Battle of Cape Corvo
The Battle of Cape Corvo was a naval engagement of the Ottoman–Habsburg wars fought as part of the struggle for the control of the Mediterranean. It took place in August 1613 near the island of Samos when a Spanish squadron from Sicily, under Admiral Ottavio dAragona, the Spanish were victorious and captured seven galleys and about 600 prisoners, among them the Bey of Alexandria and another 60 important Ottoman nobles. Upon his arrival, the Spanish squadron of Sicily had no seaworthy galleys, by July 1612, eight galleys and several sailing vessels had been built following Osunas instructions, the latter being assigned to transport tasks. Osuna trusted the command of this force to the Palermitan Ottavio dAragona. DAragona carried out raids in Ottoman territory, attacking by surprise La Goulette. Don Antonio Pimentel burnt seven sailing ships led by an English renegade in the port of Tunis that same year, the major engagement, as well as Osunas biggest victory of 1612, was the rejection in August of a huge Ottoman fleet which tried to capture Messina.
Two galleys and three galliots were captured, and a prize coming from Cartagena was recovered, the Ottoman landing parties, isolated from their ships, surrendered to the Spanish cavalry or attempted to escape inland. In mid-1613, dAragona landed 200 musketeers,50 arquebusiers and 100 pikemen in Chicheri, upon dAragonas return, Osuna ordered him to prepare a campaign to face the Ottoman fleet in its own waters. DAragonas galleys were reinforced, each one with 100 muskets,50 spontoons,20 bucklers and 150 chuzos in case it was necessary to arm the rowers to help the soldiers to fight the Ottomans. Osunas flagship, was reinforced with 160 musketeers and seven cannons, Ottavio dAragona set sail to the Aegean Sea in command of his eight galleys. South of Samos, the Spanish Admiral was informed by Greek fishermen of the presence of 10 Ottoman galleys under Sinari Pasha in the surrounding area, after three hours of combat, Sinari Pasha surrendered his galley, and was followed by his second-in-command and five other galleys.
The remaining three managed to escape, about 400 Ottoman soldiers and sailors were killed, and another 600 captured. Moreover,1,200 Christian galley slaves were freed, the casualties on the Spanish side had been low and consisted of six men killed and 30 wounded. They soon returned to Sicily with their seven prizes, which were incorporated to their fleet at their arrival at Messina, another prize was taken during the cruise, a brigantine crewed by 17 Turks. The whole fleet, was nearly lost in a storm off Cape Solanto,10 leagues of Messina, on 27 September Osuna organized a triumphal procession in Palermo to honour Ottavio dAragona. El gran duque de Osuna y su marina, jornadas contra turcos y venecianos, linde, Luís M. Don Pedro Girón, duque de Osuna, la hegemonía española en Europa a comienzos del siglo XVII. Victorias por Mar de los Españoles
Siege of Klis
The Siege of Klis or Battle of Klis was a siege of Klis Fortress in the Kingdom of Croatia within Habsburg Monarchy. After decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava field in 1493, and especially after the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Croats continued defending themselves against the Ottoman attacks. The Ottoman conquest during the years of the 16th century prompted the formation of the Uskoks. As a part of the Habsburg defensive system, Uskoks used the base at Klis as an important defensive position and they fought almost alone against the Ottomans, and for more than two decades defended the fortress against the Ottoman attacks. Citizens fled the town, while the Uskoci retreated to the city of Senj, Klis became an administrative centre or sanjak of the Bosnia Eyalet, and would remain so for a century. Decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava field in 1493, however, it did not dissuade the Croats from making more decisive and persistent attempts at defending themselves against the attacks of the much larger enemy.
A new wave of Ottoman conquest began in 1521, after which a portion of Croatia was conquered or pillaged. On 29 August 1526, at the Battle of Mohács, the Christian forces led by King Louis II were defeated by Ottoman forces led by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Louis was killed in the battle, which resulted in the end of the independent Kingdom of Hungary as he died without an heir, both the Kingdoms of Hungary and Croatia became disputed territories with claims from both the Habsburg and Ottoman empires. Owing to its location, Klis Fortress was an important defensive position during the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, the fortress stands along the route by which the Ottomans could penetrate the mountain barrier separating the coastal lowlands from around Split, from Ottoman-held Bosnia. Although nominally accepting the sovereignty of the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand, who obtained the Croatian crown in 1527, Kružić, from 1513, Petar Kružić was one of the commanding officers of Klis Fortress.
The Ottomans attempted to conquer the Klis Fortress on several occasions, the first major attempt was by Skender-beg Ornosović in 1515. The Ottomans captured Klis, a village just below the fortress bearing the same name, Kružić was promoted to captain of the Klis Fortress by the ban Petar Berislavić in 1520. The second major attempt was in 1520, and a year another attempt was made by Makut-paša, with additional 2,000 infantry,50 horsemen, another unsuccessful attempt was made in 1522, by Hasan-paša from Mostar and Mehmed-beg Mihalbegović. Later that year, Mihalbegović made another attempt at a siege with 3,000 men, during 1523, Klis Fortress was again under attack by the Sultans army. Attempts were made by Gazi Husrev-beg in 1526 and 1528, in 1534, the Ottomans under Mihalbegović laid a months-long siege with a constant concentrated cannonade to the fortress. Ferdinand urged the Pope to send ships to relieve the Ottoman siege, although the Ottomans eventually lifted the siege, Ferdinand was displeased that the Pope had provided no assistance in the defense of the fortress.
In 1535, the Ottomans tried to seize the fortress by treachery, and again in 1536, during that year the Ottomans started a new siege which would last until the final fall of the fortress
The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer.
In Ottoman Turkish, it has been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
Another possible origin is the Old French word galie meaning galley, from Byzantine Greek galea. The galea was a warship of the Byzantine navy, and its name may be related to the Greek word galeos, the term was originally given to certain types of war galleys in the Middle Ages. The Annali Genovesi mentions galleons of 80,64 and 60 oars, used for battle and on missions of exploration and it is very likely that the galleons and galliots mentioned in the accounts of the crusades were the same vessels. In the early 16th century, the Venetian galleoni was a new class of galley used to hunt down pirates in the Mediterranean. In Portugal at least, Portuguese carracks were very large ships for their time, while galleons were mostly under 500 tons. One of the largest and most famous of Portuguese galleons was the São João Baptista, there are disputes about its origins and development but each Atlantic sea power built types suited to its needs, while constantly learning from their rivals. It was the captains of the Spanish navy, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and Álvaro de Bazán, the galleon was powered entirely by wind, using sails carried on three or four masts, with a lateen sail continuing to be used on the last masts.
They were used in military and trade applications, most famously in the Spanish treasure fleet, and the Manila Galleons. While carracks played the role in early global explorations, galleons played a part in the 16th and 17th centuries. In fact, galleons were so versatile that a vessel may have been refitted for wartime and peacetime roles several times during its lifespan. The galleon was the prototype of all square-rigged ships with three or more masts for over two and a half centuries, including the full-rigged ship, Galleons were constructed from oak and various hardwoods for hull and decking. The expenses involved in construction were enormous. Hundreds of expert tradesmen worked day and night for months before a galleon was seaworthy, to cover the expense, galleons were often funded by groups of wealthy businessmen who pooled resources for a new ship. Therefore, most galleons were originally consigned for trade, although those captured by rival states were usually put into military service, the most common gun used aboard a galleon was the demi-culverin, although gun sizes up to demi-cannon were possible.
Galleons were a class of blue water sailing ship that combined the easy-to-maneuver fore-and-aft rig of smaller shipping with the rig of late middle ages cargo vessels. On average with three masts, in larger galleons, a fourth mast was added, usually another lateen-rigged mizzen, the oldest known scale drawings in England are in a manuscript called Fragments of Ancient Shipwrightry made in about 1586 by Mathew Baker, a master-shipwright. This manuscript, held at the Pepysian Library, Magdalene College, provides a reference for the size. Based on these plans, the Science Museum, London has built a 1,48 scale model ship that is an exemplar of galleons of this era
Ottoman invasion of the Balearic Islands (1558)
An Ottoman raid of the Balearic islands was accomplished by the Ottoman Empire in 1558, against the Spanish Habsburg territory of the Balearic islands. The Ottomans had already attacked the Balearic Islands many times previously, followed the sacks of Pollença, the Sack of Mahon in 1535, Alcúdia, Andratx, and Sóller. Ottoman attacks only decreased after the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, through the services of his ambassador Jean Cavenac de la Vigne, Henry II obtained the dispatch of an Ottoman fleet in 1558. Suleyman the Magnificent sent his fleet as a diversion to help his French allies against the Habsburgs, the Ottoman armada left Constantinople in April 1558. On June 13,1558, the Ottoman fleet ravaged Italy, with little effect however apart from the sack of Sorrento, part of the possessions of Spain in southern Italy, in July, the fleet started to ravage the Balearic islands. The Ottoman force consisted of 15,000 soldiers on 150 warships, the Ottomans, after repulsing an attack on Mahón, attacked the citadel of Ciutadella in Menorca, which was only garrisoned with 40 soldiers.
On 9 July 1558, the Ottomans under Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis put the town under siege for eight days, after the fall of the citadel, the city was ravaged and the population enslaved. All of Ciutadellas 3,099 inhabitants who survived the siege were sold into slavery in the Ottoman Empire, in total,3,452 locals were sold at the slave markets of Constantinople. The Balearic islands were ravaged, and 4,000 people were taken as prisoners, suleiman apologized in a letter to Henry at the end of 1558
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries, when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg. The Habsburg rulers reached the zenith of their influence and power and this period of Spanish history has been referred to as the Age of Expansion. The Habsburg years were a Spanish Golden Age of cultural efflorescence, in some cases, these individual kingdoms themselves were confederations, most notably, the Crown of Aragon. Isabella and Ferdinand were bestowed the title of Most Catholic Monarchs by Pope Alexander VI in 1496, the Habsburg period is formative of the notion of Spain in the sense that was institutionalized in the 18th century. Her husband Philip I was the Habsburg son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, shortly thereafter Joanna began to lapse into insanity, though how mentally ill she actually was the topic of some debate. In 1506, Philip I was declared jure uxoris king, but he died that year under mysterious circumstances, possibly poisoned by his father-in-law, Ferdinand II.
Since their oldest son Charles was only six, the Cortes reluctantly allowed Joannas father Ferdinand II to rule the country as the regent of Joanna, Spain was now in personal union under Ferdinand II of Aragon. He attempted to enlarge Spains sphere of influence in Italy, as ruler of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and the Republic of Venice for control of Italy, these conflicts became the center of Ferdinands foreign policy as king. The war was less of a success than that against Venice, Ferdinand would die that year. Ferdinands death led to the ascension of young Charles to the throne as Charles I of Castile and Aragon and his Spanish inheritance included all the Spanish possessions in the New World and around the Mediterranean. Upon the death of his Habsburg father in 1506, Charles had inherited the Netherlands and Franche-Comté, in 1519, with the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian I, Charles inherited the Habsburg territories in Germany, and was duly elected as Holy Roman Emperor that year.
At that point and King Charles was the most powerful man in Christendom, the accumulation of so much power by one man and one dynasty greatly concerned Francis I of France, who found himself surrounded by Habsburg territories. In 1521 Francis invaded the Spanish possessions in Italy and Navarre, the war was a disaster for France, which suffered defeats at Biccoca and Landriano before Francis relented and abandoned Milan to Spain once more. Charless victory at the Battle of Pavia surprised many Italians and Germans, Pope Clement VII switched sides and now joined forces with France and prominent Italian states against the Habsburg Emperor, in the War of the League of Cognac. Henry VIII of England, who bore a grudge against France than he held against the Emperor for standing in the way of his divorce. Although the Spanish army was defeated at the Battle of Ceresole, in Savoy Henry fared better. The Austrians, led by Charless younger brother Ferdinand, continued to fight the Ottomans in the east, with France defeated, Charles went to take care of an older problem, the Schmalkaldic League.
The Protestant Reformation had begun in Germany in 1517, the German Peasants War broke out in Germany in 1524 and ravaged the country until it was brutally put down in 1526, even as far away from Germany as he was, was committed to keeping order
Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea to the Armenian Highlands, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Armenian, Laz and Greek. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea.
This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary, under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria, the first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. As the name of Asia came to be extended to areas east of the Mediterranean. The name Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise”, the precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western, the modern Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή.
The Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin, in English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. It is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, which was used by the Europeans to define the Seljuk controlled parts of Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Human habitation in Anatolia dates back to the Paleolithic, neolithic Anatolia has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest branch of Indo-European, have spoken in Anatolia since at least the 19th century BC. The earliest historical records of Anatolia stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire during the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC, scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian-, one of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines.
They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, originating from Nesa, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the most widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script, invented in Mesopotamia
Conquest of Tunis (1574)
The Conquest of Tunis in 1574 marked the final conquest of Tunis by the Ottoman Empire over the Spanish Empire. The capture of Tunis in 1574 sealed the Ottoman domination of the eastern, Tunis had initially been conquered by the Ottomans under Hayreddin Barbarossa in 1534. In the next year, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had launched a major expedition and he established a garrison and a vassal ruler in the person of the Hafsid ruler Lhacène. Selim II sent his support through a messenger, who endeavoured to put the Dutch in contact with the rebellious Moriscos of Spain, Selim sent a great fleet to attack Tunis in the Autumn of 1574, thus succeeding in reducing Spanish pressure on the Dutch. In the Battle of La Goleta, Selim II mustered a fleet of between 250 and 300 warships, with about 75,000 men, the Ottoman fleet was commanded by Sinan Pacha and Alūj Ali. The Ottoman fleet combined with troops sent by the governors of Algiers and Tunis, the army attacked Tunis and La Goleta, the presidio of La Goleta, defended by 7,000 men, fell on 24 August 1574.
The last Christian troops in a small fort opposite Tunis surrendered on 3 September 1574, john of Austria attempted to relieve the siege with a fleet of galleys from Naples and Sicily but failed due to storms. The Spanish crown, being involved in the Netherlands and short of funds was unable to help significantly. Cervantes participated in events as a soldier, and was among the troops of Don Juan of Austria which tried to rescue the city. He claims that the Ottomans led 22 assaults against the fort of Tunis, losing 25,000 men, while only 300 Christians survived. He wrote about the battle, If Goleta and the fort, put together, held barely 7,000 soldiers, how could such a force, however resolute, come out. And how can you help losing a stronghold that is not relieved, and especially when it is surrounded by a stubborn and very numerous army, abd al-Malik, the future Moroccan King, participated in the 1574 conquest of Tunis on the side of the Ottomans. Gabrio Serbelloni was the commander of the fort of Tunis, the general of La Goleta, Don Pedro Portocarerro was taken as a captive to Constantinople, but died on his way.
The captured soldiers were employed as slaves on galleys, the battle marked the final establishment of Ottoman rule in Tunis, putting an end to the Hafsid dynasty and the Spanish presence in Tunis. The success of the Turks under Occhiali in the battle of Goleta managed in reducing Spanish pressure on the Dutch, and leading to negotiations at the Conference of Breda. After the death of Charles IX in May 1574 however, contacts weakened, although the Ottomans are said to have supported the 1575–1576 revolt, and establish, in 1582, a Consulate in Antwerp. The Ottomans made a truce with Spain, and shifted their attention to their conflict with Persia in the Ottoman–Safavid War, the Spanish crown fell into bankruptcy on 1 September 1575
Siege of Tripoli (1551)
The Siege of Tripoli occurred in 1551 when the Ottomans besieged and vanquished the Knights of Malta in the fortress of Tripoli, modern Libya. The Spanish had established a fort in Tripoli in 1510, the siege culminated in a six-day bombardment and the surrender of the city on 15 August. The city was under the command of Father Gaspard de Vallier, the Ottomans had a base since 1531 in the city of Tajura,20 kilometers to the east, where Khayr al-Din had been based. The Ottomans encircled the fort, and established 3 batteries of 12 guns each, soon the soldiers in the fort mutinied, and negotiation for surrender started. The city was captured on 15 August 1551 by Sinan Pasha after six days of bombardment, the Knights, many of them French, were returned to Malta upon the intervention of the French ambassador, and shipped onboard his galleys, while the mercenaries were enslaved. Murād Agha, the Ottoman commander of Tajura since 1536, was named as the Pashalik of the city, Nicolas de Villegagnon, the future explorer of Brazil, was present at the siege of Tripoli in 1551, and wrote an account about it in 1553.
From Malta, dAramon wrote a letter about his intervention to Henry II, the role of dAramon was widely criticized by Charles V and Julius III on suspicion that he had encouraged the Ottomans to take the city. In any instance, dAramon had a relationship with the Ottomans. Upon his return to Malta, Gaspard de Vallier was heavily criticized by the Grand Master Juan de Homedes y Coscon who wished to all the blame for the defeat on him. He was brought in front of a tribunal, and stripped from the habit and he had been however staunchly defended by Nicolas de Villegagnon, who exposed the duplicity of de Homedes. The siege was the first step of the all-out Italian War of 1551–1559 in the European theater, in 1553, Dragut was nominated commander of Tripoli by Suleiman, making the city an important center for piratical raids in the Mediterranean and the capital of the Ottoman province of Tripolitania. In a famous attack from Tripoli, in 1558, Dragut attacked Reggio, in 1560, a powerful naval force was sent to recapture Tripoli, but that force was defeated in the Battle of Djerba.
Franco-Ottoman alliance Timeline of Maltese history List of Ottoman sieges and landings Battle of Tripoli 2011