Kingdom of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when civil discontent led a constitutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, thereby ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power. Italy entered into a Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, following strong disagreements with France about the respective colonial expansions; however if relations with Berlin became friendly, the alliance with Vienna remained purely formal as the Italians were keen to acquire Trentino and Trieste, corners of Austria-Hungary populated by Italians.
So in 1915, Italy accepted the British invitation to join the Allied Powers, as the western powers promised territorial compensation for participation, more generous than Vienna's offer in exchange for Italian neutrality. Victory in the war gave Italy a permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. "Fascist Italy" is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government. The fascists imposed totalitarian rule and crushed the political and intellectual opposition, while promoting economic modernization, traditional social values and a rapprochement with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne, " Fascist government passed through several distinct phases"; the first phase was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, albeit with a "legally-organized executive dictatorship". Came the second phase, "the construction of the Fascist dictatorship proper, from 1925 to 1929"; the third phase, with less activism, was 1929 to 1934.
The fourth phase, 1935–1940, was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy: war against Ethiopia, launched from Italian Eritrea and Italian Somaliland, which resulted in its annexation. The war itself was the fifth phase with its disasters and defeats, while the rump Salò Government under German control was the final stage. Italy was an important member of the Axis powers in World War II, battling on several fronts with initial success. However, after the German-Italian defeat in Africa and Soviet Union and the subsequent Allied landings in Sicily, King Victor Emmanuel III placed Mussolini under arrest, the Fascist Party in areas controlled by the Allied invaders was shut down; the new government signed an armistice on September 1943. German forces occupied northern Italy with Fascists' help, setting up the Italian Social Republic, a collaborationist puppet state still led by Mussolini and his Fascist loyalists; as conseguence, the country descended into civil war, with the Italian Co-belligerent Army and the resistance movement contended the Social Republic's forces and its German allies.
Shortly after the war and the liberation of the country, civil discontent led to the constitutional referendum of 1946 on whether Italy would remain a monarchy or become a republic. Italians decided to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic, the present-day Italian state; the Kingdom of Italy claimed all of the territory which covers present-day Italy and more. The development of the Kingdom's territory progressed under Italian re-unification until 1870; the state for a long period of time did not include Trieste or Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, which were annexed in 1919 and remain Italian territories today. The Triple Entente promised to grant to Italy – if the state joined the Allies in World War I – several territories including former Austrian Littoral, western parts of former Duchy of Carniola, Northern Dalmazia and notably Zara and most of the Dalmatian islands, according to the secret London Pact of 1915. After the compromise was nullified under pressure of President Woodrow Wilson with the Treaty of Versailles, Italian claims on Northern Dalmazia were voided.
During World War II, the Kingdom gained additional territory: it gained Corsica and Savoia from France after its surrender in 1940, territory in Slovenia and Dalmazia from Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1941 and Monaco in 1942. After World War II, the borders of present-day Italy were founded and the Kingdom abandoned its land claims; the Italian Empire gained territory until the end of World War II through colonies, military occupations and puppet states. These included Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, Tunisia, Kosovo, Montenegro and a 46-hectare concession from China in Tianjin; the Kingdom of Italy was theoretically a constitutional monarchy. Executive power belonged to the monarch; the legislative branch was a bicameral Parliament comprising an appointive Senate and an elective Chamber of Deputies. The kingdom's constitution was the Statuto Albertino, the former governing document of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In theory, ministers were responsible to the king. However, by this time it was impossible for a king to appoint a government of his ow
The Harari people called Geyusu, are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa. Members traditionally reside in the walled city of Harar, situated in the Harari Region of eastern Ethiopia, they speak a member of the Ethiosemitic language group within the Afroasiatic family. The Harla, an extinct Afro-Asiatic people native to Hararghe are considered the precursor to the Harari people; the ancestors of Hararis moved across the Bab-el-Mandeb entering shores of north Somalia from Arabia, producing a semitic population among cushites and hamites in Harar. Upon the arrival of Arab Fagih Abadir the alleged patriarch of the Harari in the 10th century, he was met by the Harla and Argobba tribes. By the thirteenth century, Hararis were one of the administrators of the Ifat Sultanate. In the fourteenth century raids on Harar town of Get by Abyssinian Emperor Amda Seyon I, Hararis are referred to as Harla Arabs. In the sixteenth century, walls built around the city of Harar during the reign of Emir Nur, helped preserve Harari identity from being assimilated by the Oromo.
According to Ulrich Braukämper, Harla-Harari semitic group were most active in the region prior to the Adal Sultanate's Islamic invasion of Ethiopia. Sixteenth century saw Oromos invading regions of Somalia from the northern areas of Hargeisa to its southern portions such as Lower Juba, incorporating the Harari people. During the Abyssinian-Adal war, some Harari militia settled in Gurage territory forming the Silt'e ethnic group. Hararis were furious when Muhammad Jasa decided to move the Adal Sultanate's capital from Harar to Aussa in 1577. In less than a year after its relocation Adal would collapse. Harari imams continued to have a presence in the southern Afar Region in the Imamate of Aussa until they were overthrown in the eighteenth century by the Mudaito dynasty who established the Sultanate of Aussa. Among the assimilated peoples were Arab Muslims that arrived during the start of the Islamic period, as well as Argobba and other migrants that were drawn to Harar's well-developed culture.
Statistics prove that a Semitic-speaking people akin to the Harari may have inhabited a stretch of land between the Karkaar Mountains, the middle Awash and the Jijiga region, Oromo migrations have split this putative ethnolinguistic block to the Lake Zway islands, Gurage territory, Harar. Following the decline of the Adal Sultanate's ascendancy in the area, a large number of the Harari were in turn absorbed into the Oromo community. In the Emirate of Harar period, Hararis sent missionaries to convert Oromo to Islam; the loss in the crucial Battle of Chelenqo marked the end of Harar's independence in 1887. Hararis supported the designated but uncrowned Emperor of Ethiopia Iyasu V, his presumed efforts to make Harar the capital of an African Islamic empire. Iyasu was however overthrown in 1916, many of his Harari followers were jailed. Due to severe violation of Harari rights during Abyssinian rule, Hararis made several attempts to cut ties with Ethiopia and unify Hararghe with Somalia. Launching the nationalist Kulub movement linked to the Somali Youth League.
These events led to the Haile Selassie government's forced displacement efforts on Hararis, to break their dominant control of Harar. A Harar Oromo proverb alludes to this occasion as: "On that day Hararis were eliminated from earth." Former Mayor of Harar Bereket Selassie reported that both the Amhara and Oromo viewed Hararis with contempt. Haile Selassie's overthrow by the Derg communist regime made minor differences for the Harari, they describe it as "little more than a transition from the frying pan into the fire"; the 1975 rural act disenfranchised Hararis from their farm land. The surviving Harari relatives of the members to the Kulub movement would join the Somali Armed Forces and some having been promoted high-ranking military officers, fought in the Ogaden War to free Harari/Somali territory from Ethiopian rule. Hararis were involved in WSLF. After Ethiopians won the war in Ogaden, Derg soldiers began massacring civilians in Harari areas of Addis Ababa for collaborating with Somalis.
Today Hararis are outnumbered in their own state by the Oromo people. The ruling Ethiopian government ushered in 1991 has favored Hararis tremendously, they now control their Harari Region again and have been given special rights not offered to other groups in the region. According to academic Sarah Vaughan, Harari People's National Regional State was created to overturn the historical bad relationship between Harar and the Ethiopian government. Hararis as well as the Somali Sheekhal and Hadiya Halaba clan assert descent from Abadir Umar ar-Rida known as Fiqi Umar, who traced his lineage to the first caliph, Abu Bakr. According to the explorer Richard Francis Burton, "Fiqi Umar" crossed over from the Arabian Peninsula to the Horn of Africa ten generations prior to 1854, with his six sons: Umar the Greater, Umar the Lesser, the two Abdillahs and Siddik. According to Hararis, they consist of seven Harla subclans: Abogn, Awari, Gaturi and Wargar; the Harari were known as "Adere", although this term is now considered derogatory.
Arsi Oromo state an intermarriage took place between their ancestors and the previous inhabitants Adere whom they call the Hadiya. Hadiya clans claim their forefathers were Harari however they became influenced by Sidama. Moreover Habar Habusheed a sub clan of the Somali Isaaq tribe in northern Somalia, hold the tradition they originate from an intermarriage between Hararis and their forefathers; the Harari people speak the Harari language, an Ethiosemitic language referred to as Gey Ritma or Gey Sinan ("Language of the City"
The matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm. Before this, firearms had to be fired by applying a lit match to the priming powder in the flash pan by hand. Adding a matchlock made the firing action simple and reliable by a single soldier, allowing him to keep both hands steadying the gun and eyes on the target while firing; the classic European matchlock gun held a burning slow match in a clamp at the end of a small curved lever known as the serpentine. Upon the pull of a lever protruding from the bottom of the gun and connected to the serpentine, the clamp dropped down, lowering the smoldering match into the flash pan and igniting the priming powder; the flash from the primer travelled through the touch hole igniting the main charge of propellant in the gun barrel. On release of the lever or trigger, the spring-loaded serpentine would move in reverse to clear the pan. For obvious safety reasons, the match would be removed before reloading of the gun.
Both ends of the match were kept alight in case one end should be accidentally extinguished. Earlier types had only an "S"-shaped serpentine pinned to the stock either behind or in front of the flash pan, one end of, manipulated to bring the match into the pan. Most matchlock mechanisms mounted the serpentine forward of the flash pan; the serpentine dipped backward, toward the firer. This is the reverse of the familiar forward-dipping hammer of the flintlock and firearms. A addition to the gun was the rifled barrel; this made the gun much more accurate at longer distances but did have drawbacks, the main one being that it took much longer to reload because the bullet had to be pounded down into the barrel. A type of matchlock was developed called the snap matchlock, in which the serpentine was held in firing position by a weak spring, released by pressing a button, pulling a trigger, or pulling a short string passing into the mechanism; as the match was extinguished after its violent collision with the flash pan, this type fell out of favour with soldiers, but was used in fine target weapons.
An inherent weakness of the matchlock was the necessity of keeping the match lit. The match was steeped in potassium nitrate to keep. Being the sole source of ignition for the powder, if the match was not lit when the gun needed to be fired, the mechanism was useless, the weapon became little more than an expensive club; this was chiefly a problem in wet weather, when damp match cord was difficult to light and to keep burning. Another drawback was the burning match itself. At night, the match would glow in the darkness revealing the carrier's position; the distinctive smell of burning match-cord was a giveaway of a musketeer's position. It was quite dangerous when soldiers were carelessly handling large quantities of gunpowder with lit matches present; this was one reason why soldiers in charge of transporting and guarding ammunition were amongst the first to be issued self-igniting guns like the wheellock and snaphance. The matchlock was uneconomical to keep ready for long periods of time. To maintain a single sentry on night guard duty with a matchlock, keeping both ends of his match lit, required a mile of match per year.
The matchlock appeared in Europe in the mid-15th century, with the idea of a serpentine appearing in an Austrian manuscript. The first dated illustration of a matchlock mechanism dates to 1475 and by the 16th century they were universally used. During this time the latest tactic in using the matchlock was to line up and send off a volley of musket balls at the enemy; this volley would be much more effective than single soldiers trying to hit individual targets. David Nicolle noted that the Janissary corps of the Ottoman army were using matchlock arms from the 1440s onwards. Robert Elgood theorizes Ottoman and Italian army used the arquebus in 15th century, but this may be a type of hand cannon, not matchlocks with trigger mechanism, he agreed. Improved versions of the arquebus were transported to India by Babur in 1526. China is credited with inventing both gunpowder and firearms but the matchlock was claimed to have been introduced to China by the Portuguese. Europeans refined the hand cannons that had arrived in Europe in the early 15th century and added the matchlock mechanism.
The Chinese obtained the matchlock arquebus technology from the Portuguese in the 16th century and matchlock firearms were used by the Chinese into the 19th century. The Chinese used the term "bird-gun" to refer to muskets and Turkish muskets may have reached China before Portuguese ones. In Japan, the first documented introduction of the matchlock, which became known as the tanegashima, was through the Portuguese in 1543; the tanegashima seems to have been based on snap matchlocks that were produced in the armory of Goa in Portuguese India, captured by the Portuguese in 1510. While the Japanese were technically able to produce tempered steel, they preferred to use work-hardened brass springs in their matchlocks; the name tanegashima came from the island where a Chinese junk with Portuguese adventurers on board was driven to anchor by a storm. The lord of the Japanese island Tanegashima Tokitaka (152
Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud was a French poet, known for his influence on modern literature and arts, which prefigured surrealism. Born in Charleville-Mézières, he started writing at a young age and excelled as a student, but abandoned his formal education in his teenage years to run away from home to Paris amidst the Franco-Prussian War. During his late adolescence and early adulthood he began the bulk of his literary output completely stopped writing at the age of 21, after assembling one of his major works, Illuminations. Rimbaud was known to have been a libertine and a restless soul, having engaged in an at times violent romantic relationship with fellow poet Paul Verlaine, which lasted nearly two years. After ending his literary career, he traveled extensively on three continents as a merchant before his death from cancer just after his thirty-seventh birthday; as a poet, Rimbaud is well known for his contributions to Symbolism and, among other works, for A Season in Hell, a precursor to modernist literature.
Arthur Rimbaud was born in the provincial town of Charleville in the Ardennes department in northeastern France. He was the second child of Marie Catherine Vitalie Cuif. Rimbaud's father, a Burgundian of Provençal extraction, was an infantry captain who had risen from the ranks, he participated in the conquest of Algeria from 1844 to 1850, in 1854 was awarded the Legion of Honor "by Imperial decree". Captain Rimbaud was described as "good-tempered, easy-going and generous". with the long moustaches and goatee of a Chasseur officer. In October 1852, Captain Rimbaud aged 38, was transferred to Mézières where he met Vitalie Cuif, 11 years his junior, while on a Sunday stroll, she came from a "solidly established Ardennais family", but one with its share of bohemians. Her personality was the "exact opposite" of Captain Rimbaud's; when Charles Houin, an early biographer, interviewed her, he found her "withdrawn and taciturn". Arthur Rimbaud's private name for her was "Mouth of Darkness". On 8 February 1853, Captain Rimbaud and Vitalie Cuif married.
The next year, on 20 October 1854, Jean Nicolas Arthur was born. Three more children followed: Victorine-Pauline-Vitalie on 4 June 1857, Jeanne-Rosalie-Vitalie on 15 June 1858 and Frédérique Marie Isabelle on 1 June 1860. Though the marriage lasted seven years, Captain Rimbaud lived continuously in the matrimonial home for less than three months, from February to May 1853; the rest of the time his military postings—including active service in the Crimean War and the Sardinian Campaign —meant he returned home to Charleville only when on leave. He their baptisms. Isabelle's birth in 1860 must have been the last straw, as after this Captain Rimbaud stopped returning home on leave entirely. Though they never divorced, the separation was complete. Neither the captain nor his children showed the slightest interest in re-establishing contact. Fearing her children were being over-influenced by the neighbouring children of the poor, Mme Rimbaud moved her family to the Cours d'Orléans in 1862; this was a better neighbourhood, the boys, now aged nine and eight, taught at home by their mother, were now sent to the Pension Rossat.
Throughout the five years that they attended the school, their formidable mother still imposed her will upon them, pushing them for scholastic success. She would punish her sons by making them learn a hundred lines of Latin verse by heart, further punish any mistakes by depriving them of meals; when Rimbaud was nine, he wrote a 700-word essay objecting to his having to learn Latin in school. Vigorously condemning a classical education as a mere gateway to a salaried position, Rimbaud wrote "I will be a rentier". Rimbaud resented his mother's constant supervision; as a boy, Rimbaud was small and pale with light brown hair, eyes that his lifelong best friend, Ernest Delahaye, described as "pale blue irradiated with dark blue—the loveliest eyes I've seen". An ardent Catholic like his mother, Rimbaud had his First Communion, his piety earned him the schoolyard nickname "sale petit Cagot". That same year, he and his brother were sent to the Collège de Charleville. Up to his reading had been confined to the Bible, though he had enjoyed fairy tales and adventure stories, such as the novels of James Fenimore Cooper and Gustave Aimard.
At the Collège he became a successful student, heading his class in all subjects except mathematics and the sciences. He won eight first prizes in the French academic competitions in 1869, including the prize for Religious Education, the following year won seven first prizes. Hoping for a brilliant academic career for her second son, Mme Rimbaud hired a private tutor for Rimbaud when he reached the third grade. Father Ariste Lhéritier succeeded in sparking in the young sch
Christmas traditions vary from country to country. Christmas celebrations for many nations include the installing and lighting of Christmas trees, the hanging of Advent wreaths, Christmas stockings, candy canes, setting out cookies and milk, the creation of Nativity scenes depicting the birth of Jesus Christ. Christmas carols may be sung and stories told about such figures as the Baby Jesus, St Nicholas, Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Christkind or Grandfather Frost; the sending and exchange of Christmas card greetings, observance of fasting and special religious observances such as a midnight Mass or Vespers on Christmas Eve, the burning of a Yule log, the giving and receiving of presents. Along with Easter, Christmas is one of the most important periods on the Christian calendar, is closely connected to other holidays at this time of year, such as Advent, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, St Nicholas Day, St. Stephen's Day, New Year's, the Feast of the Epiphany. Christmas Day is a public holiday in Eritrea, celebrated on January 7 or on 27 Tahsas of the Ethiopian calendar.
Christmas is called Ledet in Gena in Ethiopia. Many people who are Christian in the two countries fast for 40 days, they head to church at dawn on Christmas morning. On Christmas Day, there will be colorful musical celebrations which involve the priests dressed in their best robes performing rituals, including dancing and playing drums and other instruments. Early in the morning at dawn, everyone dresses in white and head to the nearby church. Late in the afternoon there will be the traditional game of a kind of hockey. According to an Ethiopian legend, the game was being played by the shepherds who were tending their flocks on the night that Jesus was born; the game is attended by the leader of the community. A prize is awarded to the winner of the Gena game. Most Ethiopians don a traditional Shamma, a thin, white cotton wrap with brightly colored stripes across the ends; the holiday is followed up by the three-day festival Timkat starting on January 19 and celebrating the baptism of Jesus Christ.
Christmas Day is a public holiday in Nigeria, always marked by the emptying of towns and cities as Nigerians that have been successful returning to their ancestral villages to be with family and to bless those less fortunate. As the towns and cities empty, people jam the West African markets to buy and transport live chickens and cows that will be needed for the Christmas meals. On Christmas Eve, traditional meals are prepared according to the traditions of each region. Nigerians as a whole tend to prepare various meats in large quantities. In the south, a dish called Jollof rice is served with stews of various meats along with boiled beans and fried plantains. In the North several local desserts are made, hardly found in other parts of Nigeria. An alternative in both regions is a pepper soup with fish, goat, or beef which may be served with Fufu. Served with this food are an array of alcoholic drinks such as the traditional palm wine or various local and imported beers and wines. Gift giving in Nigeria involves money and the flow of gifts from the more fortunate to the less fortunate.
After the "successful" visitors have come from their towns and overseas, they are given time to settle in. Afterwards, local relatives begin approaching them asking for assistance of some kind, whether financial or not. Financial donations and elaborately wrapped gifts may be given out at lavish parties and ceremonies. Religion in Nigeria is about divided between Christians and Muslims. There are occasional outbreaks of religious conflict; the Islamic sect Boko Haram has attacked Christian churches with bombings on Christmas 2011. Christmas in South Africa is a public holiday celebrated on December 25. Many European traditions are maintained despite the distance from Europe. Christmas trees are set up in homes and the children are given presents in their stockings. Traditional'fir' Christmas trees are popular and children leave a stocking or milk and cookies out for Santa Claus on Christmas Eve; the gift bearer is Santa Claus on Christmas Eve. Towns and cities have Carols by Candlelight in the beginning of the festive season where groups of people come together to sing Christmas carols and donate toys and clothing to needy children.
The Christmas meal is mince pies, gammon, beef tongue, corned beef, green salad,roast beef or a barbecue outdoors. The meal is finished with Ice cream or trifle. Christmas crackers are used to make noise. Despite Christmas occurring at the height of the Southern Hemisphere summer, wintry motifs common to the Northern Hemisphere are popular. In China, December 25 is not a legal holiday. However, it is still designated as a public holiday in China's special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, both former colonies of Western powers with nominal Christian cultural heritage. In the mainland, the small percentage of Chinese citizens who consider themselves Christians unofficially, privately, observe Christmas. Many other individuals celebrate Christmas-like festivities though they do not consider themselves Christians. Many customs, including sending cards, exchanging gifts, hanging stockings are similar to Western celebrations. Commercial Christmas decorations and other symbolic items have become in
Harar, known to its inhabitants as Gēy, is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It was the capital of Hararghe and now the capital of the modern Harari Region of Ethiopia; the city is located on a hilltop in the eastern extension of the Ethiopian Highlands, about five hundred kilometers from the national capital Addis Ababa at an elevation of 1,885 meters. Based on figures from the Central Statistical Agency in 2005, Harar had an estimated total population of 122,000, of whom 60,000 were males and 62,000 were females. According to the census of 1994, on which this estimate is based, the city had a population of 76,378. For centuries, Harar has been a major commercial center, linked by the trade routes with the rest of Ethiopia, the entire Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, through its ports, the outside world. Harar Jugol, the old walled city, was listed as a World Heritage Site in 2006 by UNESCO in recognition of its cultural heritage, it is sometimes known in Arabic as "the City of Saints".
According to UNESCO, it is "considered'the fourth holy city' of Islam" with 82 mosques, three of which date from the 10th century, 102 shrines. The Fath Madinat Harar records that the cleric Abadir Umar ar-Rida and several other religious leaders settled in Harar circa 1216. Harar was made the new capital of the Adal Sultanate in 1520 by the Somali Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad; the city saw a political decline during the ensuing Emirate of Harar, only regaining some significance in the Khedivate of Egypt period. During the Ethiopian Empire, the city decayed. Today, it is the seat of the Harari Region, it is the original inhabitants of the region were the Harla people. In its early history, the city was under an alliance called the Zeila confederate states. According to twelfth century Jewish traveler Benjamin Tudela, Zeila region was the land of the Havilah, confined by Al-Habash in the west. In the ninth century, Harar was under the Makhzumi dynasty. Harar Called Gēy by its inhabitants Harari people, Harar emerged as the center of Islamic culture and religion in the Horn of Africa during end of the Middle Ages.
According to the Fath Madinat Harar, an unpublished history of the city in the 13th century, the cleric Abadir Umar ar-Rida, along with several other religious leaders, came from the Arabian Peninsula to settle in Harar circa 612H. Abadir was met by the Harla and Argobba. Abadir's brother Fakr ad-Din subsequently founded the Sultanate of Mogadishu. According to the 14th century chronicles of Amda Seyon I, Gēt was an Arab colony in Harla country. During the Middle Ages, Harar was part of the Adal Sultanate, becoming its capital in 1520 under Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad; the sixteenth century was the city's Golden Age. The local culture flourished, many poets lived and wrote there, it became known for coffee, weaving and bookbinding. From Harar, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi known as "Gurey" and "Grañ", launched a war of conquest in the sixteenth century that extended the polity's territory and threatened the existence of the neighboring Christian Ethiopian Empire, his successor, Emir Nur ibn Mujahid, built a protective wall around the city.
Four meters in height with five gates, this structure, called Jugol, is still intact and is a symbol of the town to the inhabitants. Silt'e, Wolane and Harari, lived in Harar while the former three moved to the Gurage region; the Emirate of Harar struck its own currency, the earliest possible issues bearing a date that may be read as AH 615. Following the death of Emir Nur, Harar began a steady decline in power. A ruler, Imam Muhammed Jasa, a kinsman of Ahmad Gragn, yielded to the pressures of increasing Oromo raids and in 1577 abandoned the city, relocating to Aussa and making his brother ruler of Harar; the new base not only failed to provide more security from the Oromos, it attracted the hostile attention of the neighboring Afars who raided caravans traveling between Harar and the coast. The Imams of Aussa declined over the next century while Harar regained its independence under `Ali ibn Da`ud, the founder of a dynasty that ruled the city from 1647 until 1875, when it was conquered by Egypt.
Harar was dependent on Berbera for trade since the Middle Ages. According to Sir Richard Burton, who visited both Berbera and Harar during his travels, he repeated a famous Harari saying he heard in 1854: "He who commands at Berbera, holds the beard of Harar in his hands." Much of the trade between the two historic towns was controlled by merchants belonging to the Habar Awal Somali clan, who partook in the trade of the renowned Harari coffee beans, named Berbera Coffee in the international market. During the period of Egyptian rule, Arthur Rimbaud lived in the city as the local functionary of several different commercial companies based in Aden. A house said to have been his residence. In 1885, Harar regained its independence, but this lasted only two years until 6 January 1887 when the Battle of Chelenqo led to Harar's incorporation into the Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia's growing Empire based in Shewa. Harar lost some of its commercial importance with the creation of the French-built Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway intended to run via the city but diverted north of the mountains between Harar and the Awash River to save money.
As a result of this, Dire Dawa was founded in 1902
French colonial empire
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is made between the "first colonial empire," that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost, the "second colonial empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830; the second colonial empire came to an end after the loss in wars of Indochina and Algeria, peaceful decolonizations elsewhere after 1960. Competing with Spain, the Dutch United Provinces and England, France began to establish colonies in North America, the Caribbean and India in the 17th century. A series of wars with Britain and others resulted in France losing nearly all of its conquests by 1814. France rebuilt a new empire after 1850, concentrating chiefly in Africa as well as Indochina and the South Pacific. Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build their own colonial empire; as it developed, the new empire took on roles of trade with France supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language and the Catholic religion.
It provided manpower in the World Wars. A major goal was the ‘Mission civilisatrice’ the mission to spread French culture and religion, this proved successful. In 1884, the leading proponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry, declared. Full citizenship rights – assimilation – were offered, although in reality "assimilation was always receding the colonial populations treated like subjects not citizens." France sent small numbers of settlers to its empire, contrary to Great Britain and Spain and Portugal, with the only notable exception of Algeria, where the French settlers nonetheless always remained a small minority. At its apex, it was one of the largest empires in history. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 11,500,000 km2 in 1920, with a population of 110 million people in 1939. In World War II, Charles de Gaulle and the Free French used the overseas colonies as bases from which they fought to liberate France. Historian Tony Chafer argues: "In an effort to restore its world-power status after the humiliation of defeat and occupation, France was eager to maintain its overseas empire at the end of the Second World War."
However, after 1945 anti-colonial movements began to challenge European authority. The French constitution of 27 October 1946, established the French Union which endured until 1958. Newer remnants of the colonial empire were integrated into France as overseas departments and territories within the French Republic; these now total altogether 119,394 km², which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2.7 million people living in them in 2013. By the 1970s, says Robert Aldrich, the last "vestiges of empire held little interest for the French." He argues, "Except for the traumatic decolonization of Algeria, what is remarkable is how few long-lasting effects on France the giving up of empire entailed." During the 16th century, the French colonization of the Americas began. Excursions of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French boats and fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion.
But Spain's defense of its American monopoly, the further distractions caused in France itself in the 16th century by the French Wars of Religion, prevented any constant efforts by France to settle colonies. Early French attempts to found colonies in Brazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro and in Florida, in 1612 at São Luís, were not successful, due to a lack of official interest and to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance; the story of France's colonial empire began on 27 July 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. A few years in 1608, Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec, to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France. New France had a rather small population, which resulted from more emphasis being placed on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlements. Due to this emphasis, the French relied on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. Without the appetite of New England for land, by relying on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military and diplomatic connections.
These became the most enduring alliances between the First Nation community. The French were, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism. Through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent. Areas of French settlement were limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies, it is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Back in France there was littl