new Hanoverian army, the Waterloo Companion London, Aurum Press,2001 ISBN 1-85410-764-X Barbero, Alessandro. Walker and Company,2005, ISBN 0-8027-1453-6, history of the Kings German Legion vol 1,1832 reprint Naval and Military Press,1997 ISBN 0-9522011-0-0 Beamish, N. Ludlow. History of the Kings German Legion vol 2,1832 reprint Naval and Military Press,1997 ISBN 0-9522011-0-0 Chappell, Die Kings German Legion 1803–1816, Lebenswirklichkeit in einer militärischen Formation der Koalitionskriege
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The growing desire for an Irish Republic led to the Irish War of Independence, Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom, and the state was consequently renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire thereby became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century, rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the states formation continued up until the mid-19th century. A devastating famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland. It was an era of economic modernization and growth of industry and finance.
Outward migration was heavy to the colonies and to the United States. Britain built up a large British Empire in Africa and Asia, India, by far the most important possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In foreign policy Britain favoured free trade, which enabled its financiers and merchants to operate successfully in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. Britain formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, and moved closer to the United States. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the British governments fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his governments attempts to introduce it.
When the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized, in May 1803, war was declared again. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System and this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. Frances population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. The Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent, after Napoleons surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. The Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blucher defeated Napoleon once, simultaneous with the Napoleonic Wars, trade disputes, arming hostile Indians and British impressment of American sailors led to the War of 1812 with the United States. The war was little noticed in Britain, which could devote few resources to the conflict until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, American frigates inflicted a series of defeats on the Royal Navy, which was short on manpower due to the conflict in Europe
Battle of the Gebora
The Battle of the Gebora was a minor battle of the Peninsular War between Spanish and French armies. It occurred on 19 February 1811, near Badajoz, viscount Wellington and the Spanish Captain-General Pedro Caro y Sureda, 3rd marqués de La Romana sent a large Spanish army to raise the siege. La Romana, died before the army could depart, supported by a small force of Portuguese cavalry, the Spaniards reached the town and camped on the nearby heights of San Cristóbal in early February 1811. When Mendizabal ignored Wellingtons instructions and failed to entrench his army, Soult took advantage of the vulnerable Spanish position and sent a small force to attack the Spaniards. On the morning of 19 February, French forces under Marshal Édouard Mortier quickly defeated the Spanish army, inflicting 1,000 casualties and taking 4,000 prisoners while losing only 400 men. The victory allowed Soult to concentrate on his assault of Badajoz, napoleon had previously sent dispatches to Marshal Soult, commander of the Army of the South, urging him to send assistance to Masséna in Portugal.
However, the Emperors orders, which called for only a force, were based on outdated intelligence. Thirty thousand Allied troops and six major fortresses now stood between the French army and the Portuguese capital, making an attack against Lisbon virtually impossible. Soult divided his army into two contingents and advanced into Extremadura via the two passes leading from Andalusia into the Guadiana valley, with the intention of rejoining at Almendralejo. One of the columns, commanded by Gen. Mendizabal, Latour-Maubourg was therefore able to take position near Almendralejo and await the arrival of the second French column. When confronted by Marshal Mortier, Ballesteros retreated without suffering serious harm, for this reason Soult directed Gazans infantry to head off the Spanish force and protect the delayed siege-train, while he himself continued onward to Almendralejo with his cavalry. As a result, Soult finally joined Latour-Maubourg on 6 January with only a fraction of his original column, Soult could not besiege so strong a fortress as Badajoz with his reduced force and therefore changed his plans.
Wellington had previously advised Gen. Soult, arriving on 11 January, was confronted with a strongly garrisoned—but untenable—fortress. The heavy French artillery finally began to arrive on 19 January, the garrison surrendered on 23 January, with over 4,000 Spanish troops from the Army of Extremadura taken captive. Moreover, although his siege-train had begun to arrive, the absence of Gazans infantry division left him with a weakened army. Gazans division eventually rejoined Soults army on 3 February, further strengthening the besieging force by 6,000 men, Mendizabal had retreated to the Portuguese border after sending two battalions to reinforce the garrison at Badajoz. Additionally, about 6,000 troops were sent forward from the Lines of Torres Vedras on 19 January, La Romana, died of an aneurysm on 23 January, and command of the army fell to Mendizabal. Although aware of this plan when he took command, Mendizabal chose to ignore the instructions upon arriving on the bank of the Guadiana on 5 February