Hampshire County, West Virginia
Hampshire County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,964, its county seat is West Virginia's oldest town. The county was created by the Virginia General Assembly in 1754, from parts of Frederick and Augusta Counties and is the state's oldest county; the county lies in both West Virginia's Eastern Potomac Highlands regions. Hampshire County is part of VA-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Although its creation was authorized in 1754, Hampshire County was not organized until 1757 because the area was not considered safe due to the outbreak of the French and Indian War. According to Samuel Kercheval's A History of the Valley of Virginia, the county was named in honor of its several prize hogs; the story goes that Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, who owned the Royal Grant to the area, came upon some large hogs in Winchester and asked where they had been raised. He was told, he remarked that when a county was formed west of Frederick that he would name it in honor of the county Hampshire, famous for its fat hogs.
Romney was settled by hunters and traders around 1725. In 1738, John Pearsall and his brother Job built homes and in 1758 a fort for defense against Native Americans in present-day Romney, their settlement was known as Pearsall's Flats. In 1748, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron sent a surveying party, including 16-year-old George Washington, to survey his lands along the Potomac and South Branch Potomac rivers. Washington spent three summers and falls surveying Lord Fairfax's Northern Neck estate, which included all of the present-day Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. In April 1748, he laid off several lots in an area known as the Trough, about ten miles south of Romney, he is known to have been in present-day Romney on October 19, 1749. Oral traditions claimed that Washington laid present-day Romney out into lots at that time, but written records from that era indicate that Romney was surveyed and laid out into lots by James Genn prior to Washington's arrival. Genn was employed by Lord Fairfax.
In 1756, Fort Pearsall was constructed on Job Pearsall's plantation for protection against Native American raids and George Washington provisioned and garrisoned the Fort at various times until 1758. At that time, there were at least 100 people living in the general area. Following the end of hostilities in the area, Lord Fairfax recognized that more settlers would be interested in moving into the area and that he could earn some extra revenue by selling plots in the town, he sent a survey party to Romney in 1762 to formally lay out the town into 100 lots. At that time, he renamed the town Romney, in honor of the Cinque Ports city on the English Channel in Kent. Confusion ensued for several decades concerning land ownership within the town as counterclaims were made by the original settlers and those who purchased lots laid out by Lord Fairfax's surveyors; the first meeting of the Hampshire County Court was held in 1757, at Fort Pleasant, now Old Fields in Hardy County, was presided by the Right Honorable Thomas Bryan Martin, Lord Fairfax's nephew.
By that time, Hampshire County's population had fallen as most of the settlers had fled the county in fear of the Native Americans. The only families remaining lived near Fort Pearsall, near present-day Romney, Fort Edwards, at present-day Capon Bridge on the Cacapon River; the vast majority of the remaining settlers, were in the vicinity of present Old Fields-Moorefield-Petersburg and were protected by the several forts in the area, including Fort Pleasant Once the Native Americans were defeated at the Battle of Point Pleasant in 1774 settlers, once again, returned to the county. Additionally, with the end of the American Revolution, the Virginia Legislature nullified the English grant to Lord Fairfax in the region; the legislature gave fee simple grants to settlers who had contracts with Lord Fairfax, opened up the remaining lands as public domain open to settlement. By 1790, when the first national census was taken, Hampshire County had 7,346 residents, making it the second most populous county in the present state of West Virginia at that time.
Berkeley was the most populous county, with 19,713 people. There were nine counties. During the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, many Hampshire County men volunteered to serve under Major General Daniel Morgan to put down the insurrection; the men most volunteered at Moorefield in Hardy County and marched north to Cumberland, Maryland. 1,200 of the 12,950 men under Morgan's command came from the area that would become West Virginia. Many early settlers of the Cacapon area were German Baptist Brethren, pacifist farmers who befriended local natives in frontier areas. Other early missionaries helped to sustain the religious faith of the early European inhabitants. In 1775 two Baptist missionaries among a group of settlers moved to the Cacapon and organized the first European church in the county. In 1771 the work of the Methodist Episcopal Church was begun, in which developments led to the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In 1753 Hampshire County had been formed into a parish by the Protestant Episcopal Church and from 1772 to until his death in 1777 Rev. Nathaniel Manning served on the Glebe near present-day Moorefield.
In 1787 a Primitive Baptist church was established at North River. Soon after the American Revolution there was preaching by the Presbyterians at different points in the cou
Battle of the Monongahela
The Battle of the Monongahela took place on 9 July 1755, at the beginning of the French and Indian War, at Braddock's Field in what is now Braddock, Pennsylvania, 10 miles east of Pittsburgh. A British force under General Edward Braddock, moving to take Fort Duquesne, was defeated by a force of French and Canadian troops under Captain Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu with its American Indian allies; the defeat marked the end of the Braddock expedition, by which the British had hoped to capture Fort Duquesne and gain control of the strategic Ohio Country. Braddock was mortally wounded in the battle and died during the retreat near present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania, he asked for George Washington, who accompanied him on the march, to oversee his burial. The remainder of the column retreated south-eastwards and the fort, region, remained in French hands until its capture in 1758. Braddock had been dispatched to North America in the new position of Commander-in-Chief, bringing with him two regiments of troops from Ireland.
He added to this by recruiting local troops in British America, swelling his forces to 2,200 by the time he set out from Fort Cumberland, Maryland on 29 May. He was accompanied by Virginia Colonel George Washington, who had led the previous year's expedition to the area. Braddock's expedition was part of a four-pronged attack on the French in North America. Braddock's orders were to launch an attack into the Ohio Country, disputed by France. Control of the area was dominated by Fort Duquesne on the forks of the Ohio River. Once it was in his possession, he was to proceed on to Fort Niagara, establishing British control over the Ohio territory, he soon encountered a number of difficulties. He was scornful of the need to recruit local Native Americans as scouts, left with only eight Mingo guides, he found that the road he was trying to use was slow, needed constant widening to move artillery and supply wagons along it. Frustrated, he split his force in two, leading a flying column ahead, with a slower force following with the cannon and wagons.
The flying column of 1,300 crossed the Monongahela River on 9 July, within 10 miles of their target, Fort Duquesne. Despite being tired after weeks of crossing hard terrain, many of the British and Americans anticipated a easy victory—or for the French to abandon the fort upon their approach. Fort Duquesne had been lightly defended, but had received significant reinforcements. Claude-Pierre Pecaudy de Contrecœur, the Canadian commander of the fort, had around 1,600 French troupes de la Marine, Canadian militiamen and Native American allies. Concerned by the approach of the British, he dispatched Captain Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu with around 800 troops, to check their advance; the French and Indians arrived too late to set an ambush, as they had been delayed, the British had made speedy progress. They ran into the British advance guard, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gage. Seeing the enemy in the trees, Gage ordered his men to open fire. Despite firing at long range for a smooth-bored musket, their opening volleys succeeded in killing Captain Beaujeu.
Unconcerned by the death of Beaujeu, the Indian warriors took up positions to attack. They were fighting on an Indian hunting ground which favored their tactics, with numerous trees and shrubbery separated by wide open spaces. Although a hundred of the Canadians fled back to the fort, Captain Dumas rallied the rest of the French troops; the Indian tribes allied with the French, the Ottawas and Potawatomis, used psychological warfare against the British forces. After the Indians killed British soldiers, they would nail their scalps to surrounding trees. During the battle, Indians made a terrifying "whoop" sound that caused fear and panic to spread in the British infantry; as they came under heavy fire, Gage's advance guard withdrew. In the narrow confines of the road, they collided with the main body of Braddock's force, which had advanced when the shots were heard. Despite comfortably outnumbering their attackers, the British were on the defensive. Most of the regulars were not accustomed to fighting in forest terrain, were terrified by the deadly musket fire.
Confusion reigned, several British platoons fired at each other. The entire column dissolved in disorder as the Canadian militiamen and Indians enveloped them and continued to snipe at the British flanks from the woods on the sides of the road. At this time, the French regulars began to push the British back. General Braddock rode forward to try to rally his men. Following Braddock's lead, the officers tried to reform units into regular order within the confines of the road; this effort was in vain, provided targets for their concealed enemy. Cannon were used. Braddock had several horses shot under him, yet retained his composure, providing the only sign of order to the frightened British soldiers. Many of the Americans, lacking the training of British regulars to stand their ground and sheltered behind trees, where they were mistaken for enemy fighters by the redcoats, who fired upon them; the rearguard, made up of Virginians, managed to fight from the trees—something they had learned in previous years of fighting Indians.
Despite the unfavorable conditions, the British began to stand blast volleys at the enemy. Braddock believed that the enemy would give way in the face
Battle of Fort Necessity
The Battle of Fort Necessity took place on July 3, 1754, in what is now Farmington in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. The engagement, along with the May 28 skirmish known as the Battle of Jumonville Glen, was George Washington's first military experience and the only surrender of his military career; the Battle of Fort Necessity began the French and Indian War, which spiraled into the global conflict known as the Seven Years' War. Washington built Fort Necessity on an alpine meadow west of the summit of a pass through the Laurel Highlands of the Allegheny Mountains. Another pass nearby leads to Pennsylvania; the French Empire, despite the fact that they began colonizing North America in the 16th century, only had between 75,000 and 90,000 colonists living in New France in the mid-1700s. However, France was able to control the large colonies of New France and the Louisiana Territory with few people by controlling waterways and cultivating strong political and economic relationships with powerful Native American nations.
The Ohio Country, an area located between Lake Erie and the Ohio River, became important to the French throughout the 18th century. As more settlers moved from Montreal and other established French settlements along the St. Lawrence to the newer Louisiana colony, the Ohio Country became and important connection between the New France and Louisiana. British settlers were expanding into the Ohio Country at this time; the British colonies were far more populated than the French, settlers were eager to move over the Appalachian Mountains and into the Ohio Country and other western lands. Most British traders declared that, despite the facts that the French had been trading in the Ohio Country for years and that more and more displaced Native Americans were moving west from the Atlantic coast every year, the Ohio Country was unsettled and therefore unclaimed land that should be open to all traders; the French had no interest in trying to compete with the British for trade in the Ohio Country. Due to their high population and large colonial cities, British traders could offer Native Americans cheaper, higher quality goods than could their French counterparts.
The French therefore set about keeping the British as far away from the Ohio company as possible. Authorities in New France became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from this area, in 1753 began construction of a series of fortifications in the area. In previous wars, the Québecois had more than held their own against the English colonials; the French action drew the attention of not just the British, but the Indian tribes of the area. Despite good Franco-Indian relations, British traders became successful in convincing the Indians to trade with them in preference to the Canadiens, the planned large-scale advance was not well received by all; the reason for this was that they had to provide them with the goods that the Anglo-American traders had supplied, at similar prices. This proved to be singularly difficult. With the exception of one or two Montreal merchant traders, the Canadians showed a great reluctance to venture into the Ohio country. In particular, Tanacharison, a Mingo chief known as the "Half King", became anti-French as a consequence.
In a meeting with Paul Marin de la Malgue, commander of the Canadian construction force, the latter lost his temper, shouted at the Indian chief, "I tell you, down the river I will go. If the river is blocked up, I have the forces to burst it open and tread under my feet all that oppose me. I despise all the stupid things you have said." He threw down some wampum that Tanacharison had offered as a good will gesture. Marin died not long after, command of the operations was turned over to Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre. Virginians felt that their colonial charter, the oldest in the British colonies, gave them claim to the Ohio Country despite competing claims from Native Americans, the French, other British colonies. In 1748, wealthy Virginians formed the Ohio Company with the aim of solidifying Virginia's claim and profiting off the speculation of western lands. Governor Robert Dinwiddie, the royal governor of Virginia and founding investor in the Ohio Company, sent a twenty-one year old Virginia colonial Lieutenant Colonel George Washington to travel from Williamsburg to Fort LeBeouf in the Ohio Territory as an emissary in December 1753, to deliver a letter.
George Washington's older brothers Lawrence and Augustine had been instrumental in organizing the Ohio Company, George had become familiar with the Ohio Company by surveying for his brothers as a young man. After a long trek and several near-death experiences and his party arrived at and met with the regional commander, Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre. Saint-Pierre politely informed Washington that he was there pursuant to orders, Washington's letter should have been addressed to his commanding officer in Canada. Washington returned to Williamsburg and informed Governor Dinwiddie that the French refused to leave. Dinwiddie ordered Washington to begin raisin
The Braddock expedition called Braddock's campaign or, more Braddock's Defeat, was a failed British military expedition which attempted to capture the French Fort Duquesne in the summer of 1755 during the French and Indian War. It was defeated at the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9, the survivors retreated; the expedition takes its name from General Edward Braddock, who led the British forces and died in the effort. Braddock's defeat was a major setback for the British in the early stages of the war with France and has been described as one of the most disastrous defeats for the British in the 18th century. Braddock's expedition was part of a massive British offensive against the French in North America that summer; as commander-in-chief of the British Army in America, General Braddock led the main thrust against the Ohio Country with a column some 2,100 strong. His command consisted of two regular line regiments, the 44th and 48th with about 1,350 men, along with about 500 regular soldiers and militiamen from several British American colonies, artillery and other support troops.
With these men, Braddock expected to seize Fort Duquesne and push on to capture a series of French forts reaching Fort Niagara. George Washington, promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel of the Virginia militia on June 4, 1754 by Governor Robert Dinwiddie, was just 23, knew the territory and served as a volunteer aide-de-camp to General Braddock. Braddock's Chief of Scouts was Lieutenant John Fraser of the Virginia Regiment. Fraser owned land at Turtle Creek, had been at Fort Necessity, had served as Second-in-Command at Fort Prince George, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers. Braddock failed in his attempts to recruit Native American allies from those tribes not yet allied with the French. A number of Indians in the area, notably Delaware leader Shingas, remained neutral. Caught between two powerful European empires at war, the local Indians could not afford to be on the side of the loser, they would decide based on Braddock's failure. Setting out from Fort Cumberland in Maryland on May 29, 1755, the expedition faced an enormous logistical challenge: moving a large body of men with equipment and heavy cannons, across the densely wooded Allegheny Mountains and into western Pennsylvania, a journey of about 110 miles.
Braddock had received important assistance from Benjamin Franklin, who helped procure wagons and supplies for the expedition. Among the wagoners were two young men who would become legends of American history: Daniel Boone and Daniel Morgan. Other members of the expedition included Charles Scott. Among the British were Thomas Gage; the expedition progressed because Braddock considered making a road to Fort Duquesne a priority in order to supply the position he expected to capture and hold at the Forks of the Ohio, because of a shortage of healthy draft animals. In some cases, the column was only able to progress at a rate of two miles a day, creating Braddock's Road—an important legacy of the march—as they went. To speed up movement, Braddock split his men into a "flying column" of about 1,300 men which he commanded, lagging far behind, a supply column of 800 men with most of the baggage, commanded by Colonel Thomas Dunbar, they passed the ruins of Fort Necessity along the way, where the French and Canadians had defeated Washington the previous summer.
Small French and Indian war bands skirmished with Braddock's men during the march. Meanwhile, at Fort Duquesne, the French garrison consisted of only about 250 regulars and Canadian militia, with about 640 Indian allies camped outside the fort; the Indians were from a variety of tribes long associated with the French, including Ottawas and Potawatomis. Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur, the Canadian commander, received reports from Indian scouting parties that the British were on their way to besiege the fort, he realised he could not withstand Braddock's cannon, decided to launch a preemptive strike, an ambush of Braddock's army as he crossed the Monongahela River. The Indian allies were reluctant to attack such a large British force, but the French field commander Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu, who dressed himself in full war regalia complete with war paint, convinced them to follow his lead. By July 8, 1755, the Braddock force was on the land owned by the Chief Scout, Lieutenant John Fraser.
That evening, the Indians sent a delegation to the British to request a conference. Braddock sent Fraser; the Indians asked the British to halt their advance so that they could attempt to negotiate a peaceful withdrawal by the French from Fort Duquesne. Both Washington and Fraser recommended this to Braddock but he demurred. On July 9, 1755, Braddock's men crossed the Monongahela without opposition, about 10 miles south of Fort Duquesne; the advance guard of 300 grenadiers and colonials with two cannon under Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gage began to move ahead. George Washington tried to warn him of the flaws in his plan—for example, the French and the Indians fought differently than the open-field style used by the British—but his efforts were ignored, Braddock insisted on fighting as "gentlemen". Unexpectedly, Gage's advance guard came upon the French and Indians, who were hurrying to the river, behind schedule and too late to set an ambush. In the skirmish that followed between Gage's soldiers and the French, the French commander, was killed by the first volley of
Battle of Jumonville Glen
The Battle of Jumonville Glen known as the Jumonville affair, was the opening battle of the French and Indian War, fought on May 28, 1754, near present-day Hopwood and Uniontown in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. A company of colonial militia from Virginia under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Washington, a small number of Mingo warriors led by Tanacharison, ambushed a force of 35 Canadiens under the command of Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville; the British colonial force had been sent to protect a fort under construction under the auspices of the Ohio Company at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A larger French Canadien force had driven off the small construction crew, sent Jumonville to warn Washington about encroaching on French-claimed territory. Washington was alerted to Jumonville's presence by Tanacharison, they joined forces to surround the Canadien camp; some of the Canadiens were killed in the ambush, most of the others were captured. Jumonville was among the slain, although the exact circumstances of his death are a subject of historical controversy and debate.
Since Britain and France were not at war, the event had international repercussions, was a contributing factor in the start of the Seven Years' War in 1756. After the action, Washington retreated to Fort Necessity, where Canadien forces from Fort Duquesne compelled his surrender; the terms of Washington's surrender included a statement admitting. This document and others were used by the French and Canadiens to level accusations that Washington had ordered Jumonville's slaying. Throughout the 1740s and early 1750s, British and Canadien traders had come into contact in the Ohio Country, including the upper watershed of the Ohio River in what is now western Pennsylvania. Authorities in New France became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from this area, in 1753 began construction of a series of fortifications in the area; the French action drew the attention of not just the British, but the Indian tribes of the area. Despite good Franco-Indian relations, British traders had become successful in convincing the Indians to trade with them in preference to the Canadiens, the planned large-scale advance was not well received by all.
In particular, Tanacharison, a Mingo chief known as the "Half King", became decidedly anti-French as a consequence. In a meeting with Paul Marin de la Malgue, commander of the French and Canadien construction force, the latter lost his temper, shouted at the Indian chief, "I tell you, down the river I will go. If the river is blocked up, I have the forces to burst it open and tread under my feet all that oppose me. I despise all the stupid things you have said." He threw down some wampum that Tanacharison had offered as a good will gesture. Marin died not long after, command of the operations was turned over to Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre. Virginia Royal Governor Robert Dinwiddie sent militia Major George Washington to the Ohio Country as an emissary in December 1753, to tell the French to leave. Saint-Pierre politely informed Washington that he was there pursuant to orders, that Washington's letter should have been addressed to his commanding officer in Canada, that he had no intention of leaving.
Washington returned to Williamsburg and informed Governor Dinwiddie that the French refused to leave. Dinwiddie commissioned Washington a lieutenant colonel, ordered him to begin raising a militia regiment to hold the Forks of the Ohio, a site Washington had identified as a fine location for a fortress; the governor issued a captain's commission to Ohio Company employee William Trent, with instructions to raise a small force and begin construction of the fort. Dinwiddie issued these instructions on his own authority, without asking for funding from the Virginia House of Burgesses until after the fact. Trent's company arrived on site in February 1754, began construction of a storehouse and stockade with the assistance of Tanacharison and the Mingos; that same month a force of 800 Canadien militia and French troupes de la marine departed Montreal for the Ohio River valley under the command of the Canadien Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur, who took over command from Saint-Pierre. When Contrecœur learned of Trent's activity, he led a force of about 500 men to drive them off.
On April 16, Contrecœur's force arrived at the forks. The French began construction of the fort they called Fort Duquesne. In March 1754, Governor Dinwiddie ordered Washington back to the frontier with instructions to "act on the, but in Case any Attempts are made to obstruct the Works or interrupt our by any Persons whatsoever, You are to restrain all such Offenders, & in Case of resistance to make Prisoners of or kill & destroy them". Historian Fred Anderson describes Dinwiddie's instructions, which were issued without the knowledge or direction of the British government in London, as "an invitation to start a war". Washington was paid volunteers as he could along the way. By the time he left for the frontier on April 2, he had recruited fewer than 160 men. Along their march through the forests of the frontier, Washington was joined by more men at Winchester. At this point he learned from Captain Trent of the French advance. Trent brought a messa
Robert Dinwiddie was a British colonial administrator who served as lieutenant governor of colonial Virginia from 1751 to 1758, first under Governor Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle, from July 1756 to January 1758, as deputy for John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun. Since the governors at that time were absentee, he was the de facto head of the colony for much of the time. Dinwiddie is credited for starting the military career of George Washington. Dinwiddie was born at Glasgow before 2 October 1692, the son of Robert Dinwiddie of Germiston and Elizabeth Cumming, his younger brother Lawrence Dinwiddie was Lord Provost of Glasgow. He matriculated at the University in 1707 before starting work as a merchant. Joining the British colonial service in 1727, Dinwiddie was appointed collector of the customs for Bermuda. Following an appointment as surveyor general of customs in southern American ports, Dinwiddie became Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, featured as such in William Makepeace Thackeray's nineteenth-century historical novel The Virginians: A Tale of the Last Century.
Dinwiddie's actions as lieutenant governor are cited by one historian as precipitating the French and Indian War held to have begun in 1754. He wanted to limit French expansion in Ohio Country, an area claimed by the Virginia Colony and in which the Ohio Company, of which he was a stockholder, had made preliminary surveys and some small settlements; this version of history is disputed when one notices that Father Le Loutre's War in Acadia began in 1749 and did not end until the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755. In fact, Thomas Jefferys, the Royal Geographer of the day, produced a pamphlet out of his Parliamentary testimony that explained the misconduct of the French in what amounted to a Treaty of Utrecht boundary dispute. In 1753, Dinwiddie learned the French had built Fort Presque Isle near Lake Erie and Fort Le Boeuf, which he saw as threatening Virginia's interests in the Ohio Valley. In fact, he considered Winchester, Virginia, to be "exposed to the enemy". Dinwiddie sent an eight-man expedition under George Washington to warn the French to withdraw.
Washington only 21 years old, made the journey in midwinter of 1753–54. Washington arrived at Fort Le Boeuf on 11 December 1753. Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre, commandant at Fort Le Boeuf, a tough veteran of the west, received Washington politely, but rejected his ultimatum. Jacques Saint-Pierre gave Washington three days hospitality at the fort, gave Washington a letter for him to deliver to Dinwiddie; the letter conveyed to Dinwiddie that he would send Dinwiddie's on to Marquis de Duquesne in Quebec and would meantime maintain his post while he awaited the latter's orders. In January 1754 before learning of the French refusal to decamp, Dinwiddie sent a small force of Virginia militia to build a fort at the forks of the Ohio River, where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers merge to form the Ohio; the French drove off the Virginians and built a larger fort on the site, calling it Fort Duquesne, in honour of the Marquis de Duquesne, the then-governor of New France. Dinwiddie named Joshua Fry to the position of Commander-in-Chief of colonial forces.
Fry was given command of the Virginia Regiment and was ordered to take Fort Duquesne held by the French. During the advance into the Ohio Country, Fry fell off his horse and died from his injuries on 31 May 1754 at Fort Cumberland, upon which the command of the regiment fell to Washington. In early spring 1754, Dinwiddie sent Washington to build a road to the Monongahela. After having attacked the French at the Battle of Jumonville Glen, Washington retreated and built a small stockade, Fort Necessity, at a spot called "Great Meadows", by the Youghiogheny River, eleven miles southeast of present-day Uniontown. Here he was forced to surrender. Dinwiddie was subsequently active in rallying other colonies in defense against France and prevailed upon the British to send General Edward Braddock to Virginia with two regiments of regular troops, in part with a letter to Lord Halifax on 25 October 1754 containing these words: The Invas'n and wicked designs of the Fr. on the River Ohio has given me a Continual Uneasiness, w'ch was increased by the supine and unaccountable Obstinacy of the Assemblies of the different Colonies on this Cont't, y't tho' they were convinced of the Progress they had made, the threat'g Speeches they gave out, they c'd not be roused from their lethargic Indolence, to grant suitable Supplies for conducting an Expedit'n so necessary for their own Safety.
Braddock met his end at the Battle of Monongahela on 9 July 1755. Over the next four years, until the defeat of the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in Quebec, Vaudreuil's capitulation before Amherst at Montreal, the fate of the 13 colonies was uncertain and Dinwiddie's administration was marked by frequent disagreements with the Assembly over the financing of the war. In fact, the friction between the government and the Burgesses would develop into the American Revolution. In January 1758 he left Virginia, to be replaced by Francis Fauquier, lived in England until his death at Clifton, Bristol. Dinwiddie County, which lies 30 miles south of Richmond, is named in honor of Robert Dinwiddie. Dinwiddie Hall, since 1972 a dormitory at the College of William & Mary, is named in honor of Robert Dinwiddie. Dinwiddie retained his links with his alma mater throughout his life: in 1754 he was conferred an honorary degree by the University of Glasgow.
The Cacapon River, located in the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle region, is an 81.0-mile-long river known for its fishing, boating and scenery. As part of the Potomac River watershed, it is an American Heritage River; the Cacapon River Watershed is made up of three major river segments and many smaller stream watersheds. The headwaters of the Cacapon River, known as the Lost River, is 31.1 miles long and receives water from a watershed covering 178 square miles. The largest tributary of the Cacapon is the North River, which drains 206 square miles, an area comparable to that of the Lost River. Overall, the Cacapon River watershed includes the Lost and North River watersheds, those of many smaller streams for a total of 680 square miles; the Cacapon watershed is itself part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In recent years the Cacapon River and its watershed have become threatened by development, industrial and agricultural growth. Concern about these issues led to the establishment of the Cacapon Institute in 1985.
The Cacapon River emerges from underground in a gap in Sandy Ridge west of Wardensville. It is the reemergence of the Lost River, which sinks into an underground channel east of McCauley near the entrance to Camp Pinnacle. From its emergence, the Cacapon River creates a horseshoe bend shaped gap through Sandy Ridge and flows east paralleling West Virginia Route 55/West Virginia Route 259 to its north. At Wardensville, the river is joined by Trout Run and curves northeastward where it meanders through an expansive valley plain. Here, it is fed by Slate Rock Run and Moores Run further north. Waites Run, a tributary draining some of the western slopes of Great North Mountain enters the Cacapon River near the bridge on Rt. 55, north of Wardensville. Shortly after its confluence with Sine Run, the Cacapon River continues north into Hampshire County. From the county line, the river is bounded to its east by the George Washington National Forest and to its west by Baker Mountain. Throughout this stretch, the Cacapon River is joined by sections of the old Winchester and Western Railroad grade.
It continues its meandering course northeastward, flowing past the community of Intermont and Hebron Church. At Capon Lake, the river is joined by Capon Springs Run and is the site of the historic Capon Lake Whipple Truss Bridge. West Virginia Route 259 parallels the Cacapon River to its west along the eastern flank of Baker Mountain until the road turns east across the Kenneth Seldon Bridge at Yellow Spring. From Yellow Spring Gap, the river is fed by a run whose source is the "Yellow Spring"; the Cacapon River moves north along the eastern flank of Cacapon Mountain with Cacapon River Road paralleling it to its west. From Yellow Spring, the river flows by Camps Rim White Mountain. After another immense horseshoe bend, the Cacapon River moves past the communities of Hooks Mills and Bubbling Spring and is joined by Old Man Run and Kale Hollow's run; the river's stretch through Bubbling Spring is a popular location for summer river camps which consist of cottages and campers on narrow river lots.
This stretch of the Cacapon River is the scene for numerous old plantation houses including the Captain David Pugh House at Hooks Mills, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. North of Kale Hollow, the Cacapon River is joined to its west by Dillons Mountain. To its east, the river is paralleled by Christian Church Road, on, located the 18th century Capon Chapel. After its confluence with Mill Branch, the Cacapon River bends through the small historic town of Capon Bridge, it is met by Dillons Run from its west and traversed by a bridge of the Northwestern Turnpike, from which Capon Bridge takes its name. From Capon Bridge, the Cacapon River is bounded to its east by Bear Garden Mountain, it is joined by Edwards Run and Cold Stream near the community of Cold Stream. The river meanders north around Darbys Nose, flanked to its east by Leith Mountain; the stretch of the Cacapon River between Cold Stream and Forks of Cacapon is mountainous and forested with little development. It meanders through a series of mountain ridges, on one of which, Castle Mountain, sits the Caudy's Castle rock outcrop.
Bloomery Pike passes over the river. North of Bloomery Pike lies the actual "Forks of Cacapon" where the Cacapon and North Rivers converge. From Forks of Cacapon to Largent, the river creates a number of horseshoe bends between Sideling Hill and Little Mountain; this stretch of the Cacapon River is mostly undeveloped and forested with the exception of a gated community, The Crossings, located between the WV 127 bridge and Largent. The Cacapon River meanders into Morgan County at Largent where Cacapon Road passes over it and the river is met by Stony Creek, it continues its meandering course northeast between Sideling Hill and Little Mountain until Fisher's Bridge where it is joined to its east by the western flanks of Cacapon Mountain. Tonoloway Ridge bounds the Cacapon River to its west until it reaches the railroad hamlet of Great Cacapon. After passing under the WV 9 and old Baltimore and Ohio Railroad bridges, the Cacapon River joins the Potomac. Cacapon is a name derived from the Shawnee language meaning "medicine water".