1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident
The 1996 Gangneung submarine infiltration incident occurred on September 18, 1996, near the South Korean town of Gangneung. The incident was one of the more serious instances of North Korean espionage involving naval forces. In 1996 on September 15, a North Korean Sang-O-class submarine landed a three-person special operations reconnaissance team on the east coast of South Korea near Jeongdongjin, 20 kilometres south-east of Gangneung, Gangwon-do, their mission was to spy on the naval installations in the area and return. The submarine made a failed attempt to return the following day; the submarine, ran aground in the attempt, all efforts to try to make her free were in vain. The crew decided to destroy the sensitive equipment in the submarine and try to make it to the DMZ; the crew split up in several groups but one was soon spotted by a civilian who became suspicious and alerted the authorities, who mobilized. A 49-day-long manhunt ensued, from 18 September through 5 November, resulting in the capture or elimination of all the crew and members of the reconnaissance team, except one, believed to have made it back to North Korea.
Four civilians and 12 South Korean soldiers died. Of the 25 North Korean infiltrators, one was captured, 11 were killed by the other members for failure in responsibility of running aground of the submarine, 13 were killed in firefights with the South Korean army; some analysts suspected that the motivation behind the assassination of Choe Deok-geun, South Korean consul for the Russian Far East, was North Korean retaliation for the loss of their men. The infiltrators possessed among their arsenal, M16A1 rifles and mock South Korean-style military uniforms. Nestlé Crunch chocolate bars were recovered; some of the dead spies' corpses were displayed to the media. The submarine was towed to a naval base for investigation. One captured crewmember, the submarine's helmsman, Lee Kwang Soo, gave in after much interrogation and revealed much of the plans, he became an instructor in the South Korean navy. North Korea was at first reluctant to take responsibility, claiming that the submarine had suffered an engine failure and had drifted aground.
By 29 December, the North issued an official statement expressing "deep regret" over the submarine incident. In return, the South Korean government returned the cremated remains of the infiltrators to the North via Panmunjom on 30 December. September 18, 16:40 – 1 captured by local policemen September 18, 17:00 – 11 bodies of executed submarine crew members were found September 19, 10:00 – 3 killed by the South Korean army commandos September 19, 14:00 – 3 killed by the South Korean army special forces September 19, 16:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 21, 20:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 22, 06:00 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 28, 06:30 – 1 killed by the South Korean army September 30, 16:00 – 1 killed by South Korean special forces November 5, 10:00 – 2 killed by South Korean special forces The Sang-O class submarine is on display at Tongil Park near Gangneung. 1998 Sokcho submarine incident Harry P. Dies, Jr.: North Korean Special Operations Forces: 1996 Kangnung submarine infiltration, Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, Oct-Dec 2004.
Pictures and information regarding the display
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Battle of Chumonchin Chan
The Battle of Chumonchin Chan or the Action of 2 July 1950 was the battle fought between surface combatants during the main phase of the Korean War. It began. On 2 July 1950, USS Juneau, HMS Black Swan, HMS Jamaica were sailing along the coast of the Sea of Japan when they encountered four North Korean torpedo and gunboats that had just finished escorting a flotilla of ten ammunition ships up the coast; the North Korean torpedo boats began an attack on the allied ships. Before their torpedoes could be fired however, they were met with a salvo of gunfire from the United Nations ships which destroyed three of the torpedo boats; the surviving North Korean craft fled. In July, Juneau encountered the same ammunition ships and destroyed them. Naval Battles of the Korean War. Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Second Battle of Yeonpyeong
The Second Battle of Yeonpyeong was a confrontation at sea between North Korean and South Korean patrol boats along a disputed maritime boundary near Yeonpyeong Island in the Yellow Sea in 2002. This followed a similar confrontation in 1999. Two North Korean patrol boats crossed the contested border and engaged two South Korean Chamsuri-class patrol boats; the North Koreans withdrew. The Northern Limit Line is considered by South Korea to be the maritime boundary between itself and North Korea, while North Korea disagrees and states that the boundary is farther south. North Korean fishing vessels wander into the area and are chased away by South Korean patrol vessels. A North Korean patrol tries to enforce its southern claim by traversing the limit line. In 2002 one such incursion turned into a naval battle along the limit line. On 29 June 2002, a North Korean patrol boat crossed the northern limit line and was warned to turn back. Shortly afterward, a second North Korean patrol craft crossed the line and it was warned to retreat across the line.
The North Korean boats began harassing the South Korean vessels following them. After traveling 3 miles south past the limit line, the North Korean vessels attacked the two South Korean patrol boats, monitoring them. At 10:25, the vessel that first crossed the line opened fire with its 85 mm gun and scored a direct hit on the wheelhouse of one of the South Korean craft causing several casualties; the two squadrons began a general engagement. The South Koreans using their 40 and 20 mm guns against the North Korean RPGs, 85 mm, 35 mm guns. About ten minutes two more patrol boats and two corvettes reinforced the South Korean vessels and damaged one of the North Korean craft. Now outnumbered and taking casualties, the North Korean vessels retreated back across the Limit Line at 10:59. Both the North Korean and South Korean flotillas took casualties from the action. Thirteen North Koreans were killed and twenty five wounded; the South Koreans suffered six fatalities, four during the battle, one 22 days from wounds suffered during the battle, one found dead at sea after the battle.
The dead were Lt. Cmdr. Yoon Young-ha, Jo Cheon-hyung, Seo Hoo-won, Hwang Do-hyun, Park Dong-hyuk, Han Sang-guk; the damaged South Korean craft sank while under tow, while the damaged North Korean vessel was able to limp its way back to port. Both sides laid blame on each other and South Korea demanded an apology from North Korea. According to a North Korean defector's statement in 2012, the North Korean patrol boat crewmembers involved in the battle suffered extensive splinter injuries from the South Korean "Devastator" shells; the injured North Koreans were quarantined in a hospital in Pyongyang to hide the extent of the casualties suffered in the battle. PKM 357 is now a museum ship at Pyeongtaek Naval Base where it is placed nearby the destroyed corvette ROKS Cheonan, another museum ship. Northern Limit Line, a 2015 South Korean war film based on the battle First battle of Yeonpyeong Battle of Daecheong ROKS Cheonan sinking Shelling of Yeonpyeong Fackler, Martin. "Yeonpyeong Island Journal - In Clash Between Koreas, Fishermen Feel First Bite".
New York Times. Van Dyke, Jon M. Mark J. Valencia and Jenny Miller Garmendia. "The North/South Korea Boundary Dispute in the Yellow Sea,". Marine Policy 27, 143-158
ROKS Cheonan sinking
The ROKS Cheonan sinking occurred on 26 March 2010, when Cheonan, a Pohang-class corvette of the Republic of Korea Navy, carrying 104 personnel, sank off the country's west coast near Baengnyeong Island in the Yellow Sea, killing 46 seamen. The cause of the sinking remains in dispute. A South Korean-led official investigation carried out by a team of international experts from South Korea, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Sweden presented a summary of its investigation on 20 May 2010, concluding that the warship had been sunk by a North Korean torpedo fired by a midget submarine; the conclusions of the report resulted in significant controversy within South Korea. Following the sinking, South Korea imposed sanctions against North Korea, known as the May 24 measures. North Korea denied. North Korea's further offer to aid an open investigation was disregarded. China dismissed the official scenario presented by South Korea and the United States as not credible. An investigation by the Russian Navy did not concur with the report.
The United Nations Security Council made a Presidential Statement condemning the attack but without identifying the attacker. Baengnyeong Island is a South Korean island in the Yellow Sea, off the Ongjin peninsula in North Korea, it lies less than 10 miles from the North Korean coast, is over 100 miles from the South Korean mainland. The island is to the south and west of the Northern Limit Line, the de facto maritime boundary dividing South Korea from North Korea; the area is the site of considerable tension between the two states. The situation is further complicated by the presence of a rich fishing ground used by DPRK and Chinese fishing vessels, there have been numerous clashes over the years between naval vessels from both sides attempting to police what both sides regard as their territorial waters; these have been referred to as "crab wars". In late May 2010, Bruce Cumings, a University of Chicago expert on Korean affairs, commented that the sinking should be regarded as part of long-running tensions in a naval no-man's land.
He noted a confrontation in November 2009 in which several North Korean sailors died, an incident in 1999 when 30 North Koreans were killed and 70 wounded when their ship sank. In both incidents, the North Koreans were the first to open fire. In the 1999 incident the South Koreans escalated matters by initiating a campaign of boat'bumping' in order to stop what the South saw as a violation of its maritime borders. Considering these previous incidents, Cumings said that the Cheonan sinking was "ripped out of context, the context of a continuing war that has never ended." General Walter Sharp, Commander of the South Korea-U. S. Combined Forces Command at the time had, on 24 March, testified before the US House Appropriations Committee, in part, on the need to strengthen the ROK-U. S. Alliance, the need for on-site advanced training of the Air Force, the need to improve the quality of life and provide tour normalization for troops serving one-year tours, planned relocation of bases, the scheduled 2012 transition of Operational Control to ROK hands.
He warned of the possibility that North Korea could "even launch an attack on the ROK." On the night of the sinking, the U. S. and South Korean navies were engaged in joint anti-submarine warfare exercises 75 miles away. This was part of the annual Key Resolve/Foal Eagle war exercise, described as "one of the world's largest simulated exercises", involving many U. S. and South Korean warships. On Friday, 26 March 2010, an explosion was reported to have occurred near Cheonan, a Pohang-class corvette, near the stern of the ship at 9:22 pm local time; this caused the ship to break in half five minutes afterward, sinking at 9:30 pm about 1 nautical mile off the south-west coast of Baengnyeong Island. Some initial reports suggested that the ship was hit by a North Korean torpedo, that the South Korean vessel had returned fire. However, the South Korean Ministry of Defense stressed in the first press briefings after the sinking that there was "no indication of North Korean involvement". Cheonan was operating its active sonar at the time.
Several theories have subsequently been put forth by various agencies as to the cause of the sinking. Early reports suggested that South Korean navy units had shot at an unidentified ship heading towards North Korea, but a defense official said that this target may have been a flock of birds misidentified on radar; the ship had a crew of 104 men at the time of sinking, 58 crewmembers were rescued by 11:13 pm local time. The remaining 46 crew died; the stern of Cheonan settled on its left side in 130-metre deep water close to the site of the sinking, but the bow section took longer to sink and settled overturned in 20 metres of water 6.4 kilometres away with a small part of the hull visible above the water. Six South Korean navy and two South Korean coast guard ships assisted in the rescue as well as aircraft from the Republic of Korea Air Force, it was reported on March 27. Survival time in the water was estimated at about two hours and large waves were hampering rescue attempts. After the sinking, President Lee said.
Air was pumped into the ship to keep any survivors alive. Over 24 military vessels were involved o
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region. The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as a dispute over the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir and escalated into three wars between India and Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes. China has been involved in the conflict in a third-party role. Both India and Pakistan claim the entirety of the former princely state of Kashmir. India controls 43% of the land area of the region and 70% of its population, Pakistan controls 37% of the land, while China controls the remaining 20%. India administers Jammu, the Kashmir Valley and the Siachen Glacier. Pakistan administers Gilgit-Baltistan. China administers the uninhabited Shaksgam Valley, the Aksai Chin region; the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 was fought over the accession of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir to India and resulted in a ceasefire with a front solidified along the Line of Control. After further fighting in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Simla Agreement formally established the Line of Control between the two nations' controlled territories.
In 1999, armed conflict between India and Pakistan broke out again in the Kargil War over the Kargil district. Since 1989, Kashmiri protest movements were created to voice Kashmir's disputes and grievances with the Indian government in the Indian-controlled Kashmir Valley, with some Kashmiri separatists in armed conflict with the Indian government based on the demand for self-determination; the 2010s were marked by further unrest erupting within the Kashmir Valley. The 2010 Kashmir unrest began after an alleged fake encounter between local youth and security forces. Thousands of youths pelted security forces with rocks, burned government offices and attacked railway stations and official vehicles in intensifying violence; the Indian government blamed separatists and Lashkar-e-Taiba, a Pakistan-based militant group for stoking the 2010 protests. The 2016 Kashmir unrest erupted after killing of a Hizbul Mujahideen militant Burhan Wani by Indian security forces. Further unrest in the region erupted after the 2019 Pulwama attack.
According to scholars, Indian forces have committed many human rights abuses and acts of terror against Kashmiri civilian population including extrajudicial killing, rape and enforced disappearances. According to Amnesty International, no member of the Indian military deployed in Jammu and Kashmir has been tried for human rights violations in a civilian court as of June 2015, although there have been military court martials held. Amnesty International has accused the Indian government of refusing to prosecute perpetrators of abuses in the region. According to the mid-12th century text Rajatarangini the Kashmir Valley was a lake. Hindu mythology relates that the lake was drained by the sage Kashyapa, by cutting a gap in the hills at Baramulla, invited Brahmans to settle there; this remains the local tradition and Kashyapa is connected with the draining of the lake in traditional histories. The chief town or collection of dwellings in the valley is called Kashyapa-pura, identified as Ancient Greek: Κασπάπυρος Kaspapyros in Hecataeus and the Kaspatyros of Herodotus.
Kashmir is believed to be the country indicated by Ptolemy's Kaspeiria. The Pashtun Durrani Empire ruled Kashmir in the 18th century until its 1819 conquest by the Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh; the Raja of Jammu Gulab Singh, a vassal of the Sikh Empire and an influential noble in the Sikh court, sent expeditions to various border kingdoms and ended up encircling Kashmir by 1840. Following the First Anglo-Sikh War, Kashmir was ceded under the Treaty of Lahore to the East India Company, which transferred it to Gulab Singh through the Treaty of Amritsar, in return for the payment of indemnity owed by the Sikh empire. Gulab Singh took the title of the Maharaja of Kashmir. From until the 1947 Partition of India, Kashmir was ruled by the Maharajas of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu. According to the 1941 census, the state's population was 77 percent Muslim, 20 percent Hindu and 3 percent others. Despite its Muslim majority, the princely rule was an overwhelmingly Hindu state; the Muslim majority suffered under Hindu rule with high taxes and discrimination.
British rule in the Indian subcontinent ended in 1947 with the creation of new states: the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India, as the successor states to British India. The British Paramountcy over the 562 Indian princely states ended. According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, "the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses, with it, all treaties and agreements in force at the date of the passing of this Act between His Majesty and the rulers of Indian States". States were thereafter left to choose whether to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh, he decided to stay independent because he expected that the State's Muslims would be unhappy with accession to India, the Hindus and Sikhs would become vulnerable if he joined Pakistan. On 11 August, the Maharaja dismissed his prime minister Ram Chandra Kak, who had advocated independence. Observers and scholars interpret this action as a tilt towards accession to India.
Pakistanis decided to preempt this possibility by wresting Kashmir by force if necessary. Pakistan made various efforts to persuade the Maharaja of Kashmir to join Pakistan. In July 1947, Mohammad Ali Jinnah is believed to have written to the Maharaja