Battle of Swally
The naval Battle of Swally known as Battle of Suvali, took place on 29–30 November 1612 off the coast of Suvali a village near the Surat city and was a victory for four English East India Company galleons over four Portuguese galleons and 26 barks. This small naval battle is important as it marked the beginning of the end of Portugal's commercial monopoly over India, the beginning of the ascent of the English East India Company's presence in India; this battle convinced the English East India Company to establish a small navy to safeguard their commercial interests from other European powers and from pirates. This small beginning is regarded as the root of the modern Indian Navy; the background to this battle points to the main reason for the Dutch Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie being organised in 1602. This battle was the result of the Portuguese monopoly over trade with India in the late-15th and 16th centuries. Two English ventures, The Company of Merchant Adventurers which became the Muscovy Company in 1555, the English East India Company known as "John Company", were attempting to find routes to the East Indies and the spice trade.
The following three individuals played a key part in the events leading up to this battle: The Portuguese guarded their new-found routes to Asia well. During July, 1583 an English merchant, Ralph Fitch was arrested for spying at Ormuz, he was on a voyage from Syria to the Indian Ocean in his ship,Tiger, via what is now Iraq using the Euphrates river. Ralph was presented before the Portuguese Viceroy in Goa, he was released on the surety provided by Jesuit priests, but escaped from Goa and wandered around India for several years. He returned to England in 1591, became a valuable advisor to the Company. Jan Huyghens van Linschoten was a Dutch Protestant traveller and historian who served as the Portuguese Viceroy's secretary in Goa between 1583 and 1588, he returned to Holland in 1592. He published a book, Itinerario in 1596 which graphically displayed for the first time in Europe, detailed maps of voyages to the East Indies India. During his stay in Goa, abusing the trust put in him by the Viceroy, Jan Huyghens meticulously copied the top-secret charts page-by-page.
More crucially, Jan Huyghens provided nautical data like currents, deeps and sandbanks, vital for safe navigation, along with coastal depictions to guide the way. His publications were responsible for the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in 1602 to unify Dutch efforts at trade with Asia. Sir William Hawkins led the first voyage of the English East India Company to India and sailed into the Gujarat port of Surat on 24 August 1608 aboard the Hector, he had with him 25,000 pieces of gold and a personal letter to the Mughal Emperor Jehangir from King James I seeking trade concessions. He persisted for over two years, however pirates stole his gold, tried several times to murder him while on shore, he returned to England empty-handed. The next envoy, Paul Canning, lasted only a few months; the initial voyages of the English East India Company were not to India. Each voyage was a venture in itself, separately funded by issuance of subscription stock. An eighth voyage was led in 1611 by Captain John Saris to Japan.
The ninth voyage was to Sumatra. The tenth voyage on behalf of the English East India Company was led by Captain Thomas Best, it set out from Gravesend on 1 February 1612 passing via the present day Trinidad Daman on 3 September 1612 reaching Surat on 5 September 1612. Surat was the principal port for the Mughals, was situated at the mouth of the river Tapti. Coincidentally, on 13 September 1612 a squadron of 16 Portuguese barks sailed into Surat. On 22 September 1612 Captain Best decided to send an emissary to the Emperor asking for permission to trade and settle a factory at Surat. If refused he planned to quit the country; this may have been because King James I had extended the Company's charter in 1609 on the basis that it would be cancelled if no profitable ventures were concluded within three years. On 30 September 1612 Captain Best got news that two of his men, Mr Canning and William Chambers were arrested while on shore. Fearing the worst, Captain Best detained a ship belonging to the Governor of Gujarat and offered to release it in exchange for his men.
On 10 October Captain Best and his ships sailed to Suvali, a small town about 12 miles North of Surat. This may have been because the Governor was battling a Rajput rebellion at a fort situated in the town. Between 17–21 October, amidst negotiations he managed to obtain a treaty with the Governor allowing trading privileges, subject to ratification by the Emperor. A skirmish took place between the two navies on the 29th without much damage to either side. At daylight on 30 October, Captain Best in Red Dragon sailed through the four Portuguese galleons during which three of them ran aground, was joined by Hosiander on the other side; the Portuguese managed to get the three galleons refloated. At 9pm that night in an attempt to set the English ships alight, a bark was sent towards them as a fire ship, but the English watch was alert, the bark was sunk by cannon fire with the loss of eight lives. A standoff remained until 5 December, when Captain Best sailed
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Portuguese conquest of Goa
The Portuguese conquest of Goa occurred when the governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque captured the city in 1510. Goa was not among the cities Albuquerque had received orders to conquer: he had only been ordered by the Portuguese king to capture Hormuz and Malacca. On November 4, 1509, Afonso de Albuquerque succeeded Dom Francisco de Almeida as Governor of the Portuguese State of India, after the arrival in India of the Marshal of Portugal Dom Fernando Coutinho, sent by King Manuel to enforce the orderly succession of Albuquerque to office. Unlike Almeida, Albuquerque realized that the Portuguese could take a more active role breaking Muslim supremacy in the Indian Ocean trade by taking control of three strategic chokepoints – Aden and Malacca. Albuquerque understood the necessity of establishing a base of operations in lands directly controlled by the Portuguese crown and not just in territory granted by allied rulers such as Cochin and Cannanore. Shortly after a failed attack on Calicut in 1509, Albuquerque was replenishing his troops in Cochin and organizing an expedition with which to attack the Suez in the Red Sea, where the Mamluks were believed to be preparing a new fleet to send to India against the Portuguese.
The Portuguese Marshall Dom Fernando Coutinho had been killed in Calicut, fortuitously leaving Albuquerque with full, uncontested command of Portuguese forces in India. The Portuguese force was composed of 23 ships, 1200 Portuguese soldiers, 400 Portuguese sailors, 220 Malabarese auxiliaries from Cochin and 3000 "combat slaves"; the expedition set sail for the Red Sea in late January 1510, in February 6th anchored by Canannore and in the 13th sighted Mount of Eli. By the Mount of Eli, Albuquerque summoned his captains to his flagship, the Flor de la Mar, where he revealed the objective of the expedition: He had orders from King Manuel I to subjugate Hormuz, but seeing as the Mamluks were assembling a fleet at the Suez, he considered diverting from the original course of action and destroy it before it was ready. Thereafter, the expedition resumed its course and anchored by the city of Honavar, where Albuquerque was approached by an acquaintance of the Portuguese: the powerful Malabarese privateer, Timoji.
Timoji claimed to Albuquerque that it would be dangerous to leave for the Red Sea, as within the nearby city of Goa the remnants of the Mamluk expedition destroyed in the Battle of Diu were regrouping and reffiting new ships, but the city was scarcely defended as Sultan of Bijapur Yusuf Adil Shah had died and his heir Ismail Adil Shah was young and inexperienced. Knowing of the discontent among the Hindus of Goa after falling to the Muslim rulers of Bijapur in 1496, Timoji proposed to Albuquerque his support in capturing the city. Timoji's timely proposition was not coincidental, as Albuquerque had received in Cochin envoys of Timoji requesting a rendezvous. Upon assembling with his captains, Albuquerque convinced them that it was crucial that they attack Goa. In February 16, the Portuguese armada sailed into the deep waters of the Mandovi river. Supported by 2000 men of Timoji, the Portuguese landed troops commanded by Dom António de Noronha and assaulted the fort of Pangim, defended by a Turkish mercenary Yusuf Gurgij and a force of 400 men.
Yusuf was wounded and retreated to the city and the Portuguese captured the fort along with several iron artillery pieces. At Pangim Albuquerque received envoys from the most important figures of Goa, proposed religious freedom and lower taxes should they accept Portuguese sovereignty. Thereafter they declared their full support towards the Portuguese and Albuquerque formally occupied Goa on February 17, 1510, with no resistance. Albuquerque reaffirmed that the city was not to be sacked and that the inhabitants were not to be harmed, under the penalty of death. In the city, the Portuguese found over 100 horses belonging to the ruler of Bijapur, 25 elephants and finished new ships, confirming Timoji's information about the enemy's preparations. For his assistance, he was nominated tanadar-mor of the Hindus of Goa; the Muslims on their part were allowed to live by their laws under their own Muslim magistrate, Coje Bequi. Expecting retaliation from the Sultan of Bijapur, Albuquerque began organizing the city's defences.
The city's walls were repaired, the moat was expanded and filled with water and storehouses for weapons and supplies were built. The ships were to be finished and pressed into Portuguese service, the five fording points into the island – Banastarim, Naroá, Agaçaim, Passo Seco and Daugim – were defended by Portuguese and Malabarese troops, supported by several artillery pieces. At the same time, Albuquerque sent friar Luiz do Salvador ahead of an embassy to the court of the neighbouring Hindu Vijayanagara Empire, hoping to secure an alliance against Bijapur. Unbeknownst to Albuquerque, the Adil Shah had just agreed on a truce with the Vijayanagara Empire, could divert many more troops into recapturing the city than expected. To that effect, he sent a Turkish general, Pulad Khan, with 40,000 troops, which included many experienced Persian and Turkic mercenaries, that defeated Timoja's troops on the mainland. Ismail Adil Shah set up his royal tent by the Benastarim ford, awaiting for the monsoon to trap the Portuguese before giving Pulad Khan the order to assault the island.
Albuquerque was informed of this plan through the Portuguese renegade João Machado, now a prestigious captain in the Adil Shah's service, though he remained Christian. He was sent to convince his fellow countrymen to flee. Trusting the strength of his defensive position, Albuquerque rejected Machado's propositions. Machado told Albuquerque that Ismail maintain
The fusta or fuste was a narrow and fast ship with shallow draft, powered by both oars and sail—in essence a small galley. It had 12 to 18 two-man rowing benches on each side, a single mast with a lateen sail, carried two or three guns; the sail was used to cruise and save the rowers’ energy, while the oars propelled the ship in and out of harbor and during combat. The fusta was the favorite ship of the North African corsairs of the Barbary Coast, its speed, capability to move without wind, its ability to operate in shallow water—crucial for hiding in coastal waters before pouncing on a passing ship—made it ideal for war and piracy. It was with fustas that the Barbarossa brothers, Baba Aruj and Khair ad Din, carried out the Ottoman conquest of North Africa and the rescue of Mudéjars and Moriscos from Spain after the fall of Granada, that they and the other North African corsairs used to wreak terror upon Christian shipping and the islands and coastal areas of the Mediterranean in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Bicheno, Hugh and Cross: The Battle of Lepanto 1571, Phoenix Paperback, London, 2004, ISBN 1-84212-753-5 Svat Soucek, "The Ottomans and Their Rivals and Galleons, Portolan Charts and Isolarii", in his Piri Reis & Turkish Mapmaking After Columbus: The Khalili Portolan Atlas, Nour Foundation, 1995
Siege of Fort Jesus
The Siege of Fort Jesus was a siege of the Portuguese fort at Mombasa by the army of the Imam of Oman, Saif I bin Sultan, from 13 March 1696 to 13 December 1698. The Yaruba dynasty had been expanding since the expulsion of the Portuguese from Oman in 1650, they engaged in slave trade. In 1660 they could not capture the fort; when the Omanis surrounded Fort Jesus in 1696 the garrison consisted of between 50 and 70 Portuguese soldiers and several hundred loyal Arabs. Hunger and disease thinned the garrison and the civilian population who had taken refuge in the fort; the Queen of Zanzibar sent supplies to the fort but no reinforcements arrived from the Portuguese until the siege was lifted in December 1696. Soon the Omanis returned and disease killed all the Portuguese soldiers; the defense was left in the hands of Sheikh Daud of Faza with seventeen of his family members, 8 African men and 50 African women. Portuguese reinforcements arrived again on September 15 and December 1697. After another year of siege, in December 1698, the garrison comprised only the Captain, nine men and a priest.
The last Omani attack on December 13 captured the fort. Just seven days after its capture a Portuguese relief fleet arrived to see the fort lost; the siege had lasted three years. Mombasa would remain in Omani hands until 1728. Beck, Sanderson. Africa and Slavery 1500–1800 LetsGoToKenya.com. Fort Jesus, Mombasa