Battle of the Basque Roads
The Battle of the Basque Roads, Battle of Aix Roads was a naval battle during the Napoleonic Wars off the Island of Aix. On the night of 11 April 1809 Captain Lord Cochrane led a British fireship attack against a powerful French force anchored in the Basque Roads, in the attack all but two of the French ships were driven ashore. The subsequent engagement lasted three days but failed to destroy the entire French fleet, Cochrane accused the British commanding officer, Admiral James Gambier, of being reluctant to press the attack. Gambier demanded a court-martial, and was exonerated, Cochranes career in the Royal Navy ended. The French Navy continued to operate against the British from the Basque Roads until the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Basque Roads are a sheltered bay on the Biscay shore of France, bounded by the Île dOléron to the west and the Île de Ré to the north. The port of La Rochelle stands at the northeast corner of the roads, during the Peninsular War in Spain and Portugal the Duke of Wellington depended on maritime supply.
The French fleet in the Basque Roads operated against the British supply ships, to protect the convoys, the Royal Navy maintained a blockade of the Basque Roads, but this was expensive and never wholly effective. In late October 1808, Napoléon sent Decrès orders for the squadrons at Lorient and Rochefort to deliver reinforcements, the continual presence of large British squadrons, impeded their departure. On 7 February 1809, Napoleon ordered Admiral Willaumez to raise the blockades with the Brest fleet to allow these small squadrons to make their way to Martinique, two weeks later, Willaumez finally set out with eight ships-of-the-line and two frigates towards Lorient. Fearful of being caught by the British, Willaumez continued on his way south to Rochefort, with the subsequent arrival of a large British fleet, Willaumez was trapped in Rochefort. A British squadron arrived on the scene and held the French there until Gambier arrived with the rest of the Channel fleet to impose a blockade, the British Admiralty became concerned about the concentration of such a large segment of the French fleet in one place.
If the ships escaped they could ferry supplies to Napoleon’s Peninsular forces, with these reasons in mind, the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Mulgrave, proposed an attack on the French fleet at anchor using fire ships. Cochranes superior officer, Lord Gambier, commanding the Channel Fleet, was opposed to the plan, calling it a horrible and anti-Christian mode of warfare. Cochrane was given twenty-one fireships to command, but he was focusing on his own invention, explosion ships. Gambiers opposition and Mulgraves persuasiveness meant that full responsibility for executing the plan fell to Lord Cochrane, on the evening of April 11,1809 Cochrane led the way into Basque Roads with two explosion ships, followed by 25 other ships. Because of delays resulting from Gambier’s indecision, the French were alert to the British plan, on the night of April 11,1809 Cochrane floated in on the flood-tide aboard the foremost explosion vessel with the other explosion ships following. They managed to escape with their dog just in time, the explosion ships succeeded in breaking the mile-long boom of heavy spars and chains the French had placed to block the British ships from engaging the French.
Unable to see clearly in the smoke, the panicked French gunners fired into the line of protecting frigates, anchor cables were hastily cut to escape the surge of flame, and without sails, the ships piled up on the shoals
Battle of Teugen-Hausen
The Battle of Teugen-Hausen or the Battle of Thann was an engagement that occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. The French won a victory over their opponents when the Austrians withdrew that evening. The site of the battle is a height approximately halfway between the villages of Teugn and Hausen in Lower Bavaria, part of modern-day Germany. Also on 19 April, clashes occurred at Arnhofen near Abensberg, Dünzling, together with the Battle of Teugen-Hausen, the fighting marked the first day of a four-day campaign which culminated in the French victory at the Battle of Eckmühl. Austrias invasion of the Kingdom of Bavaria caught Emperor Napoleon I of Frances Franco-German army by surprise, though the advance of Archduke Charles Austrian army was slow, mistakes by Napoleons subordinate Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier placed Davouts corps in great peril. As Davout withdrew southwest from Regensburg on the bank of the Danube. The first Austrian column missed the French altogether, while Davouts cavalry held off the second column, the third column crashed head-on into one of Davouts infantry divisions in a meeting engagement.
Generals of both armies led their troops with courage and skill as the troops fought over two ridges, French reinforcements finally pushed the Austrians off the southern ridge late in the afternoon and Charles ordered a retreat that night. This opened a path for Davout to join the main body of the French army on 20 April. On 8 February 1809, the Austrian Empire determined to make war on Napoleon, Archduke Charles wished to put off the war in order to fully mobilize and find allies. Archduke Charles, appointed Generalissimo after the debacle of the War of the Third Coalition in 1805, had tried for three years to improve the Austrian army, historian David G. Chandler wrote, Charles was the very best man available to Austria to lead her army. He expanded the number of soldiers to 340,000. He upgraded the artillery corps, adopted the organization, and revised the infantry drillbook. Serious deficiencies remained, however, in Austrian staffwork, in the landwehr organization, at the start, only 15,000 of the best landwehr formations were added to the field army while the rest were relegated to garrison duty or the reserves.
The Habsburgs did not wish to arm the population for fear of an insurrection, in Hungary, the nobles and people were cool toward the war and contributed as little as possible. Charles massed the remaining regular army in Bohemia and along the Danube for the main effort, Charles 206, 906-strong Hauptarmee was organized into six army corps and two reserve corps. The I Armeekorps was led by General der Kavallerie Count Heinrich von Bellegarde, the II Armeekorps commanded by Feldzeugmeister Johann Kollowrat counted 28,168 soldiers. The III Armeekorps consisted of 29,360 troops under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Prince Friedrich Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, the IV Armeekorps of Feldmarschall-Leutnant Prince Franz Seraph of Orsini-Rosenberg controlled 27,800 soldiers
Battle of Stralsund (1809)
The Battle of Stralsund on 31 May 1809 was a battle during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, between Ferdinand von Schills freikorps and Napoleonic forces in Stralsund. In a vicious battle, the freikorps was defeated and Schill killed in action. Stralsund, a port at the Baltic Sea in Swedish Pomerania, was surrendered to France after the siege of 1807 during the War of the Fourth Coalition, during this war, Prussian captain Ferdinand von Schill distinguished himself by cutting off French supply lines using guerrilla tactics in 1806. In 1807, he raised a freikorps and successfully fought the French forces in what he intended to become a patriotic insurrection, in January and February 1809, the German resistance in French-held Westphalia invited Schill to lead an uprising. He agreed in April and drafted a proclamation which however was intercepted by the French, with a freikorps of 100 hussars, Schill headed southwest towards Westphalia to stir up an anti-French rebellion, but news of the French victory in the Battle of Ratisbon made him change his plans.
Schill turned northwards to secure a port, hoping for relief by the British navy, Schill entered Stralsund on 25 May with 2,000 men. The freikorps was pursued by a French-led force of 6,000 Danes, Holsteiners and French, the Dutch auxiliaries, about 4,000 troops, were commanded by Pierre Guillaume Gratien, another 1,500 Danish troops were under general Johann von Ewalds command. Garniers Dutch forces included the 6th and 9th infantry, 2nd Horse Regiment and they entered the town after storming the Tribseer Tor gate, and engaged Schills freikorps in street fights. Schill was killed, and the survivors of his freikorps dispersed or captured, eleven of Schills officers were taken to Brunswick, and executed in Wesel following an order of Napoleon Bonaparte. More than five hundred of Schills men went into captivity, Schills head was sent to The Netherlands for display in Leydens public library, and only in 1837 the head was buried in Brunswick. Schill was not alone with his plans to stir up an insurrection of the Prussian people against the French occupation, other prominent plotters were Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick and Kasper von Dörnberg.
All of them saw the Austrian resistance and the resulting War of the Fifth Coalition as a chance to expel Napoleon Bonaparte from Northern Germany as well. France however proved to be the party, and Schills defeat in the streets of Stralsund put a definite end to all plans for a popular uprising. Pomerania during the Early Modern Age History of Pomerania
Battle of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit
The Battle of Neumarkt-Sankt Veit on 24 April 1809 saw a Franco-Bavarian force led by Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bessières face an Austrian Empire army commanded by Johann von Hiller. Hillers numerically superior force won a victory over the Allied troops, Neumarkt-Sankt Veit is located ten kilometers north of Mühldorf and 33 kilometers southeast of Landshut in Bavaria. On 10 April 1809, Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschens surprise invasion of the Kingdom of Bavaria put the Grande Armée of Emperor Napoleon I of France at a disadvantage. On 19 April, Charles failed to take advantage of his opportunities, after battles on 20 and 21 April, Hillers troops were driven into a headlong retreat to the southeast. Having temporarily disposed of Hiller, Napoleon turned north with his army against Archduke Charles. On 22 and 23 April, the Franco-Germans defeated Charles army, Napoleon sent Bessières to pursue the Austrian left wing with minor forces. Not knowing that Charles had been defeated, Hiller turned back upon his pursuer, once he found that he was alone on the south bank facing Napoleons main army, Hiller retreated rapidly to the east in the direction of Vienna.
On 10 April 1809, Archduke Charles invaded the Kingdom of Bavaria with 209,000 Austrian soldiers and 500 artillery pieces, a set of orders from Emperor Napoleon in Paris was transmitted poorly and misunderstood by Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier. By the time Napoleon arrived at the front on the 17th, on the morning of the 19th, Charles gained a position in which he might have severely punished Marshal Louis Davouts isolated III Corps. Instead, Davout escaped defeat in the hard-fought Battle of Teugen-Hausen, on 20 April, the Austrian left wing was strung-out on a 13 kilometer front behind the Abens River from Mainburg in the south to Biburg in the north. In total, there were about 42,000 Austrians, Napoleon launched 55,000 troops at his enemies in the Battle of Abensberg, inflicting 6,710 casualties, and forcing them to retreat. Napoleon beat Hiller again in the Battle of Landshut on 21 April, seizing a crossing over the Isar River, until 2,30 am on 22 April, Napoleon mistakenly believed that Hillers three corps represented the main Austrian army.
When he realized his error, he sent most of his troops marching north to crush Archduke Charles, on 22 April, the Franco-Germans defeated Charles at the Battle of Eckmühl and forced him to withdraw through Regensburg to the north bank of the Danube the following day. Napoleon instructed Bessières to pursue Hiller and placed him in charge of one reinforced cavalry division, the bulk of Hillers force, numbering 27,000 to 28,000 troops, lay near Mühldorf and Neuötting on the Inn River at noon on 23 April. A10, 000-strong division under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Franz Jellacic held Munich, Feldmarschall-Leutnant Dedovichs brigade from the IV Armeekorps, which had been blockading Passau, was assigned to Hillers command and moved to Braunau am Inn. Hiller noticed that the French pursuit had slackened on the 22nd and 23rd, a letter from Emperor Francis I urging him to help defend Archduke Charles south flank strengthened the left wing commanders resolve. Neither the emperor nor Hiller realized that Charles had withdrawn to the bank of the Danube.
The emperor planned for the pursuit to cross the Inn and capture Braunau am Inn, on the 24th, Napoleon ordered Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre, the commander of VII Corps, to take the division of Lieutenant General the Crown Prince of Bavaria to recapture Munich from Jellacic
The Brunswick Ducal Corps, commonly known as the Black Brunswickers in English and the Schwarze Schar or Schwarze Legion in German, were a military unit in the Napoleonic Wars. The corps was raised from volunteers by German-born Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the Duke was a harsh opponent of Napoleon Bonapartes occupation of his native Germany. Most units of the corps wore black uniforms, leading to the nicknames of the unit. The Brunswickers wore a silvered skull badge on their hats, recruiting, the replacement of casualties, and finance had always been problematic, and the corps was disbanded in the early 1820s. The exploits of the Brunswickers caught the British Victorian public imagination, completed in 1860, the painting depicts a Brunswicker in his black uniform bidding goodbye to an unnamed woman. In 1806 the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Charles William Ferdinand, was wounded during the Prussian defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt. Following Prussias defeat and the collapse of the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon, two years in 1809 the Fifth Coalition against Napoleon was formed between the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom.
The dispossessed Frederick William, who had been a critic of French domination in Germany. To finance this venture he mortgaged his principality in Oels, despite a successful campaign with their Austrian allies, the defeat of the latter at the Battle of Wagram on 6 July 1809 led to the Armistice of Znaim on 12 July. Frederick William refused to accept this and led his Schwarze Schar into Germany, landing in England, the duke was welcomed by his cousin and brother-in-law, the Prince Regent and the Black Brunswickers entered British service. During the next few years, the Brunswickers earned themselves a reputation through service with the British in the Peninsular Campaign. When organized for British service, the corps was renamed the Brunswick Oels Jäger, Prussians represented a large part of the original officer corps, while the enlisted men were motivated by German patriotism. However, once the Oels entered English service, they were cut off from their recruiting grounds. Compelled to enlist men from the prisoner of war camps to fill up the ranks, the Kings German Legion obtained the best of the German recruits, leaving the Oels with the less desirable ones.
In addition to Germans, the Oels recruited Poles, Danes, Charles Oman, the Peninsular War historian, calls the Oels a motley crew, much given to desertion and records one occasion where ten men were caught deserting in a body. Of these, four were shot and the rest flogged, the Brunswick Oels Jägers gave a good account of themselves during the war. The regiment — really a single battalion—arrived in Portugal in early 1811, the Duke of Wellington distributed one company to the 4th Division and two companies to the 5th Division as skirmishers, while the remaining nine companies served in the newly formed 7th Division. The Oels remained in this organization until the end of the war in April 1814, during this period, the Oels served in most of the major battles including Fuentes de Onoro, Vitoria, the Pyrenees, the Nive, and Orthez
Kingdom of Prussia
It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia. Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great. After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles and it was because of its power that Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful states and Austria. The North German Confederation which lasted from 1867–1871, created a union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent.
The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War, the German Empire lasted from 1871–1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony. This was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, in 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the predecessor of the unified German Reich. The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, in 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire, after the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not even afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia, the towns were poverty stricken, with even the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade.
Poverty in these towns was partly caused by Prussias neighbors, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns simply could not compete and these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west. It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, not only did it face partition from within but the threat of its neighbors. It prevented the issue of partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories, the second issue was solved through expansion
Battle of Caldiero (1809)
The outnumbered Austrians successfully fended off the attacks of their enemies in actions at San Bonifacio and Castelcerino before retreating to the east. The clash occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, in the opening engagements of the war, Archduke John defeated the Franco-Italian army and drove it back to the Adige River at Verona. Forced to detach forces to watch Venice and other enemy-held fortresses. Eugène probed at San Bonifacio on the 27th, on 29 April, he ordered part of his troops to make a holding attack against Soave while he sent an Italian force to seize the high ground on the Austrian right flank. On the 30th, the Austrians recaptured Castelcerino, which was lost the previous day, while this action was being fought, Johns army began its retreat to the Brenta River at Bassano. Caldiero is located 15 kilometres east of Verona, the towns of Soave and San Bonifacio lie along the Autostrada A4 about 25 kilometres east of Verona. Castelcerino is a village in the hills about 4.5 kilometres north of Soave.
See Sacile 1809 Order of Battle for a list of units, the VIII Armeekorps massed at Villach in Carinthia and the IX Armeekorps concentrated to the south at Ljubljana in Carniola, in modern-day Slovenia. General-major Andreas von Stoichevich was detached with 10,000 troops to observe General of Division Auguste Marmonts XI Corps in Dalmatia, a force of 26,000 Landwehr manned garrisons and defended Inner Austria. John wanted the VIII Armeekorps to march southwest from Villach while the IX Armeekorps moved northwest from Laibach, the two forces would join near Cividale del Friuli. At the start of the war, the Tyrolese people rose in revolt, under leaders such as Andreas Hofer they started attacking the Bavarian garrisons. Hoping to aid the rebellion, Austrian commander-in-chief Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen ordered John to detach Chasteler and 10,000 Austrian troops to assist the Tyrolese, chastelers replacement as the commander of the shrunken VIII Armeekorps was Albert Gyulai, Ignaz Gyulais brother.
Suspecting that Austria planned to initiate a war, Napoleon built up the French part of the Army of Italy to six infantry, actually, a good many of the so-called French soldiers were Italians, because Napoleon had annexed parts of northwest Italy to the First French Empire. In addition, Eugène assembled three Italian infantry divisions so that the Franco-Italian army numbered 70,000 troops, the army was dispersed across northern Italy. Eugène never led large formations into battle, yet Napoleon appointed him commander of the Army of Italy, to prepare his stepson Eugène for the role, the emperor wrote him many detailed letters advising him how to defend Italy. He urged Eugène to fall back from the Isonzo River line to the Piave River if the Austrians invaded in strength, Napoleon made the point that the Adige River was an extremely important strategic position. He did not believe Austria was going to attack in April, Eugènes army remained somewhat dispersed. On 10 April 1809, the Austrian VIII Armeekorps advanced from Tarvisio while the IX Armeekorps crossed the Isonzo River near Cividale, by the 12th they joined near Udine and pushed to the west
At the end of the War of the Third Coalition shortly afterwards, Bavaria found itself on the victorious side. The French officially handed over the Tyrolean county including the secularized Bishopric of Trent to Bavaria on 11 February 1806. In its policies, the Bavarian government under Count Montgelas angered the Tyrolean population by raising taxes there, but at the same time barring exports, e. g. of cattle, from Tyrol into Bavaria. Furthermore, the state mingled into the affairs of the church in Tyrol, banning traditional rural holidays, additionally, on May 1,1808, the County of Tyrol was disestablished and administratively split up into the three districts of Inn and Etsch. Conscription was thus introduced in Tyrol and Tyroleans called into Bavarian military service, which led to open revolt. The trigger for the outbreak of the uprising was the flight to Innsbruck of young men that were due to be called into the Bavarian army by the authorities at Axams on March 12 and 13,1809. The partisans stayed in contact with the Austrian court in Vienna by their conduit Baron Joseph Hormayr, the Austrian Empire, citing a breach of the conditions agreed in the Peace of Pressburg guaranteeing Tyrolean constitutional autonomy, declared war on the Bavarian-French allies on April 9,1809.
Meanwhile, an army led by the innkeeper Andreas Hofer upon the war message had gathered around Sterzing. In the First and Second Battle of Bergisel near Innsbruck on April 12 and May 25, the peasant troops clashed with the Bavarians, the Tyroleans celebrated the news that Napoleon had suffered his first defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling on May 22. Thus, the rebels, who had their strongholds in Southern Tyrol, were fighting alone. Hofer now took over the administration of the territories at Innsbruck. However, in the Treaty of Schönbrunn of October 14, the treaty ending the War of the Fifth Coalition. Napoleon ordered the re-conquest of the province the same day and those last loyal troops were defeated at the Fourth Battle of Bergisel on November 1, that effectively crushed the rebellion despite minor rebel victories in November. Many of the rebels were executed by the French and Bavarian forces in the following weeks, the leader Andreas Hofer fled into the mountains and hid at several places in South Tyrol.
He was betrayed by a Tyrolean peasant to the French near St Martin in Passeier on 28 January 1810. Hofer was arrested and brought to Mantua, where Eugène de Beauharnais, the French viceroy of Italy, first wanted to pardon him, the death penalty was issued on February 19 and executed the next day. Hofers mortal remains were buried at the Innsbruck Hofkirche in 1823, upon Napoleons fall in 1814 and the Congress of Vienna, all parts of Tyrol were re-united under Austrian rule. With the rise of nationalism in the 19th century, the fate of the rebellion
First French Empire
The First French Empire, Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire, a series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. The plot included Bonapartes brother Lucien, serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, on 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, the Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleons Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie, on 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif, a general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life, pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the Recess of 1803, which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to Frances side. The memories of imperial Rome were for a time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, did little other than create a more unified Germany to threaten France. On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, to create satellite states, Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations, in addition to the vassal titles, Napoleons closest relatives were granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power, Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal and this, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt, the Eylau and the Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Greats formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.
The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe, the two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes
The Austrian Empire was an empire in Central Europe created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804. It was an empire and one of Europes great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire and it was the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the dissolution in 1806. The Ausgleich of 1867 elevated Hungarys status and it became a separate entity from the Empire entirely, joining with it in the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt, on 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6. This measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, taking this significant change into consideration, the German Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors.
In 1804 the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, who was ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, to safeguard his dynastys imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Hungarys affairs remained administered by its own institutions as they had been beforehand, thus under the new arrangements no Imperial institutions were involved in its internal government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805, on 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by general Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm. The French victory resulted in the capture of 20,000 Austrian soldiers, Napoleons army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, the prince-elector Duke of Bavaria proclaimed himself King, finally, on 12 December, the Margrave of Baden was given the title of Grand Duke. In addition, each of these new countries signed a treaty with France, the Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleons German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies—the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. On 12 July 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was established, comprising 16 sovereigns and this confederation, under French influence, put an end to the Holy Roman Empire. On 6 August 1806, even Francis recognized the new state of things and proclaimed the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, as he did not want Napoleon to succeed him