Crusade of Varna
The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe the Balkans between 1443 and 1444. It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy; the Crusade of Varna culminated in a decisive Ottoman victory over the crusader alliance at the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444, during which Władysław and the expedition's Papal legate Julian Cesarini were killed. In 1428, while the Ottoman Empire was fighting a war with the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Hungary they achieved a temporary peace by establishing the Serbian Despotate as a buffer state. After the war ended in 1430, the Ottomans returned to their earlier objective of controlling all lands south of the Danube. In 1432, Sultan Murad II began raiding into Transylvania. After King Sigismund died in 1437, the attacks intensified, with the Ottomans occupying Borač in 1438 and Zvornik and Srebrenica in 1439.
At the end of 1439, Smederevo capitulated and Murad succeeded in making Serbia an Ottoman province. Đurađ Branković, Despot of Serbia, fled to his estates in Hungary. In 1440, Murad besieged Belgrade. After failing to take the fortress, he was forced to return to Anatolia to stop attacks by the Karamanids. Meanwhile, Sigismund's successor Albert had died in October 1439, shortly after signing a law to "restore the ancient laws and customs of the realm"; the law restricted the royal authority by requiring the participation of landed nobility in political decisions. Four months after Albert's death, his only son, was born while Hungary was in the midst of a civil war over the next monarch. On 17 July king of Poland, was crowned despite continuing disputes. John Hunyadi aided Vladislaus's cause by pacifying the eastern counties, gaining him the position of Nádor of Transylvania and the corresponding responsibility of protecting Hungary's southern border. By the end of 1442, Vladislaus had secured his status in Hungary, rejected an Ottoman proposal of peace in exchange for Belgrade.
The Roman Catholic Church had long been advocating for a crusade against the Ottomans, with the end of both the Hungarian civil war and a nearly simultaneous one in Byzantium, they were able to begin negotiations and planning realistically. The impetus required to turn the plans into action was provided by Hunyadi between 1441–42. In 1441, he defeated a raid led by Ishak Pasha of Smederevo, he nearly annihilated Mezid Bey's army in Transylvania on 22 March 1442, in September he defeated the revenge attack of Şihabeddin Pasha, governor-general of Rumelia. Branković, hoping to liberate Serbia lent his support after Novo Brdo, the last major Serbian city, fell to the Ottomans in 1441. On 1 January 1443 Pope Eugene IV published a crusading bull. In early May, it was reported "that the Turks were in a bad state and that it would be easy to expel them from Europe". War was proclaimed against Sultan Murad II at the diet of Buda on Palm Sunday 1443, with an army of 40,000 men Magyars, the young monarch, with Hunyadi commanding under him, crossed the Danube and took Nish and Sofia.
The crusaders, led by Vladislaus and Branković, attacked in mid-October. They expected that Murad would not be able to mobilize his army, which consisted of fief-holding cavalrymen who needed to collect the harvest to pay taxes. Hunyadi's experience of winter campaigns from 1441–42 added to the Hungarians' advantage, they had better armor rendering the Ottoman weapons useless. Murad could not rely on the loyalty of his troops from Rumelia, had difficulties countering Hungarian tactics. In the Battle of Nish the crusaders were victorious and forced Kasim Pasha of Rumelia and his co-commander Turahan Bey to flee to Sofia, Bulgaria to warn Murad of the invasion. However, the two burned all the villages in their path in an attempt to wear down the crusaders with a scorched earth tactic; when they arrived in Sofia, they advised the Sultan to burn the city and retreat to the mountain passes beyond, where the Ottoman's smaller army would not be such a disadvantage. Shortly after, bitter cold set in, the next encounter, fought at Zlatitsa Pass on 12 December 1443, was fought in the snow.
Until the Battle of Zlatitsa the crusaders did not meet a major Ottoman army, but only town garrisons along their route toward Adrianople. At Zlatica they met strong and well positioned defence forces of the Ottoman army; the crusaders were defeated. As they marched home, they ambushed and defeated a pursuing force in the Battle of Kunovica, where Mahmud Bey, son-in-law of the Sultan and brother of the Grand Vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha, was taken prisoner. Four days after this battle the Christian coalition reached Prokuplje. Đurađ Branković proposed to Władysław III of Poland and John Hunyadi that they stay in Serbian fortified towns during the winter and continue their campaign against the Ottomans in Spring 1444. They rejected his proposal, retreated. By the end of January 1444 forces of Władysław and Hunyadi reached Belgrade, in February they arrived at Buda where they were greeted as heroes. While the battle at Zlatitsa Pass had been a defeat, the ambush returned to the crusaders the impression of an overall Christian victory, they returned triumphant.
The King and Church were both anxious to maintain this impression, gave instructions to spread word of the victories, but contradict anyone who mentioned the loss. Murad, returned angry and dejected by the unreliability of his forces, imprisoned Turahan after blaming him for the army's setbacks and Mahmud Bey'
Petar Snačić was a feudal lord, notable for being one of the claimants of the Croatian throne during the wars of succession. It is assumed that he began as a ban serving under king Demetrius Zvonimir of Croatia and was elected king by the Croatian feudal lords in 1093. Petar's seat of power was based in Knin, his rule was marked by a struggle for control of the country with Coloman of Hungary, dying at the Battle of Gvozd Mountain in 1097. Early scholars Franjo Rački misread the letter "n" as a "v", creating a mistake, common until today. There never existed a Svačić family, yet existed the Snačić family who were one of the Twelve noble tribes of Croatia, certain Petar Snačić is mentioned in Supetar Cartulary as Croatian ban during the rule of King Zvonimir; however the connection between Petar and this Petar Snačić is disputed, as is attempt by Ferdo Šišić to relate him to Petar Slaven, son of Slavac, a pretender to the throne. He assumed the throne amid deep tension throughout the Kingdom, his predecessor, Stephen II died without leaving an heir.
Jelena or Ilona, the widow of King Dmitar Zvonimir supported her brother, King Ladislaus I of Hungary, in the inheritance of the throne of Croatia. Meanwhile, as a part of Croatia's dignitaries and clergy did not support Ladislaus' claim, they elected nobleman Petar as King, who deployed the military to defend Croatia's borders from Hungarian attack. However, it was too late. Ladislaus, who had devised a military strategy two years earlier, launched an offensive and managed to breach Croatian lines along the Drava River. Shortly after his army's success, Ladislaus died, leaving his nephew Coloman to continue the campaign. King Petar's troops maintained their resistance repelling Hungarian assaults for nearly two years. Coloman grew frustrated at his army's impotence and in 1097 assembled an enormous force at the eastern foot of Mount Gvozd, where was held a battle which victory was brutal and absolute, resulting in Petar's death. Five years of negotiations between Croatia's remaining noblemen and Coloman followed thereafter.
In 1102, a historic settlement was reached by which the Croats agreed to recognize Coloman as king. In return, he promised to maintain Croatia as a separate kingdom, to guarantee Croatia's self-governance under a ban, to respect all the rights and privileges of the Croatian Kingdom. Petar was the last native king of Croatia, the personal union with Kingdom of Hungary lasted until 1918. Snačić family Twelve noble tribes of Croatia List of rulers of Croatia
Trpimirović dynasty was a native Croatian dynasty that ruled in the Duchy and the Kingdom of Croatia, with interruptions by the Domagojević dynasty from 845 until 1091. It was named after the first member and founder; the most prominent rulers of the Trpimirović Dynasty include Tomislav, Petar Krešimir IV and Demetrius Zvonimir. The house gave thirteen kings and a queen. Since its mid-9th century foundation, the house reached independent rule at some point and dissolved at the end of 11th century. During that time, the state had slight territorial changes, most notably in Bosnia and southern Dalmatia, where the wars against Venetians and others were waged; the Trpimirović dynasty was a ruling dynasty of Croatia from the 9th to the 11th century. The ruling estate of the Trpimirović dynasty was located in the area between Trogir and Split, Split and Omiš and in other parts of the land. After the death of Duke Trpimir I, the power was temporarily assumed by Domagoj, a member of the Domagojević dynasty.
In 878, Trpimir I's son Zdeslav overthew Domagoj, around 892, Zdeslav's brother Muncimir became duke. The rulers of the dynasty ruled as vassals of the Franks, they fought with the Venetian Republic and Byzantine Empire for control of the coast, at the end of the 9th century achieved greater autonomy. In the first half of the 10th century, the first King of Croatia, Tomislav united Pannonia and Dalmatian Croatia and created the Kingdom of Croatia. According to scarce and disputed historical sources, Croatia was a powerful state under his rule. King Tomislav maintained an alliance with the pope and defended Croatia from the invading Hungarians, while at the local level he participated at the Church Councils of Split in 925 and 928; the struggle with the Byzantines and the Venetians over Dalmatian coastal cities continued after his death. Tomislav's successors failed to maintain a stable kingship and the country was affected by a dynastic crisis in the middle of the 10th century. Pribina, the Croatian ban, got involved in the dispute between brothers Miroslav and Michael Krešimir II.
Pribina took the side of Michael Krešimir which resulted in the murder of King Miroslav in 949. Political and social recovery of Croatia occurred during the reign of King Stephen Držislav. Split chronicler Thomas the Archdeacon wrote that Stephen Držislav had received royal honours and that since Croatian rulers were verifiably referred to as the "Kings of Dalmatia and Croatia". After the death of King Stephen Držislav in 997, he was succeeded by three sons: Svetoslav Suronja, Krešimir III and Gojslav; the two younger brothers rebelled against Svetoslav Suronja, which started a new dynastic conflict that ended with the dethroning of Svetoslav. On thus the rulership was jointly taken over by Krešimir Gojslav. From Svetoslav and his offsprings the Svetoslavić branch was created; the descendants of Krešimir III were part of the Krešimirović branch. The dynasty reached its peak during the reign of King Petar Krešimir IV, who consolidated and expanded the kingdom; the dynasty ended in 1091 with the death of Petar Krešimir IV's nephew Stephen II, the successor to King Demetrius Zvonimir who did not leave a male heir.
Trpimir I Zdeslav Muncimir Tomislav Tomislav Trpimir II Krešimir I Miroslav Michael Krešimir II Stephen Držislav Svetoslav Suronja Krešimir III Gojslav Stephen I Peter Krešimir IV Demetrius Zvonimir Stephen II List of rulers of Croatia History of Croatia House of Domagojević House of Kotromanić Hrvatski leksikon (1997, A-Ž, 2 volume, in Croatian Intervju – ДИНАСТИЈЕ и владари јужнословенских народа. Special Edition 12, 16 June 1989; the Earliest Croatian Dukes and Kings
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
Battle of Vrpile
The Battle of Vrpile or Battle of Vrpile Gulch known as the First Battle of Krbava, was fought between the Kingdom of Croatia and the Ottoman Empire in early September 1491 at the Vrpile pass in central Croatia, near Korenica in Krbava. The Croatian army, led by Ban Ladislav of Egervár and Knez Bernardin Frankopan, defeated the Ottomans who were on their way back from Carniola to the Sanjak of Bosnia. With the death of King Matthias Corvinus in 1490 the 7-year truce with Sultan Bayezid II ended and the Ottomans renewed their raids into Croatia and southwestern Hungary. Since the 14th century the Ottomans plundered Croatian and other lands further west, their light cavalry troops undertook plundering raids, capturing its inhabitants and taking them into slavery. One such raid started in 1491 when Mihaloğlu Hasan Bey from the Sanjak of Bosnia crossed the Una River and led an army consisting of around 10,000 light cavalrymen, known as the Akıncı, across Croatia into lower Carniola, they intended to reach deep into the lands of the Holy Roman Empire, but their advance was stopped by the floods of the Kupa and Krka rivers.
They ravaged the countryside near Krško and Novo Mesto. The Ottomans spent a month in Carniola and taking captives. After they plundered Carniola, the Ottoman army was returning towards the Sanjak of Bosnia on their traditional route, Vrhovine – Homoljac – Korenica – Vrpile – Krbava field, leading with them a huge number of prisoners. Since the Ottomans had to go through the narrow Vrpile pass, the Croatian leadership decided to make an ambush there; the Croatian army was led by ban of Croatia Ladislav of Egervár, Count Bernardin Frankopan and Mihovil Frankopan Slunjski. Ivan Frankopan Cetinski participated in the battle; the Croatians let most of the Ottoman army to enter the valley and closed the passageway, deploying main part of the army in 4 rows. The Ottoman army was defeated and had around 1,500 killed and 1,500 imprisoned in the battle, while their captives were released. Historical records mentioned that 18,000 Christian captives were saved. King Vladislaus II granted Ban Ladislav the town of Steničnjak in Kordun as a reward for the victory and the 120 Ottoman captives sent to the king.
This defeat forced the Ottomans to halt their raids and attacks during the following year, 1492. The Ottomans started their campaigns again in 1493 with the election of Hadım Yakup Paşa as the sanjak-bey of the Sanjak of Bosnia; this defeat was the cause of the 1493 raid into Croatia, resulting in the Battle of Krbava Field on 9 September 1493
Gesta Hungarorum may refer to Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, written by Simon of Kéza. Gesta Hungarorum, or The Deeds of the Hungarians, is the first extant Hungarian book about history, its genre is not chronicle, but gesta, meaning "deeds" or "acts", a medieval entertaining literature. It was written by an unidentified author who has traditionally been called Anonymus in scholarly works. According to most historians, the work was completed between around 1200 and 1230; the Gesta exists in a sole manuscript from the second part of the 13th century, for centuries held in Vienna. It is part of the collection of Széchényi National Library in Budapest; the principal subject of the Gesta is the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries, it writes of the origin of the Hungarians, identifying the Hungarians' ancestors with the ancient Scythians. Many of its sources—including the Bible, Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae, the 7th-century Exordia Scythica, the late 9th-century Regino of Prüm's Chronicon, early medieval romances of Alexander the Great—have been identified by scholars.
Anonymus used folk songs and ballads when writing his work. He knew a version of the late 11th-century "Hungarian Chronicle" the text of, preserved in his work and in chronicles, but his narration of the Hungarian Conquest differs from the version provided by the other chronicles. Anonymus did not mention the opponents of the conquering Hungarians known from sources written around 900, but he wrote of the Hungarians' fight against rulers unknown from other sources. According to a scholarly theory, he used place names. Although the Hungarians, or Magyars, seem to have used their own alphabet before adopting Christianity in the 11th century, most information of their early history was recorded by Muslim and Western European authors. For instance, the Annals of Fulda, Regino of Prüm's Chronicon, Emperor Constantine VII's De administrando imperio contain contemporaneous or nearly contemporaneous reports of their conquest of the Carpathian Basin at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. Among the Hungarians, oral tradition — songs and ballads — preserved the memory of the most important historical events.
The Illuminated Chronicle explicitly stated that the "seven captains" who led the Hungarians during the Conquest "composed lays about themselves and sang them among themselves in order to win worldly renown and to publish their names abroad, so that their posterity might be able to boast and brag to neighbours and friends when these songs were heard". The Gesta Hungarorum, or The Deeds of the Hungarians, is the first extant Hungarian chronicle, its principal subject is the conquest of the Carpathian Basin and it narrates the background and the immediate aftermath of the conquest. Many historians—including Carlile Aylmer Macartney and András Róna-Tas—agree that Simon of Kéza's chronicle, the Illuminated Chronicle and other works composed in the 13th–15th centuries preserved texts, written before the completion of the Gesta, they say that the first "Hungarian Chronicle" was completed in the second half of the 11th century or in the early 12th century. The existence of this ancient chronicle is proven by sources.
One Ricardus's report of a journey of a group of Dominican friars in the early 1230s refers to a chronicle, The Deeds of the Christian Hungarians, which contained information of an eastern Magna Hungaria. The Illuminated Chronicle from 1358 refers to "the ancient books about the deeds of the Hungarians" in connection with the pagan uprisings of the 11th century; the earliest "Hungarian Chronicle" was expanded and rewritten several times in the 12th–14th centuries, but its content can only be reconstructed based on 14th-century works. The work exists in a sole manuscript; the codex contains 24 folios, including two blank pages. The first page of the codex contained the beginning of the Gesta, it was blanked. The work was written in a Gothic minuscule; the style of the letters and decorations, including the elaborate initial on its first page, shows that the manuscript was completed in the middle or in the second part of the 13th century. Scribal errors suggest. For instance, the scribe wrote Cleopatram instead of Neopatram in the text narrating a Hungarian raid in the Byzantine Empire although the context shows that the author of the Gesta referred to Neopatras.
The history of the manuscript up until the early 17th century is unknown. It became part of the collection of the Imperial Library in Vienna between 1601 and 1636. In this period, the court librarian Sebastian Tengnagel registered it under the title Historia Hungarica de VII primis ducibus Hungariae auctore Belae regis notario. Tengnagel added numbers to the chapters; the codex was bound with a leather book cover, impressed with a double-headed eagle, in the late 18th century. The manuscript, transferred to Hungary in 1933 or 1934, is held in the Széchényi National Library in Budapest; the author of the Gesta Hungarorum has been known as Anonymus since the publication of the first Hungarian translation of his work in 1790. The author described himself as "P, called magister, sometime notary of the most glorious Béla, king of Hungary of fond memory" in the opening sentence of the Gesta; the identification of this King Béla is subject to scholarly debate, because four Hungarian monarchs bore this name.
Most historians identify the king wit
Battle of Bliska
The Battle of Bliska was fought in 1322 between the army of a coalition of several Croatian noblemen and Dalmatian coastal towns and the forces of Mladen II Šubić of Bribir, Ban of Croatia, his allies. The battle resulted in the defeat of Mladen II. After the death of Paul I Šubić of Bribir, Ban of Croatia and Lord of all of Bosnia, on May 1, 1312, his properties and titles were passed to his eldest son Mladen II, who ruled over Bosnia before as a Ban of Bosnia; the young Croato-Hungarian king Charles I Robert of Anjou dynasty, who did not yet have power over the country, tolerated an unlimited and intangible rule of Mladen II over his territory, because Mladen's father had helped Charles to come to the throne. Mladen II came into conflict with the Croatian noblemen in his broader neighbourhood, like the counts of Krk, Kurjakovićs and Nelipićs, with some Dalmatian coastal towns, with Stephen II Kotromanić, Bosnian nobleman, again with the old adversary – the Republic of Venice; the turbulent events that followed in the next couple of years were marked by and full of revolts, sieges, armed clashes, changes of sides and tactical deceptions of both sides.
John Babonić, Ban of Slavonia, was involved, having received a support of the king, convinced that the time had come to weaken the power of the Šubić family. The troops of Mladen Šubić were composed from his own men, as well as that of his brother Juraj, who took part in the battle, it included the Vlach troops as well as the lesser nobility of the Poljica region. The opposing army were composed of forces loyal to the king, under Ban of Slavonia John Babonić, along with the coalition of the rebellious nobles, including Mladen's brother Paul II, who betrayed him with the intent of securing the position of ban for himself; these troops were aided by reinforcements from the Dalmatian cities Trogir and Šibenik. There are no detailed facts left about the battle itself, but it is known that Mladen II suffered a defeat, he himself, as well as his brother George II, saved his life and temporarily found shelter in Klis, George's fortress. Not long after the battle, the king Charles I Robert appeared in southern Croatia, leading his army, trying to calm down the situation.
At the assembly held in the Knin fortress on October 8, 1322, the winners of the battle of Bliska were given the properties and privileges by the king, whereas Mladen II Šubić of Bribir lost his freedom and was taken to Hungary. There he spent the next twenty years or so in custody at the Court, until his death between 1341 and 1343; the battle of Bliska meant the end of enormous power and influence of the main branch of the princes of Bribir led by Mladen II. He was unsuccessful, he lost a great part of the former estates, land and towns held by Šubićs, their hereditary right to be bans of Croatia as well. King Charles chose, John Babonić to be the Ban, whereas Stephen II Kotromanić became the Ban of Bosnia. Further consequence was the strengthening of other Croatian noblemen the members of Nelipić family and the princes of Krk. However, the brothers of Mladen II as well as their sons and kept their old properties for the next thirty years, it was only when the new Croato-Hungarian king Louis the Great started to reign in the forties of fourteenth century, that he, by exchanging the estates succeeded in displacing the members of Šubić family.
Karbić, Damir. "Šubići Bribirski do gubitka nasljedne banske časti". Zbornik Odsjeka za povijesne znanosti Zavoda za povijesne i društvene znanosti Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. Zagreb: Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. 22: 1–26. Retrieved 25 July 2017. Battle of Bliska in „History of Croatia“ by Rudolf Horvat, Edition of 1924 John V. A. Fine, Jr.:'The late medieval Balkans' – Battle of Bliska is on the page 212 Defeat of ban Mladen at Bliska transcript Battle of Bliska – end of the Šubićs' dreams of wearing the Croatian royal crown