The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century. It encompassed the Roman provinces of Syria Palaestina, Arabia Petraea and large parts of Asia Minor. Zenobia ruled the Palmyrene Empire as regent for her son Vaballathus, who had become King of Palmyra in 267. In 270 Zenobia managed to conquer most of the Roman east in a short period, tried to maintain relations with Rome. In 271 she claimed the imperial title for herself and for her son and fought a short war with the Roman emperor Aurelian, who conquered Palmyra and captured the self-proclaimed Empress. A year the Palmyrenes rebelled, which led Aurelian to destroy Palmyra; the Palmyrene Empire is hailed in Syria and plays an important role as an icon in Syrian nationalism. Following the murder of Roman emperor Alexander Severus in 235, general after general squabbled over control of the empire, the frontiers were neglected and subjected to frequent raids by Carpians and Alamanni, in addition to outright attacks from the aggressive Sassanids in the east.
Shapur I of Persia inflicted a disastrous defeat upon the Romans at the Battle of Edessa in 260, capturing the Roman emperor Valerian and soon and Macrianus rebelled against Valerian's son Gallienus and usurped the imperial power in Syria. The Palmyrene leader Odaenathus was declared king, remained nominally loyal to Gallienus, forming an army of Palmyrenes and Syrian peasants to attack Shapur. In 260, Odaenathus won a decisive victory over Shapur in a battle near the Euphrates. Next, Odaenathus defeated the usurpers in 261, spent the remainder of his reign fighting the Persians. Odaenathus received the title Governor of the East, ruled Syria as the imperial representative, declared himself King of Kings. Odaenathus was assassinated along with his son Hairan in 267, according to the Augustan History and Joannes Zonaras, Odaenathus was killed by his cousin, whose name in the Augustan History is Maeonius; the Augustan History claims that Maeonius was proclaimed emperor for a brief period, before being executed by the soldiers.
No inscriptions or other evidence exist for Maeonius' reign, he was killed after assassinating Odaenathus. Odaenathus was succeeded by his minor son with the ten-year-old Vaballathus. Under the regency of Zenobia, Vaballathus was kept in the shadow while his mother assumed actual rule and consolidated her power; the queen was careful not to provoke Rome and took for herself and her son the titles that her husband had, while working on guaranteeing the safety of the borders with Persia, pacifying the dangerous Tanukhid tribes in Hauran. Aided by her generals, Septimius Zabbai, a general of the army, Septimius Zabdas, the chief general of the army, Zenobia started an expedition against the Tanukhids in the spring of 270, during the reign of emperor Claudius II. Zabdas killed the Roman governor and marched south securing Roman Arabia. According to the Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh, Zenobia herself attacked Dumat Al-Jandal but could not conquer its castle. However, Ibn Khordadbeh is confusing Zenobia with al-Zabbā, a semi-legendary Arab queen whose story is confused with Zenobia's story.
In October of 270, a Palmyrene army of 70,000 invaded Egypt, declared Zenobia queen of Egypt. The Roman general Tenagino Probus was able to regain Alexandria in November, but was defeated and escaped to the fortress of Babylon, where he was besieged and killed by Zabdas, who continued his march south and secured Egypt. Afterward, in 271, Zabbai started the operations in Asia Minor, was joined by Zabdas in the spring of that year; the Palmyrenes subdued Galatia, occupied Ankara, marking the greatest extent of the Palmyrene expansion. However, the attempts to conquer Chalcedon were unsuccessful; the Palmyrene conquests were done under the protective show of subordination to Rome. Zenobia issued coinage in the name of Claudius' successor Aurelian with Vaballathus depicted as king, while the emperor allowed the Palmyrene coinage and conferred the Palmyrene royal titles. However, toward the end of 271, Vaballathus took the title of Augustus along with his mother. In 272, Aurelian crossed the Bosphorus and advanced through Anatolia.
According to one account, Marcus Aurelius Probus regained Egypt from Palmyra, while the emperor continued his march and reached Tyana. The fall of Tyana lent itself to a legend. Apollonius implored him, stating: "Aurelian, if you desire to rule, abstain from the blood of the innocent! Aurelian, if you will conquer, be merciful!". Whatever the reason for his clemency, Aurelian's sparing of Tyana paid off. Entering Issus and heading to Antioch, Aurelian defeated Zenobia in the Battle of Immae. Zenobia retreated to Antioch fled to Emesa while Aurelian advanced and took the former. After regrouping, the Romans first destroyed a Palmyrene garrison stationed at the fort of Daphne, headed south to Apamea continued to Emesa and defeated Zenobia again at the Battle of Emesa, forcing her to evacuate to the capital. Aurelian marched through the desert and was harassed by Bedouins loyal to Palmyra, but as soon as he arrived at the city gates, he negotiated with the Bedouins, who betrayed Palmyra and supplied the Roman army with water and food.
Aurelian besieged Palmyra in the summer of 272, tried to negotiate with Zenobia, on the condition that she surrender herself in person to him, to which she answered with
Battle of Barbalissos
The Battle of Barbalissos was fought between the Sassanid Persians and Romans at Barbalissos. Shapur I resumed hostilities with the Romans; the Sassanids attacked a Roman force of 60,000 strong at Barbalissos and the Roman army was defeated. The defeat of this large Roman force left the Roman east open to attack and led to the eventual capture of Antioch and Dura Europos three years later; this battle is only known through Shapur I's inscription at Naqsh-e Rostam. Battle of Barbalissos was fought between the Sassanid Persians and Romans at Barbalissos, an old Roman town near Aleppo in modern-day Syria and close to the Euphrates River; the battle was fought in 252 when Shapur I, King of Sassanian Empire and son of Ardashir I, led his army from the Euphrates River and met with a Roman army of 60,000 strong legionaries and Roman cavalry. Although the number of forces of Sassanid Persians are unclear, through tactics and use of strategy Shapur I managed to win the battle and open a way through the Syrian cities and castles.
The major defeat of the battle of Barbalissos was costly for the Roman emperor Valerian who appointed many more armies to stop Shapur I from quick advance in the Roman soil and on he decided to lead a major army of 70,000 legionaries himself. For a 1,000 years, the Roman empire was a major power in Europe. Roman emperors controlled most of Southern Europe, North Africa, some parts of Asia giving them the numbers to encounter any intruding forces. There would be celebration in honor of military victories to remind people of the power of the Roman army; the republic of Ancient Rome changed into a complete monarchy in 27 BC with Augustus as the first emperor until battle of barbalissos during the monarchy of Valerian the Elder. During the life of Roman empire, many great architectures and historical entertainment places such as the coliseum were made for people and nobles of Rome; the people financially were separated into three branches of poor and noble. Most people were fed enough to avoid starvation and would join the army to generate a good income for their family.
With police presence, the slums, where the poor live, were a common place for criminal activities and many would avoid such places if possible. Roman army was the main pride and happiness for any person, born a Roman; the weapons of choice for the Roman soldiers were pilum and pugio. Pilum was similar to a javelin used to throw at the enemy but not for a hand-to-hand combat. Gladius was the razor sharp blade used for frontier battles. Pugio was a small dagger, used as the last resort if all other equipment was gone; the Roman legionaries were said to be disciplined and ready for any incoming surprises. The captured soldiers of enemy in numerous battles automatically became slaves to their noble masters and was impossible to receive their freedom. Sassanian empire had the vast majority of Asia which expanded to Europe and Africa during the monarchy of the kings for 410 years of its stand; the Sassanian were feared by many from their massive advances. Their great libraries and architectures were a way for them to show the history of the empire.
Sassanian empire was the only empire of Persia which gave massive amounts of territory and power to its people throughout history. On the level of power, society was divided into priests, warriors and commoners. Petty rulers, royal family and great landlords had the highest level of power in society and therefore had more available options towards their way of choosing their lifestyle; the monarchy of Sassanids began from Ardashir I until the second king of kings Shapur I who fought the battle of Barbalissos and became known as "the Great". There were many historians and artists during the Sassanian empire who made books and drawings of king's achievements and conquest, they were known for the fascinating art and the strength of their military. The military of Sassanian empire was nobles and medium class people who would undergo "hard service" which taught them of different military tactics and strategy, they would come out as professional soldiers with full body armor taking part as an archer, infantry, or heavy cavalry.
The commanders wrote manuals on art of archery. The Sassanian heavy cavalry were full of body armor to the point that "they could only see through the small holes in their helmets..". Although they were slow, they were proved to be a big advantage on legionaries of Roman army; the infantry was not as powerful as the cavalry of Sassanid Persians since they were equipped with much less armor and weapons compared to a cavalry unit. Slavery was not used as much in Sassanid empire since the Persian culture did not believe in such beliefs; the Persian army would take captured soldiers as "prisoners of war" rather than slaves and exchange them for money.. The story of Valerian being used as a mounting block by Shapur, though oft-repeated, is certainly apocryphal; as the Bishapur and Naqs-i-Rustam monuments show Valerian was not humiliated after his capture. During Valerian's rule, the Roman empire suffered heavy attacks on its territory. In the West, the Empire proved vulnerable to raids by others. In the East, Sassanian Persians were a major threat.
Valerian let. Valerian was not successful since he was defeated and captured near Edessa by Shapur I and died among other prisoners. Shapur I had been given the title of "the Great" since he conquered and maintained multiple Roman territories during his time of power. However, his shining momen
Marcus F. Ru. Jotapianus or Jotapian, he was known as Iotapianus or Iotapian. Jotapianus was a usurper in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire during the reign of Emperor Philip the Arab, around 249. Jotapianus is known from his rare coins and from accounts in Aurelius Victor and Polemius Silvius. Jotapianus was a member of the Near East indigenous aristocracy, his name is similar to those of Queen Julia Iotapa and her daughter, princess Julia Jotapa of the Kingdom of Commagene, so he could have been a member of the Royal Family of Commagene, which had lost its power in favour of the Romans under Emperor Vespasian in 72. Aurelius Victor reports. According to some scholars, he referred to Alexander Severus, while other scholars note that King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene claimed descendance from Greek King Alexander the Great, he could be a possible descendant of Gaius Julius Agrippa or his brother Gaius Julius Alexander Berenicianus or his sister Julia Iotapa. Jotapianus led a rebellion started in Syria, towards the end of Philip's rule, against the increase in taxation ordered by the rector Orientis Priscus, Philip's brother.
It is possible that Philip somehow favoured his Arabia over the other Eastern provinces, since his rule was not accepted by the local population. Jotapianus made Antioch his capital, but the rebellion came to an end and Jotapianus was killed by his own soldiers during Emperor Decius' rule. Coins issued by Jotapianus had been found. All of them are antoniniani, all of them show a crude design, all of them have a VICTORIA AVG reverse, celebrating a victory of the rebels over Philip troops or rather "the power of the Emperor to conquer", it has been suggested that Jotapianus issued Aureus, none of which are known to have survived. The coins are the only source for his names, M. F. RV. which could be expanded as Marcus Fulvius Rufus. Furthermore, their style suggest that the revolt was short and spread over a small territory, since Jotapianus controlled no major mint
Mar. Silbannacus is a mysterious figure believed to have been a usurper in the Roman Empire during the time of Philip I, or between the fall of Aemilianus and the rise to power of Valerian. Silbannacus had been known only from a single coin, an antoninianus reputedly found in Lorraine, now at the British Museum; this coin has an obverse with the portrait of the usurper and the legend IMP MAR SILBANNACVS AVG, the reverse shows Mercury holding a Victoria and a caduceus, with VICTORIA AVG as legend. The name Silbannacus shows a Celtic origin, the "-acus" suffix; as the coin was dated to Philip the Arab age, it is possible he revolted against Philip, with his revolt ending under Emperor Decius, since Eutropius reports of a bellum civile suppressed in Gaul during this emperor rule. A second antoninianus has been published in 1996, bearing the shortened legend MARTI PROPVGT. According to the style, the coin was coined in Rome. An interpretation of this facts leads to Silbannacus being an officer, left in garrison in Rome while his emperor, left to face his rival Valerian.
After the defeat and the death of Aemilianus in September 253, Silbannacus would have tried to become emperor with the support of the troops confined in Rome, thus controlling the monetary workshop, before being eliminated by Valerian and his son Gallienus. Estiot, Sylviane, "L'empereur Silbannacus. Un second antoninien", in Revue numismatique, 151, 1996, pp. 105–117 Körner, Christian, "Silbannacus", s.v. "Rebellions During the reign of Phillip the Arab: Iotapianus, Pacatianus and Sponsianus", in DIR. Körner, Philippus Arabs. Ein Soldatenkaiser in der Tradition des antoninisch-severischen Prinzipats. Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-11-017205-4
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Homs known as Emesa or Emisa, is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. It is located 162 kilometres north of Damascus. Located on the Orontes River, Homs is the central link between the interior cities and the Mediterranean coast. Before the Syrian civil war, Homs was a major industrial centre, with a population of at least 652,609 people in 2004, it was the third largest city in Syria after Aleppo to the north and the capital Damascus to the south, its population reflects Syria's general religious diversity, composed of Sunni and Alawite and Christian. There are a number of historic mosques and churches in the city, it is close to the Krak des Chevaliers castle, a world heritage site. Homs did not emerge into the historical record until the 1st century BCE at the time of the Seleucids, it became the capital of a kingdom ruled by the Emesene dynasty who gave the city its name. A center of worship for the sun god El-Gabal, it gained importance in Christianity under the Byzantines.
Homs was conquered by the Muslims in the 7th century and made capital of a district that bore its current name. Throughout the Islamic era, Muslim dynasties contending for control of Syria sought after Homs due to the city's strategic position in the area. Homs began to decline under the Ottomans and only in the 19th century did the city regain its economic importance when its cotton industry boomed. During French Mandate rule, the city became a center of insurrection and, after independence in 1946, a center of Baathist resistance to the first Syrian governments. During the Syrian civil war, much of the city was devastated due to the Siege of Homs; the origin of the city's modern name is that it is an Arabic form of the city's Latin name Emesus, derived from the Greek Emesa or Emesos, or Hemesa. The name "Emesa" or "Hemesa" was derived from the Aramean city of "Hamath-zobah"; the latter is a combination of Sawbah. Thus, the name collectively means "The fortress surrounding" which refers to the Citadel of Homs and the encircling plains.
Other claim of the origin is that the name "Emesa" seems to be derived from the nomadic Arab tribe, called Emesenoi by the Greeks and the Romans, that inhabited the region prior to Roman influence in the area."Emesa" was shortened to "Homs" or "Hims" by its Arab inhabitants, many of whom settled there prior to the Muslim conquest of Syria. This name has been preserved throughout the period of Islamic rule continuing to the present day, it was known as "la Chamelle" by the Crusaders. For 2,000 years, Homs has served as a key agricultural market, production site and trade center for the villages of northern Syria, it has provided security services to the hinterland of Syria, protecting it from invading forces. Excavations at the Citadel of Homs indicate that the earliest settlement at the site dates back to around 2300 BCE. Biblical scholars have identified the city with Hamath-zobah of Zobah mentioned in the Bible. In 1274 BCE, a battle took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River near Homs.
It was the largest chariot battle fought, involving 5,000–6,000 chariots. Strabo only mentioned Arethusa in his Geography, as a "very-strong place" of Sampsigeramos and of his son Iamblikhos, "phylarchs" of the Emesene, who had allied themselves to Q. Caecilius Bassus against Caesar in 47 BC. Claims have been made that Emesa was founded by Seleucus I Nicator who established the Seleucid Empire upon the death of Alexander the Great. However, according to Henri Seyrig, Emesa does not seem to have received any Greek colony and the authors' complete silence makes one think that it did not increase its visibility under the Seleucid kings. According to Henri Seyrig, it seems that Posidonius, to whom Strabo referred concerning the Emesenes' phylarchs' alliance with Q. Caecilius Bassus, regarded the Emesenes as a simple tribe, governed by its sheikhs, still devoid of a real urban existence. Upon Pompey's incorporation of the Seleucid state of Syria into the Roman Empire in 64 BCE, the Emesene dynasty were confirmed in their rule as client kings of the Romans for aiding their troops in various wars.
At its greatest extent, the kingdom's boundaries extended from the Bekaa Valley in the west to the border with Palmyra in the east, from Yabrud in the south to al-Rastan in the north. The kingdom of Sampsiceramus I, was the first of Rome's Arab clients on the desert fringes; the city of Emesa grew to prominence after the new-found wealth of the Emesene dynasty, governed first by one of the sons of Sampsiceramus I, Iamblichus I who made it the kingdom's capital. The Emesene proved their loyalty to Rome once more when they aided Gaius Julius Caesar in his siege of Alexandria in 48 BC, by sending him army detachments. Subsequently, they became embroiled in the Roman Civil War
Herennius Etruscus, was Roman emperor in 251, ruling jointly with his father Decius. He was born in c.227 AD. His father was proclaimed emperor by his troops in September 249 while in Pannonia and Moesia, in opposition to Emperor Philip the Arab. Decius defeated Philip in battle, was proclaimed emperor by the Roman Senate. Herennius Etruscus was elevated to caesar in 250 further raised to augustus in May 251; when the Goths, under Cniva, invaded the Danubian provinces, Herennius Etruscus was sent with a vanguard, followed by the main body of Roman troops, led by Decius. They ambushed Cniva at the Battle of Nicopolis ad Istrum, routing him, before being ambushed and routed themselves at the Battle of Beroe. Herennius Etruscus was killed alongside his father. After the deaths of both emperors, Trebonianus Gallus, governor of Moesia, was elected emperor by the remaining Roman forces. Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius was born in c.227 AD, to Decius, a Roman general who became Emperor, Herennia Etruscilla, his wife.
Decius became emperor after being sent to lead troops in the provinces of Pannonia and Moesia, where he was declared emperor by his troops in September 249, in opposition to Philip the Arab. He led his troops against their forces meeting in September 249, near Verona, Italy. In this battle, Philip was slain, after which the Roman Senate declared Decius emperor, honored him with the name Traianus, a reference to Emperor Trajan. Herennius Etruscus was elevated to caesar in 250, making him the designated heir of Decius, before being elevated to augustus in May 251, making him co-emperor under Decius. After Herennius Etruscus was made augustus, his younger brother Hostilian was made caesar. Herennius Etruscus was made consul for 251. In 249 the Goths, led by King Cniva, invaded the Danubian provinces of the Roman Empire with a huge force, they split into two columns, with one column attacking Dacia, the other force, made up of 70,000 men, led by Cniva, attacking Moesia. Cniva's forces further split into two groups, with one attacking Philippopolis, the other attacking Novae.
Cniva was prevented from sieging Novae by Trebonianus Gallus, the governor of Moesia and future emperor, thus moved south, on to Nicopolis. By this time news of the invasion reached Rome, both Decius and Herennius Etruscus travelled to repulse the Gothic invasion, although Hostilian remained in Rome. Herennius Etruscus was sent forward with a vanguard, followed by the main body of Roman forces, led by Decius. Decius and Herennius Etruscus took the Gothic forces by surprise in the Battle of Nicopolis, beat them decisively. Following the crushing defeat, Cniva retreated over the Haemus Mons, met up with his other forces at Philippopolis. Cniva ambushed Decius and Herennius Etruscus' forces at the Battle of Beroe, near the small town of Beroca at the base of the Haemus Mons; the Roman forces were beaten decisively in this engagement, fled in disarray to Moesia where Decius and Herennius Etruscus worked to reorganize them. Cniva returned to Philippopolis, with the help of Titus Julius Priscus, the Roman governor of Thrace, managed to capture the city.
Decius and Herennius Etruscus launched a counterattack in spring 251, was successful in pushing back the Goths. However, Cniva set an ambush for them, near Abrittus. In this battle, both Decius and Herennius Etruscus were killed; the exact circumstances of Herennius Etruscus' death are somewhat vague. The main source for the event, Aurelius Victor, says only that Herennius Etruscus was killed when he "pressed the attack too boldly". Aurelius Victor specifies that he was acting as an imperator, rather than a commilito, meaning that he commanded troops, but did not physically fight alongside them. After the news of his death reached Decius, Decius refused to be consoled, stating that the loss of one life was minor to a battle, thus continued the combat, in which he was slain. Decius' death is obscure, although it is agreed upon that he must have died either during the battle, as a commilito, during the retreat from the battle, or else was slain while serving as imperator. After the death of both Decius and Herennius Etruscus, much of the Roman army with them, the remaining forces elected Trebonianus Gallus, the governor of Moesia, as emperor.
Trebonianus Gallus made peace with Cniva on humiliating terms, allowing them to keep their prisoners and spoils in order to secure peace. In order to gain popular support, Trebonianus Gallus retained Herennia Etruscilla as augusta, elevated Hostilian to augustus, making him co-emperor alongside Trebonianus Gallus himself. However, Hostilian died in November 251, either from a plague or murder, after which point Volusianus, Trebonianus Gallus' son, was raised to augustus. After Trebonianus Gallus was overthrown by Aemilianus in 253, Herennia Etruscilla faded into obscurity. Adkins, Lesley. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195123326. Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. New York: Facts On File. ISBN 9781438110271. Chrystal, Paul. Roman Military Disasters: Dark Days & Lost Legions. Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781473873964. Hebblewhite, Mark; the Emperor and the Army in the Later Roman Empire, AD 235–395. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781317034308. Salisbury, F. S..
"The Reign of Trajan Decius". The Journal of Roman Studies. 14. Doi:10.2307/296323. JSTOR 296323. Taylor, Donathan. Roman Empire at War: A Compendium of Roman Battles from 31 B. C. to A. D. 565. Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781473869110. Media related to Herennius Etru