Battle of Hanging Rock
The Battle of Hanging Rock was a battle in the American Revolutionary War that occurred between the American Patriots and the British. It was part of a campaign by militia General Thomas Sumter to harass or destroy British outposts in the South Carolina back-country, established after the fall of Charleston in May 1780. Future President Andrew Jackson and his brother Robert partook in the battle. Throughout 1779 and early 1780, the British "southern strategy" to regain control of its rebellious provinces in the American Revolutionary War went well, with successful amphibious operations against Savannah and Charleston, South Carolina, a routing of the few remaining Continental Army troops in South Carolina in the May 29, 1780 Battle of Waxhaws; the British, in complete control of both South Carolina and Georgia, established outposts in the interior of both states to recruit Loyalists and to suppress Patriot dissent. One of these outposts was established at Hanging Rock, in present-day Lancaster County south of Heath Springs.
The most northerly of the British posts, it was well fortified with more than 1,400 British troops, including the 500 man Prince of Wales American Volunteer Regiment, a Loyalist unit of the British Army, local Loyalist militia, some dragoons from the British Legion. These forces were under the overall command of Major John Carden; the Americans were under Brigadier General Thomas Sumter, commanding troops made up of Major Richard Winn's Fairfield regiment, Colonel Edward Lacey's Chester regiment, Colonel William Hill's York regiment and Major William Richardson Davie of the Waxhaws of Lancaster county with Col. Robert Irwin's cavalry of Mecklenburg county, North Carolina. On August 1, 1780, Sumter launched an attack on the British outpost at Rocky Mount, west of Hanging Rock on the Catawba River; as part of this attack Sumter detached Major Davie on a diversionary attack on Hanging Rock. Davie attacked a fortified house, captured 60 horses and a number of weapons, while inflicting casualties on the British.
This, did not prevent the British from sending troops from Hanging Rock to reinforce the garrison there. After his assault on Rocky Mount failed, Sumter decided to make an attack on the weakened Hanging Rock outpost. Sumter decided on a plan of attack of assaulting the camp in three mounted detachments; the initial assault was made early in the morning where Winn's and Davie's men routed Bryan's corps. Capt. McCulloch's company of the British Legion, after presenting a volley, was routed by Sumter's riflemen; the Prince of Wales Regt. came under heavy fire and suffered severe losses. Part of the Prince of Wales Regt came up, having cleverly deployed themselves in some woods, checked the rebel assault with a surprise crossfire; this allowed the British to draw up in a hollow square in the center of the cleared ground, to further protect themselves with a three-pound cannon, left by some of Rugeley's Camden militia. In the heat of the battle, Major Carden lost his nerve and surrendered his command to one of his junior officers.
This was a major turning point for the Americans. At one point, Capt. Rousselet of the Legion infantry forced many Sumter's men back. Lack of ammunition made it impossible for Sumter to knock out the British; the battle raged for 3 hours without pause, causing many men to faint from the thirst. At the end, the British had lost 192 soldiers. A group of Americans came across a storage of rum in the British camp and became so drunk they could not be brought back into the battle; the battle site has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is managed by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources; the American Battlefield Trust and its partners have acquired and preserved 139 acres of the battlefield. Scoggins, Michael C; the Day It Rained Militia: Huck's Defeat and the Revolution in the South Carolina Backcountry, May–July 1780. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-59629-015-0. OCLC 60189717. Wilson, David K; the Southern Strategy: Britain's Conquest of South Carolina and Georgia, 1775–1780.
Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-573-3. OCLC 232001108. Savas and Dameron, A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolutionary War. Casemate Publishers, 2010. ISBN 978-1-932714-94-4
Battle of Eutaw Springs
The Battle of Eutaw Springs was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, was the last major engagement of the war in the Carolinas. Both sides claimed victory. In early 1781, Major General Nathanael Greene commander of the Southern army in the Continental Army began a campaign to end British control over the South Carolina backcountry, his first major objective was the capture of the British controlled village of Ninety Six. On May 22, 1781, Greene laid siege to the fortified village. After nearly a month Greene became aware that reinforcements under Lord Rawdon were approaching from Charleston. Forces under Greene's command were repelled. To avoid facing the force commanded by Rawdon, Greene retreated toward Charlotte, North Carolina. Rawdon pursued Greene for several days, but was compelled to abandon the pursuit because his men were exhausted by days of forced marching and he lacked sufficient supplies to continue. In spite of the fact that Ninety Six was the only remaining inland British outpost after the fall of Augusta, Rawdon decided to burn and abandon it, withdrew the garrison to Charleston.
In poor health, Rawdon sailed for England in late August, leaving Charleston under the command of Colonel Alexander Stewart. On 16 July, Greene moved his army, exhausted by many days of marching and combat, to a campsite on the High Hills of Santee, allowing his main force to rest while awaiting reinforcements. Marion and Sumter continued to harass the British in a "war of posts". On August 23, his force moved towards Camden to cross the Wateree River, Howell's Ferry to cross the Congaree River. By 4 Sept. they were camped at Fort Motte Stoudenmyer's Plantation on 5-6 Sept. On 13 Aug. Colonel Stewart had led a force of 2,000-2,300 men from Orangeburg to Thompson's Plantation, south of the Congaree River, he fell back to Eutaw Springs on 27 Aug. about 2 miles east of present-day Eutawville in Charleston District. At 4:00 AM on 8 September 1781, Greene's army began marching from Burdell's Plantation in the direction of Eutaw Springs, 7 miles distant. In the van were Lieutenant Colonel Henry Lee's Legion plus 73 infantry and 72 cavalry of South Carolina State troops under Lieutenant Colonel John Henderson and Captain Wade Hampton, respectively.
Next in the marching column came 40 cavalry and 200 infantry under Brigadier General Francis Marion, followed by 150 North Carolina militia under Colonel Francis marquis de Malmedy and 307 South Carolina militia led by Brigadier General Andrew Pickens. Continental Army troops formed the rear of Greene's column; these were led by three green North Carolina battalions under Brigadier General Jethro Sumner. Major John Armstrong led a mounted contingent while Lieutenant Colonel John Baptista Ashe and Major Reading Blount directed the foot soldiers. Ashe and Blount served with the 1st North Carolina Regiment, while Armstrong belonged to the 4th North Carolina Regiment. Two Virginia battalions under Lieutenant Colonel Richard Campbell and Major Smith Snead were trailed by Colonel Otho Holland Williams' two Maryland battalions under Lieutenant Colonel John Eager Howard and Major Henry Hardman. Lieutenant Colonel William Washington's mounted men and Captain Robert Kirkwood's Delaware infantry companies formed the tail of the column.
Greene's force had two 3-pound grasshopper guns under Captain-Lieutenant William Gaines and two 6-pound cannons directed by Captain William Brown. All told, Greene had 1,256 Continental infantry and 300 cavalry, the horsemen divided between Lee and Washington. Lee's cavalry were led by his infantry by Captain Rudolph. Greene's army numbered 2,400 men of. Stewart had between 2,000 troops on hand, his British regulars were the 3rd Foot, 63rd Foot, 64th Foot, John Marjoribanks' 300-man flank battalion. The last-named unit was made up of the converged flank companies of the 3rd, 19th, 30th Foot; the regulars were supported by two American loyalist contingents. These units were John Harris Cruger's regular battalion of DeLancey's Brigade and John Coffin's South Carolina Tories, which consisted of about 150 regular infantry and 50 militia cavalry. Stewart's artillery consisted of two 6-pound, one 4-pound, one 3-pound cannons plus a swivel gun. In order to make up for a shortage of bread in his supplies, Stewart had been sending out foraging parties each morning to dig up yams, unarmed except for a small guard detail.
At around 8 a.m. on September 8, Captain John Coffin and a detachment of his South Carolina Loyalist cavalry were reconnoitring ahead of Stewart's main force when he encountered a mounted American scouting party under Major John Armstrong. Coffin pursued Armstrong. Attacked by Henry Lee's 2nd Partisan Corps, Coffin escaped but left 4 or 5 of his men killed and 40 more captured; the Americans came across Stewart's foragers and captured about 400 of them. Greene's force, with around 2,200 men, now approached Stewart's camp while Stewart, warned by Coffin, deployed his force; when the Americans realized they were approaching the British force, they formed three lines, with the militia in front with 2 3-pounders, followed by the Maryland and North Carolina Continentals with 2 6-pounders, with the Delaware Regiment and Washington in reserve. The Americans started the attack at 9 AM with an advance by the militia; this line consisted of, left to right, Henderson, Pickens, de Malmedy, Marion, Lee's infantry and Lee's Cavalry.
They were opposed by the British Line consisting of, left to right, Coffin, 64th, 63rd, New Jersey Volunteers, New York Volunteers, 84th, De Lancey's, 3rd, Marjoribanks. Ha
Chester County, South Carolina
Chester County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 33,140, its county seat is Chester. Chester County is included in the NC-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 586 square miles, of which 580.6 square miles is land and 5.5 square miles is water. York County - north Lancaster County - east Fairfield County - south Union County - west Sumter National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 34,068 people, 12,880 households, 9,338 families residing in the county; the population density was 59 people per square mile. There were 14,374 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 59.93% White, 38.65% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, 0.55% from two or more races. 0.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,880 households out of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.80% were married couples living together, 18.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.50% were non-families.
24.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,425, the median income for a family was $38,087. Males had a median income of $30,329 versus $21,570 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,709. About 11.90% of families and 15.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.20% of those under age 18 and 14.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 33,140 people, 12,876 households, 9,073 families residing in the county.
The population density was 57.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 14,701 housing units at an average density of 25.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 59.8% white, 37.4% black or African American, 0.4% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 19.9% were American, 7.5% were Irish, 5.6% were English, 5.1% were German. Of the 12,876 households, 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.5% were married couples living together, 19.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families, 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age was 40.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,743 and the median income for a family was $42,074. Males had a median income of $39,008 versus $27,701 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $17,687. About 18.6% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.0% of those under age 18 and 18.0% of those age 65 or over. Chester county operates on an industrial and agriculture community, with much land area in timber production. Forestry plays a major role in the county economy with several mills in the county and others near it. Forest land ownership is majority family landowners who manage their properties for a variety of uses. Agriculture is a big segment of the economy with crops consisting of cotton, oats, rye and dairy cattle, corn, other vegetables, peanuts and pecans. Chester Vision or CSN Chester News & Reporter WRBK, 90.3 FM, a noncommercial station that features classic oldies Chester Fort Lawn Great Falls Lowrys Richburg Eureka Mill Gayle Mill Blackstock Edgemoor Lando Leeds Wilksburg John Adair, born in Chester County, would become a member of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, governor of Kentucky Thomas and Meeks Griffin wrongly executed in South Carolina's electric chair in 1915.
They were framed in Chester County in 1913 and pardoned in 2009. National Register of Historic Places listings in Chester County, South Carolina Tryon County, North Carolina Chester County website Chester County history and images
Siege of Fort Motte
The Siege of Fort Motte was a military operation during the American Revolutionary War. A force of Patriots led by General Francis "Swamp Fox" Marion and Lt. Colonel "Light Horse" Harry Lee set out to capture the British post at Fort Motte, the informal name of a plantation mansion fortified by the British for use as a depot because of its strategic location at the confluence of the Congaree and Wateree rivers; the British garrisoned 175 British soldiers under Lt. Daniel McPherson at the fort. Marion and Lee learned that Lord Rawdon was retreating towards Fort Motte in the aftermath of the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill; the Americans forces invested the place on May 8 and wanted to capture the fort before Rawdon arrived. Two days Marion called for the British to surrender and McPherson refused; the next day, Colonel Lee informed Mrs. Motte that he intended to burn the mansion down to force the British out. On May 12, 1781, the American forces had entrenched themselves close enough to the mansion they were able to hit the roof with flaming arrows.
Mrs Motte, a patriot, accepted Lee's plan, offered her own arrows for it. The mansion was set on fire. Marion's artillery fire added to the desperation of the British and, by one o'clock that afternoon, Lt. McPherson surrendered the garrison to the Patriots. Great Britain's "southern strategy" for winning the American Revolutionary War appeared in some ways to be going well after the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in March 1781. General Lord Cornwallis had defeated General Nathanael Greene, but his army was short on supplies and had suffered significant casualties, so he decided to move to Wilmington, North Carolina to resupply and refit his troops. Greene, while he had lost the battlefield, still had his army intact. After shadowing Cornwallis for a time, he turned south, embarked on an expedition to recover Patriot control of South Carolina and Georgia, where British and Loyalist forces were thinly distributed, smaller outposts were subject to attack from larger forces under the command of Greene or one of the Patriot militia commanders in the area.
He first ordered Colonel Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee to continue shadowing Cornwallis so that his southward movement was screened. Once he was on his way into South Carolina, he ordered Lee to abandon Cornwallis and instead join forces with militia Colonel Francis Marion in the eastern part of the state. Lee and Marion met on April 14, first targeted Fort Watson, a small stockaded fort on the east side of the Santee River, which fell after a short siege, they chased after John Watson, the fort's usual commander, who had led a force away from it in search of Marion, but was forced onto the defensive when Lee arrived. Lee and Marion targeted Fort Motte, a key British supply depot and communication point not far from the confluence of the Congaree and Wateree Rivers; the British had taken over Mount Joseph Plantation, owned by Miles Brewton and occupied by his sister, the widowed Rebecca Brewton Motte and her children, who had left the city of Charleston. The British fortified the area around the mansion, building palisades, ramparts and abatis.
They garrisoned a force of 175, made up of British soldiers and Provincials under Capt. Lt. Donald McPherson at the fort. Arriving May 8, Lee and Marion surrounded the fort, dominated by the two-story Motte residence and garrisoned by about 140 British and Hessian regulars under Capt. Lt. McPherson. On the approach of the Americans, the British had evicted the widowed Rebecca Motte from the main house, she had taken up residence outside the fort at the overseer's house; as the forces of Watson and Rawdon were still active and might come to relieve the siege and Lee needed to bring the siege to a conclusion. At Fort Watson they had constructed a tower from which the attackers could fire into the fort, but this idea was not workable under the conditions at Fort Motte; the idea was put forward to set fire to the buildings within the defenses. Mrs. Motte sympathetic to the Patriot cause, provided the arrows that were used to ignite the roof of the house on May 12; when the defenders tried to go onto the roof to extinguish the flames, the attackers fired on them with their six-pound gun, driving them off.
The garrison surrendered shortly after, the Americans moved to put out the fires before the whole house was engulfed. The captured garrison was released on parole to return to Charleston. Before they left, Mrs. Motte and the American and British officers shared a meal. General Marion proceeded to the port of Georgetown, where the British garrison fled without resisting, while Lee was ordered by General Greene to assist in recapturing Augusta, Georgia. Cate, Founding Fighters Letter, Lord Rawdon to Cornwallis, May 24, 1781 in R. W. Gibbes. Documentary History of the American Revolution in 1781 and 1782. Appleton and Co. 1855. P. 79. Papers of the Continental Congress, M247, R175, I 155, volume 2. P. 8. National Archives, Washington DC. Levi Smith. List of Officers in the Army. London: War Office. 1783. Letter, Col. Nesbit Balfour to Cornwallis, 21 May 1781. Cornwallis Papers, PRO 30/11/6. Letter, Marion to Greene, 11 May 1781. Greene Papers. Volume VIII. P. 242. Letter, Lord Rawdon to Cornwallis, 24 May 1781.
R. W. Gibbes, Documentary History of the American Revolution in 1781 and 1782. D. Appleton and Co. 1855. P. 79
Pyle's Massacre known as Pyle's Hacking Match or the Battle of Haw River, was fought during the American Revolutionary War in Orange County, North Carolina, on February 24, 1781, between Patriot and Loyalist North Carolina militia troops. Patriot cavalry commander Continental Army Colonel Henry Lee surprised Loyalist militia under Dr. John Pyle, who thought Lee was the British cavalry commander Banastre Tarleton sent to meet Pyle. Lee's men opened fire and scattering Pyle's force, with Colonel Lee pursuing Tarleton in the direction of Hillsborough, NC, intending to capture or kill his command. British general the Earl Cornwallis had been unable to catch Nathanael Greene's army, who strategically retreated using a screening feint column under Col. Otho Williams, to Dix's Ferry allowing Greene to cross the Dan River at Irwin's and Boyd's Ferry and out of North Carolina. Cornwallis, who had burned his baggage train at Ramsour's Mill, in chasing Greene exhausted his men, who were starving in wet freezing weather with little forage from locals.
All the boats for crossing the Dan River were taken by Greene so that Cornwallis was stranded on the NC side of the river. Cornwallis made an exhaustive trip South,establishing a headquarters to regroup and recover at Hillsborough, North Carolina, a colonial outpost city, on February 21 to rally Loyalists to his side. Dr. John Pyle had moved to Chatham County in 1767. Noted for his loyalty to the King, he had assisted the Governor in the War of the Regulation, though he was not at the Battle of Alamance; when Cornwallis appealed for Loyalist volunteers, Pyle gathered between 400 men. He requested Cornwallis provide his men with an escort, Banastre Tarleton with his cavalry and a small force of infantry, a total of about 450 men, marched to lead Pyle to safety. General Greene spent days in Virginia from the 15th to the 22nd, where he was able to resupply, feed his troops, medically recover his wounded and gain reinforcements. On February 17 he detached Colonel Henry Lee with his cavalry, Colonel Andrew Pickens with Maryland infantry and South Carolina militia, to recross the Dan and monitor British activity.
This force crossed the Dan on February 18 and set up a hidden camp along the road between Hillsborough and Haw River crossing points. From there Lee sent scouts to watch for British movements. Word came the next morning. Lee and Pickens followed behind Tarleton, they learned, had camped near the Haw. A planned attack was called off when scouts reported that Tarleton had again moved, after the militia companies he was expecting to meet did not show up. Pyle's force had delayed its movement to visit with family and friends before setting off. At noon on February 24, Lee and Pickens captured two British staff officers and learned through interrogation that Tarleton was only a few miles ahead. In the waning hours of the day, Lee's Legion, who wore short green jackets and plumed helmets, encountered two of Pyle's men, who mistook them for Tarleton's dragoons, who wore similar uniforms. Lee learned that Pyle's troops were nearby. Lee instructed Pickens' riflemen to flank Pyle's position, trotted into the camp in full salute.
Lee exchanged customary civilities with Colonel Pyle and began shaking his hand when the sounds of battle commenced. The most accepted account of the battle, pieced together from reports from Lee and Captain Joseph Graham, indicates that Lee's deception was purely chance, that he had intended to avoid the Loyalists, intending instead to encounter Tarleton's Dragoons, the more important objective; the sounds of battle commenced when the militia at the rear of Lee's Legion, recognizing the strips of red cloth on the hats of Pyle's men as the badge of Loyalists, alerted Captain Eggleston, new to the South and was not familiar with local Whig and Tory badges. When he asked one of the Loyalists which side he was on, the man replied "King George", Eggleston responded by striking him on the head with his sabre. Seeing this, Pickens' riflemen joined in the attack; the cavalry line turned and attacked the Loyalists. Pyle's men broke and ran. Many Loyalists, believing the attack to be a mistake, continued insisting they were on King George's side, to no avail.
After 10 minutes, the remaining Loyalists had fled, 93 Loyalists were known to be dead more were wounded and others were seen being carried off by friends. According to local legend, John Pyle was badly wounded in the battle and crawled into a nearby pond where he concealed himself until he could be rescued. After recovering from his wounds, he surrendered to the local militia, they were pardoned because of Dr. Pyle's care for wounded patriots. Pickens and Lee never caught up with Tarleton, since Cornwallis ordered him to rejoin the main army on the night of February 24. Though pursued, Tarleton got too close to the main British army for Pickens and Lee to attack safely. Additionally, Nathanael Greene's recovered army crossed the Dan River back into NC on February 22, proceeding for contact and action at Guilford Courthouse on March 15, 1781. Lee and Pickens broke off to screen and join the campaign, their task to demoralize and discourage Loyalist volunteers from adding to the diminishing British forces having been successful.
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t