Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, was the third and youngest son of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland and his wife, Caroline of Ansbach. He was Duke of Cumberland from 1726, he is best remembered for his role in putting down the Jacobite Rising at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which made him immensely popular throughout Britain. He is referred to by the nickname given to him by his Tory opponents:'Butcher' Cumberland. Despite his triumph at Culloden, he had a unsuccessful military career. Between 1748 and 1755 he attempted to enact a series of army reforms that were resisted by the opposition and by the army itself. Following the Convention of Klosterzeven in 1757, he never again held active military command and switched his attentions to politics and horse racing. William was born in Leicester House, in Leicester Fields, London, where his parents had moved after his grandfather, George I, accepted the invitation to ascend the British throne, his godparents included the King and Queen in Prussia, but they did not take part in person and were represented by proxy.
On 27 July 1726, at only five years old, he was created Duke of Cumberland, Marquess of Berkhamstead in the County of Hertford, Earl of Kennington in the County of Surrey, Viscount of Trematon in the County of Cornwall, Baron of the Isle of Alderney. The young prince was educated well. Another of his tutors was his mother's favourite Andrew Fountaine. At Hampton Court Palace, apartments were designed specially for him by William Kent. William's elder brother Frederick, Prince of Wales, proposed dividing the king's dominions. Frederick would get Britain; this proposal came to nothing. From childhood, he showed physical courage and ability, became his parents' favourite, he was made a Knight of the Bath aged four. He was intended, by the King and Queen, for the office of Lord High Admiral, and, in 1740, he sailed, as a volunteer, in the fleet under the command of Sir John Norris, but he became dissatisfied with the Navy, instead secured the post of colonel of the First Regiment of Foot Guards on 20 February 1741.
In December 1742, he became a major-general, the following year, he first saw active service in Germany. George II and the "martial boy" shared in the glory of the Battle of Dettingen, where Cumberland was wounded in the leg by a musket ball. After the battle he was made a lieutenant general. In 1745, Cumberland was given the honorary title of Captain-General of the British land forces and in Flanders became Commander-in-Chief of the allied British, Hanoverian and Dutch troops despite his inexperience, he planned to take the offensive against the French, in a move he hoped would lead to the capture of Paris, but was persuaded by his advisors that this was impossible given the vast numerical superiority of the enemy. As it became clear that the French intention was to take Tournai, Cumberland advanced to the relief of the town, besieged by Marshal Saxe. In the resulting Battle of Fontenoy on 11 May 1745, the Allies were defeated by the French. Saxe had picked the battleground on which to confront the British, filled the nearby woods with French marksmen.
Cumberland ignored the threat of the woods when drawing up his battle plans, instead concentrated on seizing the town of Fontenoy and attacking the main French army nearby. Despite a concerted Anglo-Hanoverian attack on the French centre, which led many to believe the Allies had won, the failure to clear the woods and of the Dutch forces to capture Fontenoy forced Cumberland's force onto the retreat. Following the battle Cumberland was criticised for his tactics the failure to occupy the woods. In the wake of the battle, Cumberland was forced to retreat to Brussels and was unable to prevent the fall of Ghent and Ostend; as the leading British general of the day, he was chosen to put a decisive stop to Prince Charles Edward Stuart, a direct descendant of James VII of Scotland and II of England, in the Jacobite rising of 1745. His appointment was popular, caused morale to soar amongst the public and troops loyal to King George. Recalled from Flanders, Cumberland proceeded with preparations for quelling the Stuart uprising.
The Jacobite army had advanced southwards into England, hoping that English Jacobites would rise and join them. However, after receiving only limited support such as the Manchester Regiment, the followers of Charles decided to withdraw to Scotland. Cumberland joined the Midland army under Ligonier, began pursuit of the enemy, as the Stuarts retreated northwards from Derby. On reaching Penrith, the advanced portion of his army was repulsed on Clifton Moor in December 1745, Cumberland became aware that an attempt to overtake the retreating Highlanders would be hopeless. Carlisle was retaken, he was recalled to London, where preparations were in hand to meet an expected French invasion; the defeat of his replacement as commander, Henry Hawley, roused the fears of the English people in January 1746, under a hail of pistol fire, "eighty dragoons fell dead upon the spot" at Falkirk Muir. Arriving in Edinburgh on 30 January 1746, he at once proceeded in search of Charles, he made a detour to Aberdeen, where he spent some time training the well-equipped forces now under his command for the next stage of the conflict in which they were about to engage.
He trained his troops to hold their fire until the enemy came within effective firing range, fire once, bayonet
Battle of Warburg
The Battle of Warburg was a battle fought on 31 July 1760 during the Seven Years' War. The Battle was the British against the French. British general John Manners, Marquess of Granby achieved some fame for charging at the head of the British cavalry and losing his hat and wig during the charge; the French lost 1500 men and wounded, around 2,000 prisoners and ten pieces of artillery. Present in the British line were the regiments of In the first line from left to right were the first Third And Second Dragoon Guards in one brigade, the Blues and Sixth Dragoon Guards in another. Chenevix-Trench, Charles, A History of Horsemanship, Francis and Great Britain's share in the War of the Austrian Succession 1741–1748 Williams, The Whig Supremacy Battle of Warburg
Siege of Pirna
The Siege of Pirna took place in 1756 as part of the Prussian invasion of Saxony during the Third Silesian War. Following the occupation of the capital Dresden by Frederick the Great on 9 September the Saxon army had withdrawn south and taken up position at the fortress of Pirna under Frederick von Rutowski; the Saxons hoped to receive relief from the Austrian army, across the border in neighbouring Bohemia under Marshal Browne. Following the Battle of Lobositz the Austrians withdrew, tried to approach Pirna by a different route but they failed to make contact with the defenders. Despite a Saxon attempt to escape by crossing the River Elbe, it soon became apparent that their position was hopeless. On 14 October Rutowski concluded a capitulation with Frederick. In total 18,000 troops surrendered, they were swiftly and forcibly incorporated into the Prussian forces, an act which caused widespread protest from Prussians. Many of them deserted and fought with the Austrians against the Prussian forces - with whole regiments changing sides at the Battle of Prague.
Dull, Jonathan R. The French Navy and the Seven Years' War. University of Nebraska Press, 2005. Jacques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Press, 2007. Szabo, Franz A. J; the Seven Years War in Europe, 1756-1763. Pearson, 2008
Battle of Kloster Kampen
The Battle of Kloster Kampen was a tactical French victory over a British and allied army in the Seven Years' War. The Allied forces were driven from the field. During the autumn of 1760 Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, the commander of the allied army saw the French were threatening Hanover. To create a diversion he dispatched 20,000 men command by the Erbprinz of Brunswick to draw the French army away and to the west; the French commander prepared to defend the town of Wesel on the east bank of the Rhine burning the bridge over the Rhine at the mouth of the Lippe while Marquis de Castries hurried with extra reinforcements to relieve the garrison. The Prince of Brunswick set up a formal siege of Wesel building two pontoon bridges over the river, he resolved to meet de Castries' army round the Kloster Kampen area west of the river. Major General George Augustus Eliott commanded the approach vanguard, 2 squadrons of Prussian Hussars, the Royal Dragoons, the Inniskilling Dragoons along with the 87th and 88th Highlanders.
The main attacking force comprised 2 battalions of grenadiers, the 20th Foot, the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers, the 25th Foot, 2 battalions of Hanoverians and 2 battalions of Hessians. Behind the main body of the army was a force of cavalry, the 10th Dragoons and 10 squadrons of Hanoverian and Hessian cavalry. A reserve force of the 11th, 33rd and 51st Foot with 5 Hessian battalions lay some miles behind the main body of the army; the battle began in the middle of the night when the army's vanguard drove the French out of Kloster Kampen convent and took the bridge over the canal. The sounds of the guns as the French resisted the attack alerted the main body of the French army of the attack. Dawn broke as the British and German Foot regiments moved into the attack, the Highlander regiments outflanking the French army which drove the French back; the Marquis de Castries brought up his reserves and rallied the retreating regiments launched a counter-offensive against the allied foot. The French attack broke up the formation of the German regiments.
The French drove back the German regiments back across the canal. The allied reserves were brought up but due to the lengthy distance this took time and the French pressed their assault. At the western end of the canal, Eliott led the three British cavalry regiments in a charge which disrupted the French advance and enabled the retreating allied foot to regain the North bank; the reserves formed a cordon. It was at this point. However, upon reaching the river he discovered that the pontoon bridge needed for his crossing had been swept away and two days were needed to effect the crossing; the French did not follow up on their success, permitting the allies to complete their retreat over the Rhine. The Allied defeat caused disappointment in Britain where many had expected better news, following the large expansion of Frederick's army, it led some to question Ferdinand's leadership of the Allied army, although Ferdinand had been leading an outnumbered force during the campaign and would go on to win further victories at Battle of Warburg, Battle of Vellinghausen, Battle of Wilhelmsthal defending Hanover from invasion.
Nicolas-Louis d'Assas Geschichte des Siebenjährigen Krieges in einer Reihe von Vorlesungen, mit Benutzung authentischer Quellen, bearbeitet von den Offizieren des großen Generalstabs, Vierter Theil: Der Feldzug von 1760, als Manuscript zum Gebrauche der Armee abgedruckt, Berlin 1834. Online at google books S. 416ff Battle of Kloster Kamp at www.britishbattles.com Batailles de France
Province of Hanover
The Province of Hanover was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1868 to 1946. During the Austro-Prussian War, the Kingdom of Hanover had attempted to maintain a neutral position, along with some other member states of the German Confederation. After Hanover voted in favour of mobilising confederation troops against Prussia on 14 June 1866, Prussia saw this as a just cause for declaring war; the private wealth of the dethroned House of Hanover was used by Otto von Bismarck to finance his continuing efforts against Ludwig II of Bavaria. In 1946, the British military administration recreated the Land of Hanover based on the former Kingdom of Hanover. Hanover was subdivided into six regions first called Landdrostei, which were reorganised into Prussian standard Regierungsbezirke on 1 April 1885. Aurich Osnabrück Stade Lüneburg Hildesheim Hanover On 1 April 1885 the six Landdrosteien were turned into regional administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke: The Regierungsbezirke were subdivided into new urban and rural counties, the old Amt structure being disbanded.
Where the name of the county town differs from that of the county, it is shown in brackets: Emden Wilhelmshaven Aurich Emden Leer Norden Weener Wittmund Hamelin Hanover Linden Grafschaft Diepholz Grafschaft Hoya Grafschaft Schaumburg Hameln-Pyrmont Hanover Linden Neustadt am Rübenberge Nienburg/Weser Springe Stolzenau Sulingen Syke Göttingen Goslar Hildesheim Alfeld Duderstadt Einbeck Göttingen Goslar Gronau Hildesheim Holzminden Ilfeld Marienburg i. Hann. Münden Northeim Osterode am Harz Peine Uslar Zellerfeld Celle Harburg Harburg-Wilhelmsburg Lüneburg Wilhelmsburg Bleckede Burgdorf Celle Fallingbostel Gifhorn Harburg Isenhagen Lüchow-Dannenberg Lüneburg Soltau Uelzen Winsen Osnabrück Aschendorf-Hümmling Landkreis Bersenbrück Grafschaft Bentheim Iburg Lingen Melle Meppen Osnabrück Wittlage Cuxhaven Geestemünde Lehe Wesermünde Achim Blumenthal Bremervörde Hadeln Jork Kehdingen Land Hadeln Neuhaus an der Oste Osterholz Rotenburg i. Hann. Stade Verden Wesermünde Zeven The heads of the provinces, appointed by the central Prussian government, were called Oberpräsident.
The provincial executive, the Landesdirektor, was elected by the provincial parliament. Otto Graf zu Stolberg-Wernigerode 1867–1873 Botho Wendt August Graf zu Eulenburg 1873–1878 Adolf Hilmar von Leipziger 1878–1888 Rudolf von Bennigsen 1888–1897 Konstantin Graf zu Stolberg-Wernigerode 1898–1902 Richard von Wentzel 1902–1914 Ludwig Hubert von Windheim 1914–1917 Ernst von Richter 1917–1920 Gustav Noske 1920–1933 Viktor Lutze 1933–1941 Hartmann Lauterbacher 1941–1945 Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf 1946 Kingdom of Hanover, for rulers of Hanover before the Prussian annexation
Battle of Torgau
In the Battle of Torgau on 3 November 1760, King Frederick the Great's Prussian army fought a larger Austrian army under the command of Field Marshal Leopold Josef Graf Daun. The Prussians won a costly victory in one of the bloodiest battles of the Third Silesian War. In August, Daun missed an opportunity to destroy the main Prussian army in Silesia. Outnumbered three-to-one, Frederick escaped the Austrian trap by smashing the corps of Feldzeugmeister Ernst Gideon Freiherr von Laudon at the Battle of Liegnitz; when the Prussians lingered in Silesia, their more numerous enemies attacked. Feldzeugmeister Franz Moritz Graf von Lacy's 18,000 Austrians joined with General Tottleben's Russian force near Berlin, making a total of 35,000 allies. While 13,000 Prussians took refuge in the Spandau fortress and Tottleben captured 3,000 Prussians in Berlin on 9 October. In late October, Daun slipped out of Silesia and moved west to Saxony where Lacy joined him with his corps; when his government ordered him to stand and fight the Prussians, Daun selected a position on the Süptitzer Höhen just west of Torgau.
The plateau had been used by Prince Henry of Prussia in 1759 and was protected on the west by abatis and on the south by a small stream. The Austrians faced south with Daun's army further west. Altogether and Lacy marshalled 42,000 infantry, 10,000 cavalry, 275 cannons. Frederick determined to send General Hans Joachim von Zieten to hold Daun's attention from the south, while his main effort circled around the western end of the Austrian line to attack from the north. Zieten's corps comprised 21 infantry battalions and 54 cavalry squadrons, while Frederick's main army deployed 41 battalions and 48 squadrons. In total, the Prussians had 35,000 infantry, 13,500 cavalry, 309 artillery pieces. Noon found Frederick's main army floundering in the woods to the north of Daun's position. At this time, Zieten's advance guard became embroiled with the Croatian light infantry belonging to Lacy's corps. Daun alertly detected the Prussian maneuver and he shifted his first line to the north side of the heights.
Soon an artillery duel erupted between Zieten. Hearing the cannon fire and fearing that Zieten was being mauled, the Prussian king decided to launch his attack prematurely, with ten battalions of grenadiers. Concentrated Austrian cannon fire and musketry caused the loss of 5,000 Prussians in the span of one half-hour; when the main body of infantry arrived on the scene, it was sent into the uphill assault. Daun was forced to commit his reserves to defeat the second attack; the Prussian cavalry led by General the Duke of Holstein tried to break the Austrian line, but it failed. A spent canister round hit Frederick in the chest and he withdrew to the village of Elsnig in considerable distress; the king spent the night sitting on the bottom step of the church altar waiting for news from the battlefield. Daun around sunset went to Torgau to have his wound dressed; the Austrian commander sent General Charles Flynn to deliver a preliminary victory dispatch to Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in Vienna.
The tide of the battle turned at dusk, when Zieten's columns, engaged pointlessly with Lacy launched a major assault. Shifting his corps to the west, he found an unguarded causeway between two ponds and threw five battalions into the gap. Zieten followed up the initial breach with the balance of his infantry and soon his corps gained a foothold on the heights. Hearing Zieten's battle, Lieutenant General J. D. von Hülsen led the survivors of the main army in a final attack. Taken from the north and south, the Austrian lines began to crumble. Zieten's men captured the Austrian gun battery and turned the cannons on their former owners, who twice tried unsuccessfully to regain the lost battery. By 9:00 p.m. the battle wound down with the Prussians still in control of the heights. The Prussians won the battle but at a heavy cost, they admitted losses of 16,670, while the Austrians lost 15,897, including some 10,000 men and 49 guns captured. One authority writes, Even after all this bloodletting the battle of Torgau decided little in strategic terms, for Daun still held Dresden and southern Saxony, while the troublesome Laudon was free to take up winter quarters in Silesia.
The battle left. After losing as much if not more men than its enemy, Prussia was again weakened. However, without the prospect of a decisive victory against the Prussians, with dwindling financial resources, Austria was losing much of its offensive power. After the campaign of 1760, it had to reduce the size of its army, which left little hope of crushing Prussia without the help of Russia, which withdrew in 1762. For the Austrians, the battle was hence a severe psychological blow that decreased their hope of winning a decisive victory. Duffy, Christopher; the Army of Frederick the Great. NY: Hippocrene Books, 1974. ISBN 0-88254-277-X Duffy, Christopher; the Military Life of Frederick the Great. Atheneum, 1986. ISBN 0-689-11548-2 Szabo, Franz; the Seven Years War in Europe: 1756–1763. Routledge, 2013, ISBN 978-1-317-88696-9