Battle of Talladega
The Battle of Talladega was a battle fought between the Tennessee Militia and the Red Stick Creek Indians during the Creek War, in the vicinity of the present-day county and city of Talladega, Alabama, in the United States. When General John Coffee returned to Fort Strother after defeating the Red Sticks at the Battle of Tallushatchee, General Andrew Jackson received a call for help from friendly Creeks who were being besieged by Red Sticks at Talladega. Jackson and his force of about 2,000 men were camped at Ten Islands on the Coosa River, near the present day Henry Neely Dam; the Creeks under command of Weatherford numbered about 700 warriors. A few white men and about 150 friendly Indians known as White Sticks, were inside a small defensive area known as Fort Leslie. Fort Lashley was a palisade constructed around the trading post of a Mr. Leslie. One of the White Sticks in the stockade was Chief Chinnabee, his son Selocta, according to legend, put a pigskin with its head still attached over his body and grunted and routed through the surrounding Red Sticks after dark.
When he got to the edge of the encampment he shed the skin and ran through the wilderness until he reached Jackson's camp. On November 9, 1813, Jackson's army arrived outside the village; the Red Sticks, inflicted 17 casualties upon Jackson. However, Jackson drove them from the field. Click here to see a hand-drawn map of the battlefield from 1813. Casualties for the Creeks numbered around 110 wounded. Jackson's casualties numbered 15 around 85 wounded. After the battle, there was a significant lull in the fighting between the Red Sticks and Jackson's army. By December, the U. S. force was down to 500 because of desertion and enlistments running out. In January, in order to support the Georgia militia, Jackson marched toward the village of Emuckfaw with an inexperienced force; this move resulted in the Battles of Enotachopo Creek. After these battles Jackson retired to Fort Strother; when Jackson received additional reinforcements, he once again went on the offensive and met the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
Borneman, Walter R.. 1812: The War That Forged a Nation. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-053112-6. A map of Creek War Battle Sites from the PCL Map Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Holy Ground & William Weatherford
Artillery is a class of heavy military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls, fortifications during sieges, led to heavy immobile siege engines; as technology improved, more mobile field artillery cannons developed for battlefield use. This development continues today. In its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word "artillery" has meant cannon, in contemporary usage, it refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers and rocket artillery. In common speech, the word artillery is used to refer to individual devices, along with their accessories and fittings, although these assemblages are more properly called "equipments". However, there is no recognised generic term for a gun, mortar, so forth: the United States uses "artillery piece", but most English-speaking armies use "gun" and "mortar".
The projectiles fired are either "shot" or "shell". "Shell" is a used generic term for a projectile, a component of munitions. By association, artillery may refer to the arm of service that customarily operates such engines. In some armies one arm has operated field, anti-aircraft artillery and anti-tank artillery, in others these have been separate arms and in some nations coastal has been a naval or marine responsibility. In the 20th century technology based target acquisition devices, such as radar, systems, such as sound ranging and flash spotting, emerged to acquire targets for artillery; these are operated by one or more of the artillery arms. The widespread adoption of indirect fire in the early 20th century introduced the need for specialist data for field artillery, notably survey and meteorological, in some armies provision of these are the responsibility of the artillery arm. Artillery originated for use against ground targets—against infantry and other artillery. An early specialist development was coastal artillery for use against enemy ships.
The early 20th century saw the development of a new class of artillery for use against aircraft: anti-aircraft guns. Artillery is arguably the most lethal form of land-based armament employed, has been since at least the early Industrial Revolution; the majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, World War II were caused by artillery. In 1944, Joseph Stalin said in a speech that artillery was "the God of War". Although not called as such, machines performing the role recognizable as artillery have been employed in warfare since antiquity. Historical references show artillery was first employed by the Roman legions at Syracuse in 399 BC; until the introduction of gunpowder into western warfare, artillery was dependent upon mechanical energy which not only limited the kinetic energy of the projectiles, it required the construction of large engines to store sufficient energy. A 1st-century BC Roman catapult launching 6.55 kg stones achieved a kinetic energy of 16,000 joules, compared to a mid-19th-century 12-pounder gun, which fired a 4.1 kg round, with a kinetic energy of 240,000 joules, or a late 20th century US battleship that fired a 1,225 kg projectile from its main battery with an energy level surpassing 350,000,000 joules.
From the Middle Ages through most of the modern era, artillery pieces on land were moved by horse-drawn gun carriages. In the contemporary era, artillery pieces and their crew relied on wheeled or tracked vehicles as transportation; these land versions of artillery were dwarfed by railway guns, which includes the largest super-gun conceived, theoretically capable of putting a satellite into orbit. Artillery used by naval forces has changed with missiles replacing guns in surface warfare. Over the course of military history, projectiles were manufactured from a wide variety of materials, into a wide variety of shapes, using many different methods in which to target structural/defensive works and inflict enemy casualties; the engineering applications for ordnance delivery have changed over time, encompassing some of the most complex and advanced technologies in use today. In some armies, the weapon of artillery is the projectile, not the equipment; the process of delivering fire onto the target is called gunnery.
The actions involved in operating an artillery piece are collectively called "serving the gun" by the "detachment" or gun crew, constituting either direct or indirect artillery fire. The manner in which gunnery crews are employed is called artillery support. At different periods in history this may refer to weapons designed to be fired from ground-, sea-, air-based weapons platforms; the term "gunner" is used in some armed forces for the soldiers and sailors with the primary function of using artillery. The gunners and their guns are grouped in teams called either "crews" or "detachments". Several such crews and teams with other functions are combined into a unit of artillery called a battery, although sometimes called a company. In gun detachments, each role is numbered, starting with "1" the Detachment Commander, the highest number being the Coverer, the second-in-command. "Gunner" is the lowest rank and junior non-commissioned officers are "Bombardiers" in some artillery arms. Batteries are equivalent to a company in the infantry
English Americans are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or in England. In the 2017 American Community Survey, English Americans are of the total population; the term is distinct from British Americans, which includes not only English Americans but Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Welsh Americans, Cornish Americans and Manx Americans from the whole of the United Kingdom. However, demographers regard this as a serious under count, as the index of inconsistency is high and many if not most Americans from English stock have a tendency to identify as "Americans" or if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group. In the 1980 Census, over 49 million Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States. Scotch-Irish Americans are for the most part descendants of Lowland Scots and Northern English settlers who colonized Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century.
In 1982, an opinion poll showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country." The English were the top ethnic group, with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%. Ben J. Wattenberg argues that this poll demonstrates a general American bias against Hispanics and other recent immigrant populations; the majority—57%--of the Founding Fathers of the United States were of English extraction. English immigrants in the 19th century, as with other groups, sought economic prosperity, they began migrating in large numbers without 1840s to 1890s. Americans of English heritage are seen, identify, as "American" due to the many historic cultural ties between England and the U. S. and their influence on the country's population. Relative to ethnic groups of other European origins, this may be due to the early establishment of English settlements.
Since 1776, English-Americans have been less to proclaim their heritage in the face of the upsurge of cultural and ethnic pride by African Americans, Irish Americans, Scottish Americans, Italian Americans or other ethnic groups. A leading specialist, Charlotte Erickson, found them to be ethnically "invisible," dismissing the occasional St. George Societies as ephemeral elite clubs that were not in touch with the larger ethnic community. In Canada, by contrast, the English organized far more ethnic activism, as the English competed with the well-organized French and Irish elements. In the United States the Scottish immigrants were much better organized than the English in the 19th century, as are their descendants in the late 20th century; the original 17th century settlers were overwhelmingly English. From the time of the first permanent English presence in the New World until 1900, these immigrants and their descendants outnumbered all others establishing the English cultural pattern as predominant for the American version.
According to the United States Historical Census, the ethnic populations in the British American Colonies of 1700, 1755 and 1775 were: The category'Irish' represents immigrants from Ireland outside the Province of Ulster, the overwhelming majority of whom were Protestant and not ethnically Irish, though from Ireland. The distinction between Scots-Irish and Irish came about in the mid-19th century: prior to this time all Irish persons whatever religion were identified as'Irish.' In 1790 the U. S. conducted its first national population census. The ancestries of the population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources, first in 1932 again in 1980 and 1984 by sampling distinctive surnames in the census and assigning them a country of origin. There is debate over the accuracy between the studies with individual scholars and the Federal Government using different techniques and conclusion for the ethnic composition. A study published in 1909 titled A Century of Population Growth by the Government Census Bureau estimated the English were 83.5% of the white population.
The states with the highest percentage by the same Census Bureau data in 1909 of English ancestry were Connecticut 96.2%, Rhode Island 96.0%, Vermont 95.4%, Massachusetts 95.0%, New Hampshire 94.1%, Maine 93.1%, Virginia 85.0%, Maryland 84.0%, North Carolina 83.1%, South Carolina 82.4%, New York 78.2%, Pennsylvania 59.0%. Another source by Thomas L. Purvis in 1984 estimated that people of English ancestry made up about 47.5% of the total population or 60.9% of the white or European American population. Some 80.7% of the total United States population was of European origin. Around 757,208 were of African descent with 697,624 being slaves. In 1980, 23,748,772 Americans claimed only English ancestry and another 25,849,263 claimed English along with another ethnic ancestry, it must be noted that 13.3 million or 5.9% of the total U. S. population chose to identify as "American" as seen in censuses that followed. Below shows the persons. At a national level the ancestry response rate was high with 90.4% of the total United States population choosing at least
In United States and Canadian history, an Indian agent was an individual authorized to interact with Native American tribes on behalf of the U. S. government. The federal regulation of Indian affairs in the United States first included development of the position of Indian agent in 1793 under the Second Trade and Intercourse Act; this permitted. The legislation authorized the President of the United States to "appoint such persons, from time to time, as temporary agents to reside among the Indians," and guide them into acculturation of American society by changing their agricultural practices and domestic activities; the government ceased using the term temporary from the Indian agent's job title. From the close of the 18th century to nearly 1869, Congress maintained the position that it was responsible for the protection of Indians from non-Indians, in establishing this responsibility it "continue to deal with Indian tribes by utilizing agents to negotiate treaties under the jurisdiction of the Department of War."
And before the reforms of the late 19th century, an Indian agent's average duties were as follows: Work toward preventing conflicts between settlers and Indians "He was to keep an eye out for violations of intercourse laws and to report them to superintendents" Maintain flexible cooperation with U. S. Army military personnel See to the proper distribution of annuities granted by the state or federal government to various Indian tribes. In 1849, the Bureau of Indian Affairs decided to place the position of Indian agent under civilian jurisdiction; this came at a time when many white Americans saw the role of Indian agent as inefficient and dishonest in monetary and severalty dealings with various Indian tribes. By 1850, many citizens had been calling for reform of the agents in the Bureau of Indian Affairs, their wish had been granted when in 1869 the bureau created the civilian-controlled Board of Indian Commissioners. The board "never more felt, that Indian agents should be appointed for merit and fitness for their work…and should be retained in the service when they prove themselves to be efficient and helpful by their character and moral influence."
This civilian run board was charged "with responsibility for supervising the disbursement of Indian appropriations" from state and federal governments. However, the United States Army command was dissatisfied of the transfer of the Bureau of Indian Affairs from the Department of War to the Department of the Interior by 1849, so they began to make public complaints about the corruptive nature of the civilian presence in the job of Indian agent. Despite its felt convictions that its Indian agents were appointed and removed on merit, the civilian Board of Commissioners was deemed corrupt, portrayed derogatorily in print and propaganda, inadvertently assumed the scapegoat for the perceived inefficiency of Indian-White affairs: the Indian agent. By the late 19th century, the job title of Indian agent began to change in the wake of the recent attempts to civilize Indians, assimilating them into American culture. Despite the public scorn for the agents, the Indian Office stated that the "chief duty of an agent is to induce his Indian to labor in civilized pursuits.
To attain this end every possible influence should be brought to bear, in proportion as it is attained…an agent is successful or unsuccessful."By the 1870s, the average Indian agent was nominated by various Christian denominations due to the increase in civilization reforms to Indian-white affairs over land. Part of the Christian message of reform, carried out by the Indian agents, demonstrated the pervasive thought of Indian land ownership of the late 19th century: civilization can only be possible when Indians cease communal living in favor of private ownership. Many citizens still held the activities of Indian agents in poor esteem, calling the agents themselves "unprincipled opportunists" and people of low quality. In the 1880 Instruction to Indian Agents, it states the job duties of the Indian agent as follows: See that Indians in one's designated locality are not "idle for want of an opportunity to labor or of instructions as to how to go to work," and "no work must be given to white men which can be done by Indians" See to it that the Indians under one's jurisdiction can farm and for the subsistence of their respective family Enforce prohibition of liquor Both provide and supervise the instruction of English education and industrial training for Indian children Allow Indians to leave the reservation only if they have acquired a permit for such And as of July 1884, Indian agents were to compile an annual report of their reservations for submission aimed at collecting the following information from Indian respondents: Indian name, English name, Relationship and Name among other statistical information.
When Theodore Roosevelt reached the presidency at the turn of the 20th century, the Indian agents that remained on the government payroll were all replaced by school superintendents. Distinguished individuals who have served as Indian age
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
The Creek War known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil War, was a regional war between opposing Creek factions, European empires and the United States, taking place in today's Alabama and along the Gulf Coast. The major conflicts of the war took place between state militia units and the "Red Stick" Creeks; the Creek War was part of the centuries-long American Indian Wars. It is considered part of the War of 1812 because it was influenced by Tecumseh's War in the Old Northwest, was concurrent with the American-British war and involved many of the same participants, the Red Sticks had sought British support and aided Admiral Cochrane's advance towards New Orleans; the Creek War began as a conflict within the Creek Confederation, but local white militia units became involved. British traders in Florida as well as the Spanish government provided the Red Sticks with arms and supplies because of their shared interest in preventing the expansion of the United States into their areas; the United States government formed an alliance with the Choctaw Nation and Cherokee Nation, along with the remaining Creeks to put down the rebellion.
The war ended with the Treaty of Fort Jackson, when General Andrew Jackson forced the Creek confederacy to surrender more than 21 million acres in what is now southern Georgia and central Alabama. The Red Stick militancy was a response to the increasing United States cultural and territorial encroachment into their traditional lands; the alternate designation as the Creek Civil War comes from the divisions within the tribe over cultural, political and geographic matters. At the time of the Creek War, the Upper Creeks controlled the Coosa and Alabama Rivers that led to Mobile, while the Lower Creeks controlled the Chattahoochee River, which flowed into Apalachicola Bay; the Lower Creek were trading partners with the United States and, unlike the Upper Creeks, had adopted more of their cultural practices. The provinces of East and West Florida were governed by the Spanish, British firms like Panton, Co. provided most of the trade goods into Creek country. Pensacola and Mobile, in Spanish Florida, controlled the outlets of the US Mississippi Territory's rivers.
Territorial conflicts between France, Spain and the United States along the Gulf Coast that had helped the Creeks to maintain control over most of the United States' southwestern territory had shifted due to the Napoleonic Wars, the Florida Rebellion, the War of 1812. This made long-standing Creek trade and political alliances more tenuous than ever. During and after the American Revolution, the United States wished to maintain the Indian Line, established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763; the Indian Line created a boundary for colonial settlement in order to prevent illegal encroachment into Indian lands, helped the U. S. government maintain control over the Indian trade. Traders and settlers violated the terms of the treaties establishing the Indian Line, frontier settlements by colonials in Indian lands was one of the arguments the United States used to expand its territory. In the Treaty of New York, Treaty of Colerain, Treaty of Fort Wilkinson, the Treaty of Fort Washington, the Creek ceded their Georgia territory east of the Ocmulgee River.
In 1804, the United States claimed the city of Mobile under the Mobile Act. The 1805 treaty with the Creek had allowed the creation of a Federal Road that linked Washington to the newly acquired port city of New Orleans, which stretched through Creek territories; these increasing territorial grabs westward into Creek territory, coupled with the Louisiana Purchase, compelled the British and Spanish governments to strengthen existing alliances with the Creek. In 1810, following the occupation of Baton Rouge during the West Florida Rebellion, the United States sent an expeditionary force to occupy Mobile; as a result, Mobile was jointly occupied by weak American and Spanish soldiers until Secretary of War John Armstrong ordered General James Wilkinson to force the Spanish to turn over control of the city in February 1813. The Patriot Army captured parts of East Florida from 1811–1815. After Fort Charlotte was surrendered in April, the Spanish focused on protecting Pensacola from the United States.
The Spanish decided to support the Creek in an attack on the United States and in defense of their homeland, but were hindered by their weak position in the Floridas and lack of supplies for their own army. The splintering of the Creek peoples along progressive and nativist lines had roots dating back to the eighteenth century, but came to a head after 1811. Red Stick militancy was a response to the economic and cultural crises in Creek society caused by the adoption of Western trade goods and culture. From the sixteenth century, the Creek had formed successful trade alliances with European empires, but the drastic fall in the price of deerskin from 1783 to 1793 made it more difficult for individuals to repay their debt, while at the same time the assimilation process made American goods more necessary; the Red Sticks resisted the civilization programs administered by the U. S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins, who had stronger alliances among the towns of the Lower Creek; some of the "progressive" Creek began to adopt American farming practices as their game disappeared, as more Anglo settlers assimilated into Creek towns and families.
Leaders of the Lower Creek towns in present-day Georgia included Bird Tail King of Cusseta.
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle 13 miles from the border with Alabama, the county seat of Escambia County, in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 51,923, down from 56,255 at the 2000 census. Pensacola is the principal city of the Pensacola metropolitan area, which had an estimated 461,227 residents in 2012. Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, protected by the barrier island of Santa Rosa and connects to the Gulf of Mexico. A large United States Naval Air Station, the first in the United States, is located southwest of Pensacola near Warrington; the main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center. The area was inhabited by Muskogean language peoples; the Pensacola people lived there at the time of European contact, Creek people visited and traded from present-day southern Alabama. Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna founded a short-lived settlement in 1559. In 1698 the Spanish established a presidio in the area, from which the modern city developed.
The area changed hands several times. During Florida's British rule, fortifications were strengthened, it is nicknamed "The City of Five Flags", due to the five governments that have ruled it during its history: the flags of Spain, Great Britain, the United States of America, the Confederate States of America. Other nicknames include "World's Whitest Beaches", "Cradle of Naval Aviation", "Western Gate to the Sunshine State", "America's First Settlement", "Emerald Coast", "Red Snapper Capital of the World", "P-Cola"; the original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay area were Native American peoples. At the time of European contact, a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola lived in the region; this name was not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appears to be the source of the name "Pensacola" for the bay and thence the city. Creek people Muskogean-speaking, came from present-day southern Alabama to trade, so the peoples were part of a broader regional and continental network of relations.
The best-known Pensacola culture site in terms of archeology is the Bottle Creek site, a large site located 59 miles west of Pensacola north of Mobile, Alabama. This site has at least 18 large earthwork mounds, its main occupation was from 1250 AD to 1550. It was a gateway to their society; this site would have had easy access by a dugout canoe, the main mode of transportation used by the Pensacola. The area's written recorded history begins in the 16th century, with documentation by Spanish explorers who were the first Europeans to reach the area; the expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539 both visited Pensacola Bay, the latter of which documented the name "Bay of Ochuse". In the age of sailing ships Pensacola was the busiest port on the Gulf of Mexico, having the deepest harbor on the Gulf. In 1559, Tristán de Luna y Arellano landed with some 1,500 people on 11 ships from Mexico; the expedition was to establish an outpost called Santa María de Ochuse by Luna, as a base for Spanish efforts to colonize Santa Elena But the colony was decimated by a hurricane on September 19, 1559, which killed an unknown number of sailors and colonists, sank six ships, grounded a seventh, ruined supplies.
The survivors struggled to survive, most moving inland to what is now central Alabama for several months in 1560 before returning to the coast. Some of the survivors sailed to Santa Elena, but another storm struck there. Survivors made their way to Cuba and returned to Pensacola, where the remaining fifty at Pensacola were taken back to Veracruz; the Viceroy's advisers concluded that northwest Florida was too dangerous to settle. They ignored it for 137 years. In the late 17th century, the French began exploring the lower Mississippi River with the intention of colonizing the region as part of La Louisiane or New France in North America. Fearful that Spanish territory would be threatened, the Spanish founded a new settlement in western Florida. In 1698 they established a fortified town near what is now Fort Barrancas, laying the foundation for permanent European-dominated settlement of the modern city of Pensacola; the Spanish built three presidios in Pensacola: Presidio Santa Maria de Galve: the presidio included fort San Carlos de Austria and a village with church.
The garrison was moved to the mainland. During the early years of settlement, a tri-racial creole society developed; as a fortified trading post, the Spanish had men stationed here. Some married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issu