Elizabeth, New Jersey
Elizabeth is both the largest city and the county seat of Union County, in New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 124,969, retaining its ranking as New Jersey's fourth most populous city, behind Paterson; the population increased by 4,401 from the 120,568 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 10,566 from the 110,002 counted in the 1990 Census. For 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated a population of 130,215, an increase of 4.2% from the 2010 enumeration, ranking the city the 212th-most-populous in the nation. In 2008, Elizabeth was named one of "America's 50 Greenest Cities" by Popular Science magazine, the only city in New Jersey selected. Elizabeth called "Elizabethtown" and part of the Elizabethtown Tract, was founded in 1664 by English settlers; the town was not named for Queen Elizabeth I as many people may assume, but rather for Elizabeth, wife of Sir George Carteret, one of the two original Proprietors of the colony of New Jersey.
She was the daughter of 3rd Seigneur de Sark and Anne Dowse. The town served as the first capital of New Jersey. During the American Revolutionary War, Elizabethtown was continually attacked by British forces based on Manhattan and Staten Island, culminating in the Battle of Springfield which decisively defeated British attempts to gain New Jersey. After independence, it was from Elizabethtown that George Washington embarked by boat to Manhattan for his 1789 inauguration. There are numerous monuments of the American Revolution in Elizabeth. On March 13, 1855, the City of Elizabeth was created by an act of the New Jersey Legislature and replacing both Elizabeth Borough and Elizabeth Township, subject to the results of a referendum held on March 27, 1855. On March 19, 1857, the city became part of the newly created Union County. Portions of the city were taken to form Linden Township on March 4, 1861; the first major industry, the Singer Sewing Machine Company came to Elizabeth and employed as many as 2,000 people.
In 1895, it saw one of the first car companies, when Electric Carriage and Wagon Company was founded to manufacture the Electrobat, joined soon by another electric car builder, Andrew L. Riker; the Electric Boat Company got its start building submarines for the United States Navy in Elizabeth, New Jersey, beginning with the launch of USS Holland in 1897. These pioneering naval craft were developed at Lewis Nixon's Crescent Shipyard in Elizabeth between the years 1896–1903. Elizabeth grew in parallel to its sister city of Newark for many years, but has been more successful in retaining a middle-class presence and was spared riots in the 1960s. On September 18, 2016, a backpack holding five bombs was discovered outside NJ Transit's Elizabeth train station. One bomb detonated accidentally when a bomb squad robot failed to disarm the contents of the backpack. Police were unsure if this event was related to bombs in Seaside Park, New Jersey and Manhattan that had exploded the previous day. On September 19, police arrested Ahmad Khan Rahami, a 28-year-old Afghan-born naturalized U.
S. citizen, for questioning in connection with all three incidents. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 13.464 square miles, including 12.319 square miles of land and 1.145 square miles of water. Elizabeth is bordered to the southwest by Linden, to the west by Roselle and Roselle Park, to the northwest by Union and Hillside, to the north by Newark. To the east the city is across the Newark Bay from Bayonne in Hudson County and the Arthur Kill from Staten Island, New York; the borders of Elizabeth and Staten Island meet at one point on Shooters Island, of which 7.5 acres of the island is owned by Elizabeth, though the island is managed by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. The Elizabeth River is a waterway that courses through the city for 4.2 miles and is channelized, before draining into the Arthur Kill. Midtown occasionally known as Uptown, is the main commercial district and a historic section as well, it includes the First Presbyterian Church and St. John's Episcopal Church, its St. John's Episcopal Churchyard.
The First Presbyterian Church was a battleground for the American Revolution. Located here are the 1931 Art Deco Hersh Tower, the Thomas Jefferson Arts Academy, the Ritz Theatre, operating since 1926. Midtown/Uptown includes the area once known as "Brittanville" which contained many English type gardens. Bayway borders the City of Linden. From US 1&9 and Allen Street, between the Elizabeth River and the Arthur Kill, it has maintained a strong Polish community for years. Developed at the turn of the 20th century, many of the area residents once worked at the refinery which straddles both Elizabeth and Linden. There are unique ethnic restaurants and stores along Bayway, a variety of houses of worship. Housing styles are older and well maintained. There are many affordable two to four-family housing units, multiple apartment complexes; the western terminus of the Goethals Bridge, which spans the Arthur Kill to Staten Island can be found here. A small section of the neighborhood was isolated with both the completion of the Goethals Bridge in 1928 and the construction of the New Jersey Turnpike in the 1950s.
This section known as "Relocated Bayway" will soon be a memory and piece of histor
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Battle of Bull's Ferry
The Battle of Bull's Ferry on 20 and 21 July 1780 saw two American brigades under Brigadier General Anthony Wayne attack a party of Loyalist Americans led by Thomas Ward. The Loyalists defended a blockhouse against an ineffective bombardment by four American artillery pieces and a failed attempt to storm the position by Wayne's infantry. During the action, American light dragoons under Major Light Horse Harry Lee drove off a large number of cattle that were kept in the area for the use of the British army in New York City; the clash inspired British Major John André to write a satirical ballad entitled The Cow Chace. The skirmish was fought at Bulls Ferry, New Jersey in the Northern theater of the American Revolutionary War after Saratoga. At this stage of the conflict only raids and minor actions occurred in the north; the Battle of Monmouth on 28 June 1778 was the last significant engagement in the north. After the battle, George Washington marched his army to New Brunswick, New Jersey, arriving there on 2.
Leaving William Maxwell's brigade in New Jersey, the main body of the American army crossed the Hudson River. By 24 July Washington's army arrived at White Plains, New York and placed the British garrison of New York City in a blockade that lasted the remainder of the war. In late July, the French admiral Charles Hector, comte d'Estaing arrived off Sandy Hook with one 90-gun ship of the line, one 80, six 74s, two 64s, one 50, plus four frigates. Badly outgunned, Sir Richard Howe prepared to defend the entrance to New York harbor with six 64s, three 50s, six frigates, four galleys, an armed merchantman. Meanwhile, British commander Sir Henry Clinton at Sandy Hook needed Howe's ships to transport his army to New York, otherwise he might be trapped. D'Estaing, whose larger vessels drew 30 feet was informed by local pilots that there was only 23 feet of water over the bar. On the morning of 22 July the frustrated French admiral sailed away; that afternoon a high tide pushed 30 feet of water over the bar and thus an opportunity to end the war in 1778 was missed.
On 27 September 1778, the British wiped out the 3rd Continental Light Dragoons in the Baylor Massacre. On the American side, Anthony Wayne carried out a brilliant coup in the Battle of Stony Point on 16 July 1779; this feat was followed on 19 August 1779 by another successful raid by Light Horse Harry Lee in the Battle of Paulus Hook. With a total of 27,000 troops on the Atlantic coast of North America, Clinton decided to move against Charleston, South Carolina. Leaving Wilhelm von Knyphausen to hold New York with 10,000 soldiers, Clinton embarked for the south with 8,700 troops in the fleet of Mariot Arbuthnot on 26 December 1779. Clinton was reinforced so that his army numbered 12,500; the subsequent capitulation of Benjamin Lincoln's army in the Siege of Charleston on 12 May 1780 represented the largest American mass surrender of the war. As many as 5,500 men were captured, including 2,650 irreplaceable Continental Army soldiers. Leaving Lord Charles Cornwallis in South Carolina with two-thirds of the army, Clinton headed back to New York.
Meanwhile, Knyphausen staged the Springfield Raid in June 1780. The Hessian general started out with 5,000 men on 7 June; that day, he was blocked by Elias Dayton's Continentals and militia in the Battle of Connecticut Farms. Clinton returned to New York on 17 June. Hearing that a French fleet and army was on the way to Newport, Rhode Island, the British commander sent some ships up the Hudson to make it difficult for the Americans to cross to the east side and join the French. Washington moved his army to cover his key fort at West Point, New York on the Hudson, leaving Nathanael Greene to shield his base at Morristown, New Jersey. On 23 June, Knyphausen lunged at Morristown. In the Battle of Springfield, Greene's division slowed the Hessian general's thrust; that evening Knyphausen withdrew into Staten Island. On 20 July 1780, Washington ordered Wayne to take the 1st and 2nd Pennsylvania Brigades, four artillery pieces, Stephen Moylan's 4th Continental Light Dragoons to destroy a British blockhouse at Bulls Ferry in Bergen Township, opposite New York City.
The stockaded position was held by 70 Loyalists commanded by Thomas Ward, providing a base for British woodcutting operations and protection against raids by American militia. At that time, the British kept cattle and horses on Bergen Neck to the south, within easy reach of foragers from the British garrison at Paulus Hook. A second motive for Wayne's operation was to seize the livestock for the use of Washington's army. Wayne sent his cavalry under the leadership of Harry Lee to round up the cattle, while he took three regiments and the artillery to attack the blockhouse. Early on 21 July, Wayne bombarded the blockhouse with his four cannons, but an hour there were no discernible results. After being peppered with accurate fire from the blockhouse, the American soldiers from the 1st and 2nd Pennsylvania Regiments became impatient. Despite their officers' attempts to stop them, the soldiers dashed forward through the abatis to the base of the stockade. Once there, they found it impossible to break into the defensive works, were forced to retreat.
Aside from John André's ballad, the consequences of the skirmish were the loss of lives and the seizure of cattle. Wayne reported losses of 15 enlisted men killed, plus three officers and 46 enlisted men wounded. Clinton estimated that Wayne had 2,000 troops available, he reported that 50 round shot penetrated the blockhouse. In a poetical note at the end of The Cow Chace, André suggested. Five refugees were found,Stiff on the blockhouse floor. In one stanza, the British major
Battle of Springfield (1780)
The Battle of Springfield was fought during the American Revolutionary War on June 23, 1780. After the Battle of Connecticut Farms, on June 7, 1780, had foiled Lieutenant General Wilhelm, Baron von Knyphausen’s expedition to attack General George Washington’s army at Morristown, New Jersey and Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton, British commander-in-chief in North America, decided upon a second attempt. Although the British were able to advance, they were forced to withdraw in the face of newly arriving rebel forces, resulting in a Continental victory; the battle ended British ambitions in New Jersey. A two-pronged assault was planned. Starting from Elizabethtown Point, one column would advance along the Galloping Hill Road, straight through Connecticut Farms and Springfield, while another column would take the Vauxhall Road north of Springfield along the southern edge of Short Hills. Both were heading for the same objective as on June 7: Hobart Gap, the path through the Watchung Mountains that would allow an advance across eleven miles of flat ground to Washington's main encampment at Morristown.
Clinton hoped that Washington would respond to Knyphausen's attack by bringing his main army round the northern tip of the Watchung Mountains west of Newark to hit Knyphausen's right flank. In anticipation of this response, Major General Alexander Leslie was dispatched up the Hudson with 6,000 men in order to prevent Washington from retiring behind the Watchung Mountains. Meanwhile, Major General James Robertson was to remain in reserve in Elizabethtown with five regiments to protect Knyphausen's rear against attack from militia and to reinforce Leslie if necessary. Knyphausen's corps comprised some 6,000 men. At Springfield and Elizabethtown, barring Knyphausen's path to Hobart Gap, Major General Nathanael Greene had 1,500 Continental troops and 500 New Jersey Militia. Greene's Continentals comprised Brigadier General William Maxwell’s New Jersey Brigade. At 5 a.m. on June 23, Knyphausen's force advanced for Elizabethtown Point, with the Queen's Rangers and the New Jersey Volunteers in the vanguard.
They overwhelmed the American outposts at Elizabethtown, capturing several men and three small cannons. Warned by retreating men, General Maxwell sent Colonel Elias Dayton’s 3rd New Jersey Regiment to guard the Galloping Hill Road and Henry Lee's 2nd Partisan Corps to the Vauxhall Road. Soon afterwards, the advancing Loyalist troops engaged Maxwell, who fell back toward Connecticut Farms with the rest of his brigade. Meanwhile, General Greene ordered the planking to be destroyed on the Vauxhall and Galloping Hill bridges over the Rahway River. Greene organized his left wing, into four successive lines of defense. Connecticut Farms was to be held by Colonel Dayton's 3rd New Jersey and some militia under Brigadier General Nathaniel Heard. Behind Dayton, Colonel Israel Angell with his 2nd Rhode Island Regiment, reduced by illness and expiring enlistments to only 160 men, was to defend the Galloping Hill Bridge. Behind Angell, at a bridge over the west branch of the Rahway, Greene positioned Colonel Israel Shreve and his 2nd New Jersey Regiment and, behind Shreve, Brigadier General Philemon Dickinson commanded a detachment of New Jersey Militia.
On the American right wing, Greene reinforced Major Lee and his 2nd Partisan Corps at the Vauxhall Bridge with Colonel Matthias Ogden and his 1st New Jersey Regiment. In reserve, at Bryan's Tavern up on the high ground of the Short Hills, Greene retained the rest of Maxwell's and Stark's brigades; the New Jersey Volunteers under Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Barton, now approached Connecticut Farms and engaged Dayton's force, who were well positioned in an orchard and behind a thicket. Outnumbered more than two-to-one by the defenders, Barton's men made little progress. However, Lieutenant Colonel John Graves Simcoe with his Queen's Rangers outflanked the Americans on the left and attacked them from the rear. Dayton and Heard's men were swept away and Connecticut Farms was in British hands. Heard and some of his militiamen retired northward and reinforced the defenders of the Vauxhall Bridge. Knyphausen now diverted the Queen's Rangers, the New Jersey Volunteers, the Guards Battalion and most of his other British troops from the Galloping Hill Road northward to the Vauxhall Road, in the hope of outflanking the defenders of the Galloping Hill Bridge.
Meanwhile, Knyphausen himself advanced on the bridge with 3,000 men, comprising the British 37th and 38th regiments and most of the German troops. At the Galloping Hill Bridge, Knyphausen bombarded Colonel Angell's defenders with six cannons, which the Americans answered with their only available gun; as the American artillery ran low on wadding, James Caldwell, the Continental Army chaplain who had lost his wife during the Battle of Connecticut Farms, brought up a load of hymn books published by English clergyman Isaac Watts to use instead. “Give ‘em Watts, boys!”, he advised. After heavy exchanges of fire and two unsuccessful attempts to charge the bridge, the British 37th and 38th regiments and the H
37th (North Hampshire) Regiment of Foot
The 37th Regiment of Foot was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in Ireland in February 1702. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 67th Regiment of Foot to become the Hampshire Regiment in 1881; the regiment was raised in Ireland by Lieutenant-General Thomas Meredyth as Meredyth's Regiment in February 1702. It embarked for the Netherlands in May 1703 and fought under the Duke of Marlborough at the Battle of Schellenberg in July 1704, the Battle of Blenheim in August 1704 and the Battle of Ramillies in May 1706 as well as the Battle of Oudenarde in July 1708 and the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709 during the War of the Spanish Succession; the regiment embarked for Canada in 1711 as part of the Quebec Expedition but lost 8 officers and 253 men when the ships in which it was sailing foundered on the rocks on the Saint Lawrence River. It was in action at the Capture of Vigo in October 1719; the regiment next saw action at the Battle of Dettingen in June 1743 during the War of the Austrian Succession.
It fought at the Battle of Falkirk in January 1746 during the Jacobite rebellion when its colonel, Sir Robert Munro, 6th Baronet, was shot and finished off with three sword blows to the head. It went on to fight under the command of Colonel Lewis Dejean at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746 and was ranked the 37th Foot in 1747; the regiment returned to the Netherlands and fought at the Battle of Lauffeld in July 1747. On 1 July 1751 a royal warrant was issued which provided that in future regiments would no longer be known by their colonel's name, but would bear a regimental number based on their precedence: the regiment became the 37th Regiment of Foot; the second battalion became the 75th Regiment of Foot in 1758. The regiment fought at the Battle of Minden in August 1759 during the Seven Years' War. After the battle the men of the regiment picked dog-roses from the hedges and put them in their headdresses to celebrate the victory, it took part in a skirmish at Grebenstein in June 1762 and another at Fellinghausen in July 1762.
It was garrisoned in Menorca from 1763 to 1769. The regiment embarked for North America for service in the American Revolutionary War in 1776 and was present at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776 and the British surrender at the end of the Siege of Yorktown in September 1781, it became the 37th Regiment of Foot in 1782. The regiment was next in action at the Battle of Tournay in May 1794 in the Flanders Campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars, it was posted to the West Indies from 1800 to 1809 to Gibraltar from 1812 to 1814 and to Canada from 1815 to 1826. The regiment embarked for Ceylon in 1846 and took part in the suppression of the Matale rebellion in 1847, it moved to India in spring 1857 and, having arrived by steamer on the Son River, opened fire on the attacking mutineers at the Siege of Arrah in July 1857 during the Indian Rebellion. It returned to England in 1861 and was sent to Ireland in 1865 before returning to India in 1866; as part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 37th was linked with the 67th Regiment of Foot, assigned to district no. 40 at Lower Barracks in Winchester.
The regiment returned to England in 1875 and moved to Ireland in 1880. On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 67th Regiment of Foot to become the Hampshire Regiment. Battle honours won by the regiment were: Minden, Peninsula Blenheim, Oudenarde, Dettingen Colonels of the Regiment were: 1702–1710: Lt-Gen. Thomas Meredyth 1710–1715: Col. William Windress 1715–1717: Gen. John Fane, 7th Earl of Westmorland 1717–1722: Col. Edward Montagu, Viscount Hinchingbrooke 1722–1735: Brig-Gen. Hon. Robert Murray 1735–1745: Maj-Gen. Hon. Henry Ponsonby 1745–1746: Col. Sir Robert Munro, Bt. 1746–1752: Lt-Gen. Lewis Dejean37th Regiment of Foot1752–1768: Lt-Gen. Hon. James Stuart 1768–1773: Lt-Gen. Sir George Gray, Bt. 1773–1783: Lt-Gen. Sir Eyre Coote, KB37th Regiment of Foot1783–1798: Gen. Sir John Dalling 1798–1810: Gen. Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple 1810–1814: Lt-Gen. Sir Charles Ross, Bt 1814–1831: Gen. Sir Charles Green, Bt 1831–1851: Gen. Hon. Sir Alexander Duff, GCH 1851–1858: Lt-Gen.
William Smelt, CB 1858–1862: Lt-Gen. John Fraser 1862–1879: Gen. Sir Thomas Simson Pratt, KCB 1879–1881: Gen. Sir Edmund Haythorne, KCB Mackenzie, Alexander. History of the Munros of Fowlis. A. & W. Mackenzie. Whitting, Captain John Everard. Annals of the Thirty-Seventh North Hampshire Regiment. Warren & Son. History of the 37th Regiment of Foot by Paul Jerrard
57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot
The 57th Regiment of Foot was a regiment of line infantry in the British Army, raised in 1755. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 77th Regiment of Foot to form the Middlesex Regiment in 1881; the regiment was raised in Somerset and Gloucester by Colonel John Arabin as the 59th Regiment of Foot in 1755 for service in the Seven Years' War. It was re-ranked as the 57th Regiment of Foot, following the disbandment of the existing 50th and 51st regiments, in 1756; the regiment, which operated as marines, was deployed to Gibraltar in 1757, to Menorca in 1763 and to Ireland in 1767. It was dispatched to Charleston, South Carolina in February 1776 for service in the American Revolutionary War; the regiment saw action at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776 and stormed Fort Montgomery at the Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery in October 1777. The regiment's light company served under General Lord Cornwallis and was taken prisoner at the Siege of Yorktown in October 1781, it adopted a county designation as the 57th Regiment of Foot in August 1782.
After this it moved to Nova Scotia in October 1783 and returned to England in November 1790. In 1793 the regiment embarked for the Low Countries for service in the Flanders Campaign and re-enforced the garrison at Nieuwpoort for some months before returning home in the year; the regiment returned to Flanders in 1794 before returning home again in 1795. It embarked for the West Indies in spring 1796 and took part in the capture of Saint Lucia in May 1796 before embarking for Trinidad in 1797 and returning home in 1803. A second battalion was raised in 1803 to increase the strength of the regiment but spent most of the war in Jersey; the 1st battalion embarked for the Mediterranean Sea in November 1805 and, after four years at Gibraltar, landed in Portugal for service in the Peninsula War in July 1809. The battalion fell back to the Lines of Torres Vedras in October 1810; the battalion earned the regiment its nickname of "the Die Hards" after their participation in the Battle of Albuera, one of the bloodiest battles of the war, in May 1811.
The commanding officer of the battalion, Colonel William Inglis, was struck down by a charge of canister shot which hit him in the neck and left breast. He refused to be carried to the rear for treatment, but lay in front of his men calling on them to hold their position and when the fight reached its fiercest cried, "Die hard the 57th, die hard!". The casualties of the battalion were 422 out of the 570 men in the ranks and 20 out of the 30 officers; the Allied commander of the Anglo-Portuguese force General William Beresford wrote in his dispatch, "our dead the 57th Regiment, were lying as they fought in the ranks, every wound in front". The battalion fought at the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813, it pursued the French Army into France and saw further action at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813, the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813. The battalion embarked for North America in May 1814 for service in the War of 1812 but, without seeing any action, it embarked for home in spring 1815.
The regiment traveled to New South Wales in detachments as escorts to prisoners in 1824. It moved on to India in 1830 and, while there, helped to suppress a rebellion in Mangalore in 1837; the regiment did not embark for home until April 1846. In September 1854 the regiment embarked for service in the Crimean War: it fought at the Battle of Inkerman in November 1854 and the Siege of Sevastapol in winter 1854, it moved to Malta in June 1856 and sailed for India to help suppress the Indian Rebellion in May 1858. It sailed for Auckland in New Zealand in November 1860 for service in the New Zealand Wars. Ensign John Thornton Down and Drummer Dudley Stagpoole were both awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions during a skirmish at Allen's Hill near Omata in October 1863 during the Second Taranaki War; the regiment returned to England in 1867 and moved to Ceylon in 1873. From Ceylon it sailed to South Africa in 1879 for service in the Anglo-Zulu War; as part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 57th was linked with the 77th Regiment of Foot, assigned to district no. 50 at Hounslow Barracks.
On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 77th Regiment of Foot to form the Middlesex Regiment. The regiment's regimental marches were'Sir Manley Power' and'Caledonian'. Ensign John Thornton Down, New Zealand Wars Sergeant George Gardiner, Crimean War Private Charles McCorrie, Crimean War Drummer Dudley Stagpoole, New Zealand Land Wars The regiment's battle honours were as follows: Peninsular War: Albuhera, Pyrenees, Nive, Peninsula Crimean War: Inkerman, Sevastapol Later wars: New Zealand, South Africa Colonels of the Regiment were: 1755–1757 Col. John Arabin 1757–1767 Lt-Gen. Sir David Cunynghame 1767–1780 Gen. Sir John Irwin 1780–1806 Gen. John Campbell 1806–1811 Gen. John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore 1811–1830 Gen. Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple, Bt. 1830–1835 Lt-Gen. Sir William Inglis 1835–1843 Gen. Sir Frederick Adam 1843–1856 F. M. Sir Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge 1856–1865 Gen. Sir James Frederick Love 1865–1873 Gen. Charles Richard Fox 1873–1875 Gen. Freeman Murray 1875–1881 Gen.
Sir Edward Alan Holdich Chant, Christopher. The Handbook of British Regiments. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00241-9. Gurwood, John; the dispatches of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, K. G. during his various campaigns in India
Battle of Stony Point
The Battle of Stony Point took place on July 16, 1779, during the American Revolutionary War. In a well planned and executed nighttime attack, a trained select group of George Washington's Continental Army troops under the command of Brigadier General "Mad Anthony" Wayne defeated British troops in a quick and daring assault on their outpost in Stony Point, New York 30 miles north of New York City; the British suffered heavy losses in a battle that served as an important victory in terms of morale for the Continental Army. While the fort was ordered evacuated after the battle by General Washington, this key crossing site was used in the war by units of the Continental Army to cross the Hudson River on their way to victory over the British. Following the surrender of General John Burgoyne after the Battles of Saratoga in October 1777 and the subsequent entry of France into the war as an American ally, British strategy in dealing with the rebellious Americans was forced to change. In the northern states, their strategy was reduced to raids against targets of economic and military importance, unsuccessful attempts to bring General George Washington's Continental Army into a decisive confrontation.
Washington deployed his army in strong positions around the principal British base at New York City, refused to be drawn out of them. British military plans for 1779 were large in ambition, but were hampered, in the opinion of their North American commander in chief, Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton, by shortages of manpower, delays in the arrival of manpower, promised for the campaign. Clinton sought to force Washington to weaken the Continental Army camp at Middlebrook in northern New Jersey, after which he would march in force out of New York and capture it. This, Clinton believed, would threaten Washington's supply lines, drawing him out of the highlands on the Hudson River into more favorable terrain for a general engagement. In late May 1779, General Clinton led a force of about 8,000 men up the North River as the opening move in this strategy; the British strategists realized that the Stony Point location represented a vital area that controlled that portion of the Hudson River and the entrance to the Hudson Highlands, as well as the nearby Kings Ferry crossing.
Because of this they decided to assault it. General Clinton, with 6,000 British and Hessian soldiers under his command sailed up the Hudson, transported by the Royal Navy and landed unopposed. Stony Point was defended by a meager force totaling around 40 American Patriots, before escaping to the north the small garrison set fire to the wooden blockhouse, the unfinished fort built atop Stony Point; the British forces, in order to capture nearby Fort Lafayette, hauled several cannons up the steep and rugged slopes of Stony Point and used the vantage point to shell Fort Lafayette. This move closed King's Ferry, a major river crossing at that narrow point in the river, about 10 miles south of West Point and 35 miles north of New York City. While he waited for reinforcements to arrive so that he might march on Middlebrook, Clinton dispatched William Tryon and more than 2,000 troops on a raiding expedition in early July against coastal communities in Connecticut, claiming in retrospect that its purpose was to draw Washington's troops further east.
Clinton reduced the garrisons at Stony Point and Verplanck's Point for the operation, which failed to draw Washington out of his camps. Stony Point was garrisoned with elements of the 17th Regiment of Foot under the command of Lt. Col. Henry Johnson; the 17th was reinforced by a grenadier company belonging to one of the two battalions of the 71st Regiment, a company-strength detachment of the Loyal American Regiment. A detachment of the Royal Artillery manned fifteen field pieces that included five iron and two brass cannon, four mortars and four small howitzers. A Royal Navy gunboat was assigned to protect the river approaches to the fortifications, the armed sloop Vulture was anchored in that part of the river. Washington observed construction of the fortifications through a telescope from atop nearby Buckberg Mountain. Historians believe he used intelligence gathered from local merchants to get a better idea of the strength of the garrison, the types of watchwords in use, the placement of sentries – on the south side of the point, which could not be seen from Buckberg.
During this time he formulated a plan of attack and selected a commander to lead it – Brigadier General Anthony Wayne, commander of the Pennsylvania Line. The British position at Stony Point was a fortified one, but it was never intended to be a true fort in the 18th century European sense of the word. No stone was used and no walls were constructed; the defenses consisted of wooden abatis. The defenses were situated on a rocky elevation approachable only from the west, protected in the front by a watery defile and on both flanks by extensive swampy areas. To storm the position, the Corps of Light Infantry was formed on June 12, 1779, with command assigned to General Wayne; the Corps of Light Infantry was an elite, seasonal combat organization drafted in each of the years between 1777 and 1781 from the light infantry companies of each regiment in Washington's army. The 1779 Corps was organized into a brigade of four regiments, each composed of two battalions of four companies, with the following order of battle: 1st Regiment, commanded by Col. Christian Febiger of the 2nd Virginia Regiment: six companies of Virginia and two of Pennsylvania troops 2nd Regiment, Col. Richard Butler: four companies each of Pennsylva