The River Cherwell is a major tributary of the River Thames in central England. It rises near Hellidon in Northamptonshire and flows south through Oxfordshire for 40 miles to meet the Thames at Oxford, it adds a significant discharge to the Thames—when entering Oxford, the Thames's discharge is 17.6 m³/s, but after leaving and consuming the Cherwell it has increased to 24.8 m³/s. The river gives its name to the Cherwell local government district and Cherwell, an Oxford student newspaper. Cherwell is pronounced near Oxford, in north Oxfordshire; the village of Charwelton takes its name from the river, but lies on the river's upper course in Northamptonshire, suggesting that the pronunciation was used more widely. The Cherwell is the northernmost tributary of the Thames, it rises in the ironstone hills at Hellidon, two miles west of Charwelton near Daventry. Helidon Hill north of the source forms a watershed: on the south side, the Cherwell feeds the River Thames and thence the North Sea at the Thames Estuary.
South of Charwelton, the River Cherwell passes between the villages of Woodford Halse. Two miles further on, the River Cherwell swings westward for a few miles, passing below the village of Chipping Warden through Edgcote, site of a Romano-British villa; the river passes from Northamptonshire into Oxfordshire at Hay's Bridge on the A361 Daventry to Banbury road. In total the river drains an area of 943 square kilometres. Half-a-mile north of the village of Cropredy, the River Cherwell turns southward again; the Oxford Canal enters the river valley here and more or less follows the Cherwell on its route to Oxford until it reaches Thrupp near Kidlington. The canal was projected to connect the Coventry Canal to the River Thames, the Act of Parliament authorising it was passed in 1769. A few years earlier, Oxford merchants had proposed canalising the River Cherwell upstream from their city to Banbury. Construction of the Oxford Canal began near Coventry but the canal didn't reach Banbury until 1778, it was a further twelve years before it was completed, the first boats reaching Oxford in January 1790.
The River Cherwell skirts the east side of Cropredy itself and passes under Cropredy Bridge, site of a major battle of the English Civil War in 1644. The battle was a protracted encounter with riverside skirmishes concentrated along a three-mile stretch of the River Cherwell between Hay's bridge and a ford at Slat Mill near Great Bourton. King Charles's forces beat the Parliamentarian army. On Cropredy Bridge is a plaque bearing the words "Site of the Battle of Cropredy Bridge 1644. From Civil War deliver us." The bridge was rebuilt in 1780 and this plaque is a facsimile of the original one. Cropredy's church contains relics from the battle, local tradition holds that local people hid the church's eagle lectern in the River Cherwell in case marauding soldiers damaged or stole it. South of Cropredy Bridge, the river runs through fields used for the annual Cropredy Festival, a three-day music event run by the band Fairport Convention, it passes the site of a former water mill. A sufficient head of water to power the mill was created by a millpond.
There may have been more rudimentary mill works upstream but this is the first major mill along the river's course. After a few miles the River Cherwell passes under the M40 motorway and enters the industrial hinterland of Banbury, passing the site of another water mill. From here, a main line railway runs alongside on the west side; this line was built by the Great Western Railway and links London and Oxford with Birmingham and the north. South of this point, the railway follows the Cherwell valley; the town of Banbury grew up alongside the River Cherwell. A Roman villa at nearby Wykham Park dates from around the year 250 but it was the Saxons who built the first settlement west of the River Cherwell. On the opposite bank is the Saxon settlement of Grimsbury, now absorbed into Banbury. Banbury Castle was built in 1135 on the west bank of the Cherwell commanding the river; the castle was rebuilt many times. In the English civil war the castle became a Royalist stronghold and was besieged during the winter of 1644–1645.
A second siege lasted until April when a surrender was negotiated. Following a petition to the House of Commons in 1648, the castle was demolished. There was a substantial water mill on the River Cherwell near the castle; the brick-built mill building and the miller's cottage have been modernised and extended to serve Banbury as a theatre and arts centre. South of Banbury, the valley of the River Cherwell widens out. On the west bank is a large housing estate built in the 1970s named Cherwell Heights and a mile south the ancient village of Bodicote on higher ground to the west of the river. Downstream of Banbury, most of the villages in the Cherwell valley are set back from the river on higher ground to avoid flooding. After Bodicote, the river passes an industrial estate at Twyford Mill before reaching King's Sutton, a village noted for the splendid lofty spire on its church which overlooks the river. At Kings Sutton it is joined by both the Sor Brook and Mill Lane brook. Two miles further on, the Cherwell reaches the settlement of Nell Bridge and passes under a main road leading to the village of Aynho, a mile to the east on a low hill overlooking the river.
Shortly after Nell Bridge
Chipping Warden is a village in Northamptonshire, England about 6 miles northeast of the Oxfordshire town of Banbury. The parish is bounded to the east and south by the River Cherwell, to the west by the boundary with Oxfordshire and to the north by field boundaries; the 2001 Census recorded a parish population of 529 in 234 households, increasing to 537 in the civil parish of Chipping Warden and Edgcote at the 2011 census. Just south of Chipping Warden village is the remains of an Iron Age hill fort, it is about 200 yards in diameter and has been damaged by centuries of ploughing. At Blackgrounds about 3⁄4 mile east of the village are the remains of a Roman villa beside the River Cherwell. An investigation in 1849 found a Roman bathhouse 36 feet long by 18 feet wide, four human burials have been found that may be related to the settlement. Roman coins found at the site indicate that it was inhabited in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. English Heritage has placed the villa on its Heritage at Risk Register, citing threats from ploughing and a risk of collapse.
2 miles east of the village is Upper Cherwell at Trafford House at the confluence of the river Cherwell and Eydon Brook, designated as a SSSI due to its importance in the development of the theory of underfit streams. The Domesday Book records that in 1086 the manor of Chipping Warden was the caput of the estates of Guy de Raimbeaucourt, a baron from Raimbeaucourt in northern France. There was a Hundred of Chipping Warden that administered the southern part of Northamptonshire. Guy was succeeded by his son Richard de Raimbeaucourt. Richard left no male heir so the barony of Chipping Warden passed via his daughter Margaret to his son-in-law Robert Foliot, to whom Henry II conceded the barony of Chipping Warden in the middle of the 12th century; as Robert had a wife and son he is not the Robert Foliot, Archdeacon of Oxford and Bishop of Hereford. The toponym "Chipping" is derived from the Old English cēping meaning "market". In 1238 Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln obtained royal letters from Henry III revoking Chipping Warden's right to hold a market.
This was because the Bishops of Lincoln controlled the market at Banbury and earned tolls from it, Grosseteste feared that Chipping Warden was drawing trade away from Banbury. In the Church of England parish church of St. Peter and St. Paul the north wall of the chancel contains two blocked-up Norman arches that suggest the building may date from about 1200; the chancel contains a window that pre-dates 1300, but is not in its original position. Other features from the Decorated Gothic period include the windows of the south aisle and the east window of a room to the north of the chancel; the east window of the chancel and the four-bay arcades between the nave and the north and south aisles are from the early part of the Perpendicular Gothic period. The bell tower is Perpendicular Gothic; the parish is now part of the Church of England benefice of Culworth with Sulgrave and Thorpe Mandeville and Chipping Warden with Edgcote and Moreton Pinkney. An open field system of farming prevailed in the parish until an Act of Parliament was passed in May 1733 enabling Chipping Warden's common lands to be enclosed.
In May 1744 a bill was moved in the House of Lords to dissolve the marriage between Henry Scudamore, 3rd Duke of Beaufort and Frances Scudamore. Among witnesses who testified under oath before their Lordships was John Pargiter, a farmer of Chipping Warden, who stated: "That, in the Beginning of June, 1741, he observed a Man, afterwards found it was Lord Talbot, to meet the Dutchess as she was walking alone in the Fields near that Place. Witnesses William Douglas and Thomas Bonham corroborated Pargiter's evidence; the Journal of the House of Lords delicately omits the details of the "adulterous Familiarities" but records that subsequent witnesses testified "as to the sending for a Midwife to the Dutchess. After hearing this and evidence of the Duchess's further adultery with Lord Talbot, their Lordships passed the Bill for the Duke and Duchess to be divorced. RAF Chipping Warden, just northwest of the village, was built during the Second World War and commissioned in either 1941 or 1943 as a Bomber Command Operational Training Unit.
It was decommissioned in 1946. Its buildings are now an industrial estate. Chipping Warden has The Griffin; the village has a primary school. Crossley, Alan. H.. D. A.. F. A.. S.. A History of the County of Oxford, Volume 10. Victoria County History. Pp. 49–71. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Mason, Emma. "Westminster Abbey Charters, 1066-c.1214". London Record Society. 25: 93–107. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Pevsner, Nikolaus. Northamptonshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 148–149. ISBN 0-14-071022-1. Salzman, L. F. ed.. A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 1. Victoria County History. Pp. 373–395. Wright, A. P. M.. P.. A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely: Volume 9: Chesterton and Papworth Hundreds. Victoria County History. Pp. 223–224. Media related to Chipping Warden at Wikimedia Commons
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, 128 miles north of London, 45 miles northeast of Birmingham and 56 miles southeast of Manchester, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making and tobacco industries, it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination. In 2017, Nottingham had an estimated population of 329,200; the population of the city proper, compared to its regional counterparts, has been attributed to its historical and tightly-drawn city boundaries. The wider conurbation, which includes many of the city's suburbs, has a population of 768,638, it is the second-largest in The Midlands. Its Functional Urban Area the largest in the East Midlands, has a population of 912,482; the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50.9bn.
The city was the first in the East Midlands to be ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Nottingham has an award-winning public transport system, including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is served by Nottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transit tram system, it is a major sporting centre, in October 2015 was named'Home of English Sport'. The National Ice Centre, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre, Trent Bridge international cricket ground are all based in or around the city, the home of two professional league football teams; the city has professional rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, the Aegon Nottingham Open, an international tennis tournament on the ATP and WTA tours. This accolade came just over a year. On 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a "City of Literature" by UNESCO, joining Dublin, Edinburgh and Prague as one of only a handful in the world; the title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, D. H. Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city, as well as a contemporary literary community, a publishing industry and a poetry scene.
The city has two universities—Nottingham Trent University and the University of Nottingham—both of which are spread over several campuses in the city, with a total university student population of over 61,000. The city predates Anglo-Saxon times and was known in Brythonic as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Caves. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling"; when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham". Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form". Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen; the Anglo-Saxon settlement was confined to the area today known as the Lace Market and was surrounded by a substantial defensive ditch and rampart, which fell out of use following the Norman Conquest and was filled by the time of the Domesday Survey. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts.
A settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. The space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. Defences, consisted of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century; the ditch was widened, in the mid-13th century, a stone wall built around much of the perimeter of the town. A short length of the wall survives, is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham, it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham alabaster.
The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshire. One of those impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. P. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest. Everything had a modern look, a large space in the centre was hardly less handsome than a London square. A charming footpath leads over the fields to the highway. … Nottingham … with its high houses, red roofs and church steeples, looks excellent from a distance."During the Industrial Revolution, much of Nottingham's prosperity was founded on the textile industry.
Battle of Towton
The Battle of Towton was fought on 29 March 1461 during the English Wars of the Roses, near the village of Towton in Yorkshire. A culminating battle in the dynastic struggles between the houses of Lancaster and York for control of the English throne, the engagement ended in an overwhelming victory for the Yorkists, it brought about a change of monarchs in England, with the victor, the Yorkist Edward IV having displaced the Lancastrian Henry VI as king, thus driving the head of the Lancastrians and his key supporters out of the country. It is described as "probably the largest and bloodiest battle fought on English soil", according to historical sources the longest. According to chroniclers, more than 50,000 Yorkist and Lancastrian soldiers fought for hours amidst a snowstorm on that day, Palm Sunday. A newsletter circulated a week. Contemporary accounts described Henry VI as peaceful and pious, not suited for the violent dynastic civil wars, such as the Wars of the Roses, he had periods of insanity while his inherent benevolence required his wife, Margaret of Anjou, to assume control of his kingdom, which contributed to his own downfall.
His ineffectual rule had encouraged the nobles' schemes to establish control over him, the situation deteriorated into a civil war between the supporters of Margaret and those of Richard, Duke of York. After the Yorkists captured Henry in 1460, the English parliament passed an Act of Accord to let York and his line succeed Henry as king. Margaret refused to accept the dispossession of her son's right to the throne and, along with fellow Lancastrian malcontents, raised an army. Richard of York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield and his titles, including the claim to the throne, passed to his eldest son Edward. Nobles who were hesitant to support Richard's claim to the throne considered the Lancastrians to have reneged on the Act – a legal agreement – and Edward found enough backing to denounce Henry and declare himself king; the Battle of Towton was to affirm the victor's right to rule over England through force of arms. On reaching the battlefield, the Yorkists found themselves outnumbered.
Part of their force under the Duke of Norfolk had yet to arrive. The Yorkist leader Lord Fauconberg turned the tables by ordering his archers to take advantage of the strong wind to outrange their enemies; the one-sided missile exchange, with Lancastrian arrows falling short of the Yorkist ranks, provoked the Lancastrians into abandoning their defensive positions. The ensuing hand-to-hand combat lasted hours; the arrival of Norfolk's men reinvigorated the Yorkists and, encouraged by Edward, they routed their foes. Many Lancastrians were killed while fleeing. Several who were taken as prisoners were executed; the power of the House of Lancaster was reduced after this battle. Henry fled the country, many of his most powerful followers were dead or in exile after the engagement, letting Edward rule England uninterrupted for nine years, before a brief restoration of Henry to the throne. Generations remembered the battle as depicted in William Shakespeare's dramatic adaptation of Henry's life—Henry VI, Part 3, Act 2, Scene 5.
In 1929, the Towton Cross was erected on the battlefield to commemorate the event. Various archaeological remains and mass graves related to the battle were found in the area centuries after the engagement. In 1461, England was in the sixth year of the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars between the houses of York and Lancaster over the English throne; the Lancastrians backed the reigning King of England, Henry VI, an indecisive man who had bouts of madness. The leader of the Yorkists was Richard, Duke of York, who resented the dominance of a small number of aristocrats favoured by the king, principally his close relatives, the Beaufort family. Fuelled by rivalries between influential supporters of both factions, York's attempts to displace Henry's favourites from power led to war. After capturing Henry at the Battle of Northampton in 1460, the duke, of royal blood, issued his claim to the throne. York's closest supporters among the nobility were reluctant to usurp the dynasty; the Queen of England, Margaret of Anjou, refused to accept an arrangement that deprived her son—Edward of Westminster—of his birthright.
She had fled to Scotland after the Yorkist victory at Northampton. Her Lancastrian supporters mustered in the north of England, preparing for her arrival. York marched with his army to meet this threat but he was lured into a trap at the Battle of Wakefield and killed; the duke and his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland were decapitated by the Lancastrians and their heads were impaled on spikes atop the Micklegate Bar, a gatehouse of the city of York. The leadership of the House of York passed onto Edward; the victors of Wakefield were joined by Margaret's army and they marched south, plundering settlements in their wake. They liberated Henry after defeating the Yorkist army of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, in the Second Battle of St Albans and continued pillaging on their way to London; the city of London refused to open its gates to Margaret for fear of being looted. The Lancastrian army had no adequate means to replenish them; when Margaret learned that Richard of Yo
Battle of Hexham
The Battle of Hexham marked the end of significant Lancastrian resistance in the north of England during the early part of the reign of Edward IV. The battle was fought near the town of Hexham in Northumberland. John Neville to be 1st Marquess of Montagu, led a modest force of 3,000-4,000 men, routed the rebel Lancastrians. Most of the rebel leaders were captured and executed, including Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, Lord Hungerford. Henry VI, was kept safely away, escaped to the north. With their leadership gone, only a few castles remained in rebel hands. After these fell in the year, Edward IV was not challenged until the Earl of Warwick changed his allegiance from the Yorkist to the Lancastrian cause in 1469. After the Battle of Hedgeley Moor, the Lancastrians failed to prevent the Yorkists from concluding peace negotiations with Scotland in 1463, soon found that their northern base of operations was now threatened, it was decided to mount a campaign in the north of England to gather Lancastrian support before a huge force under Edward IV could muster in Leicester and move north to crush the rebellion.
The Lancastrian army moved through Northumberland in late April 1464 under the Duke of Somerset, gathered support from Lancastrian garrisons until it camped near to Hexham in early May. A Yorkist force under John Neville raced north as vanguard of Edward's larger force, the two sides met outside Hexham on 14 May 1464. Details of the site of the battle, the composition and number of combatants and the events are sketchy but it is thought that the battle was bloodless; the Lancastrian camp was near Linnels Bridge over the Devil's Water found to the south of Hexham. The Yorkists crossed onto the south bank of the Tyne on the night of 12–13 May and were, by the morning of the 14th, in a position to attack Hexham; the Yorkist advance was at speed, as despite warnings by their own scouts the Lancastrians had little time to prepare for battle. It is thought that Somerset rushed his forces to a site near Linnels Bridge and deployed his troops in three detachments in a meadow near the Devil's Water, there he hoped he could engage the Yorkist army before it moved past him into Hexham.
No sooner had the Lancastrians taken their positions than the Yorkists charged down from their positions on higher ground. Upon seeing the Yorkist advance the right detachment of the Lancastrian army, commanded by Lord Roos and fled across the Devil's Water and into Hexham, before a single blow had been struck; the remnants of Somerset's force were in a hopeless situation, unable to manoeuvre. Lancastrian morale collapsed, after some token resistance the remains of Somerset's army was pushed into the Devil's Water by the Yorkist infantry. A chaotic rout followed, men either drowned in the river or were crushed as they tried to climb the steep banks of the Devil's Water in the retreat towards Hexham. Most, were trapped in West Dipton Wood on the north bank of the river and were forced to surrender when the Yorkists approached. Neville showed little of Edward's conciliatory spirit, had thirty leading Lancastrians executed in Hexham on the evening following the battle, including Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset, Lord Roos.
Sir William Tailboys was captured and executed shortly after he tried to flee north with £2,000 of Henry's war chest. Upon the loss of its leadership and bankroll, the Lancastrian resistance in the North of England collapsed; the capture of Henry at Waddington, near Clitheroe, meant that the rebellion was over. There followed a relative period of peace until the Earl of Warwick's defection to the Lancastrian cause in 1469 and the wars started anew
Battle of Wakefield
The Battle of Wakefield took place in Sandal Magna near Wakefield in northern England, on 30 December 1460. It was a major battle of the Wars of the Roses; the opposing forces were an army led by nobles loyal to the captive King Henry VI of the House of Lancaster and his Queen Margaret of Anjou on one side, the army of Richard, Duke of York, the rival claimant to the throne, on the other. For several years before the battle, the Duke of York had become opposed to the weak King Henry's court. After Henry became his prisoner, he lacked sufficient support. Instead, in an agreement known as the Act of Accord, he was made Henry's heir to the throne, displacing from the succession Henry's and Margaret's 7-year-old son Edward, Prince of Wales. Margaret of Anjou and several prominent nobles were irreconcilably opposed to this accord, massed their armies in the north. Richard of York found he was outnumbered. Although he occupied Sandal Castle, York sortied from the castle on 30 December, his reasons for doing so have been variously ascribed to deception by the Lancastrian armies, or treachery by some nobles and Lancastrian officers who York thought were his allies, or simple rashness or miscalculation by York.
The Duke of York was killed and his army was destroyed, many of the prominent Yorkist leaders and their family members died in the battle or were captured and executed. King Henry VI ascended the throne in 1422, he grew up to be an ineffective king, prone to spells of mental illness. There were bitter divisions among the officials and councillors who governed in Henry's name over the conduct of the Hundred Years' War with France. By the early 1450s, the most important rivalry was that between Richard, Duke of York, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. York argued for a more vigorous prosecution of the war, to recover territories lost to the French, while Somerset belonged to the party which tried to secure peace by making concessions. York had been Lieutenant in France for several years and resented being supplanted in that office by Somerset, who had failed to defend Normandy against French armies. York was not only the wealthiest magnate in the land, but was descended through both his parents from King Edward III, leading to calls that he be recognised as successor to the childless King Henry.
His rival, belonged to the Beaufort family, who were distant cousins of King Henry. Illegitimate, the Beauforts had been made legitimate by an Act of Parliament but were barred from the line of succession to the throne. However, there was always the possibility that this could be circumvented and the Beaufort line produced King Henry VII and the Tudor dynasty. York was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland exiling him from court, while Somerset increased his influence over the King. In 1452, York marched on London in an attempt to force Henry to dismiss Somerset from the government, but at this stage he lacked support and was forced to swear not to take arms against the King at Old St Paul's Cathedral. In 1453, Henry VI suffered a complete mental breakdown; the Great Council of peers appointed York Lord Protector and he governed the country responsibly, but Henry recovered his sanity after eighteen months and restored Somerset to favour. During Henry's madness his Queen, Margaret of Anjou, had given birth to a son, which dashed York's hopes of becoming king if Henry died.
Fearing arrest for treason and his most prominent allies, the Nevilles resorted to armed force in 1455. At the First Battle of St Albans, many of York's and Salisbury's rivals and enemies were killed, including Somerset, the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Clifford. After the battle, York reaffirmed his loyalty to King Henry, found abandoned in a shop in the town, he was reappointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Margaret of Anjou suspected York of wishing to supplant her infant son, Edward, as Henry's successor, the heirs of the Lancastrian nobles who were killed at St Albans remained at deadly feud with York. After an uneasy peace during which attempts at reconciliation failed, hostilities broke out again in 1459. Richard of York once again feared indictment for rebellion by a Great Council dominated by his opponents, he and the Nevilles concentrated their forces near York's stronghold at Ludlow Castle in the Welsh Marches but at the confrontation with the royal army which became known as the Battle of Ludford, some of Warwick's contingent from the garrison of Calais, led by experienced captain Andrew Trollope, defected overnight.
York and the Nevilles fled. The next day, the outnumbered and leaderless Yorkist army surrendered. York went to Ireland, where he had unchallenged support, while Salisbury and York's eldest son Edward, Earl of March made their way to Calais, where Warwick was Constable, they narrowly forestalled the new Duke of Somerset. Lancastrian attempts to reassert their authority over Ireland and Calais failed, but York and his supporters were declared traitors and attainted; the victorious Lancastrians became reviled for the manner in which their army had looted the town of Ludlow after the Yorkist surrender at Ludford Bridge, the repressive acts of a compliant Parliament of Devils which caused many uncommitted peers to fear for their own property and titles. The country remained in disorder. In 1460, the Nevilles invaded England through a foothold the
William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1469)
William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke KG, known as "Black William", was a Welsh nobleman and courtier. He was the son of William ap Thomas, founder of Raglan Castle, Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam, grandson of Dafydd Gam, an adherent of King Henry V of England, his father had been an ally of Richard of York, Herbert supported the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. In 1461 Herbert was rewarded by King Edward IV with the title Baron Herbert of Raglan, was invested as a Knight of the Garter. Soon after the decisive Yorkist victory at the Battle of Towton in 1461, Herbert replaced Jasper Tudor as Earl of Pembroke which gave him control of Pembroke Castle. However, he fell out with Lord Warwick "the Kingmaker" in 1469, when Warwick turned against the King. William and his brother Richard were executed by the Lancastrians, now led by Warwick, after the Battle of Edgecote Moor, near Banbury. Herbert was succeeded by his son, but the earldom was surrendered in 1479, it was revived for a grandson, another William Herbert, the son of Black William's illegitimate son, Sir Richard Herbert of Ewyas.
He married Anne Devereux, daughter of Walter Devereux, Lord Chancellor of Ireland and Elizabeth Merbury. They had at least ten children: 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Sir Walter Herbert. Married Lady Anne Stafford, sister to the Duke of Buckingham. Sir George Herbert of St. Julians. Philip Herbert of Lanyhangel. Cecilie Herbert. Maud Herbert. Married Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland. Katherine Herbert. Married George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent. Anne Herbert. Married John Grey, 1st Baron Grey of Powis, 9th Lord of Powys. Isabel Herbert. Married Sir Thomas Cokesey. Margaret Herbert. Married first Thomas Talbot, 2nd Viscount Lisle and secondly Sir Henry Bodringham. William had three illegitimate sons but the identities of their mothers are unconfirmed: Sir Richard Herbert of Ewyas. Father of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke. Son of Maud, daughter of Adam ap Howell Graunt. Sir George Herbert; the son of Frond verch Hoesgyn. Married Sybil Croft. Sir William Herbert of Troye. Son of Frond verch Hoesgyn. Married, Blanche Whitney see Blanche Milborne.
They had two sons. The White Queen