Desaguadero River (Bolivia)
The Desaguadero River in Bolivia drains Lake Titicaca from the southern part of the river basin, flowing south and draining five percent of the lake's flood waters into Lake Uru Uru and Lake Poopó. Its source in the north is near the Peruvian border, it is navigable only by small craft and supports indigenous communities such as the Uru Muratu community. Awallamaya Lake Desaguadero River from Argentina. Management issues in the Lake Titicaca and Lake Poopo system: Importance of developing a water budget
Battle of Pequereque
The Battle of Pequereque was a clash which took place on 19 June 1813, during the second Upper Peru campaign of the Argentine War of Independence, between scouting forces of the United Provinces Army of the North and the royalist Army of Peru. The republican cavalry of the Army of the North, led by Colonel Cornelio Zelaya, prevailed over the royalists, under the command of Colonel Pedro Olañeta. After the capitulation of General Pio de Tristan in the battle of Salta, on 24 February 1813, the United Provinces' Army of the North gained the upper hand not only in northern Argentina, but in southern Upper Peru. At the same time, the royalists were experiencing a crisis of command, after the resignation of General José Manuel de Goyeneche for personal reasons; the Spanish garrisons reacted with panic after learning of Tristan's defeat and effected a massive withdrawal of their troops from Jujuy and Potosi towards Oruro, in central Upper Peru. During the early days of May the Army of the North reached Potosi, a forward screen force of about 500 men was deployed along the route to Oruro.
These troops, composed of a cavalry regiment of Dragoons, were commanded by Colonel Cornelio Zelaya. The vanguard of the republican army advanced from Potosi through the villages of Yocalla, Leñas, Tolapaca and Vilcapugio, before establishing their headquarters in the native hamlet of Ancacato, destroyed by the royalists. On 17 June, forced by the lack of supplies in Ancacato, a small detachment of Dragoons was sent to Challapata, some 12 km to the southwest, in search of food and other provisions, they were unaware that a royalist regiment of Cazadores, commanded by Colonel Pedro Olañeta, had captured Challapata shortly before. Two days after leaving Ancacato, the detachment was warned by a native that an enemy force was marching along the pass in the opposite direction. Zelaya ordered the build-up of his forces in order to meet the royalists in a battle of encounter. Zelaya appointed one of his officers, Juan Francisco Zamudio, to lead a mounted company to face the advancing royalists, who had seized the small town of Pequereque, at the opposite end of the ravine.
In the meantime, an infantry squadron was deployed in the rearguard along the pass, to prevent any hostile infiltration. The remainder of the regiment was ordered to march on foot, to mislead the enemy about the real strength of the republicans; the engagement lasted for about five and a half hours, according to the official report sent to General Manuel Belgrano, commander in chief of the army. The royalists gave up, leaving Pequereque in the hands of Zelaya and his men. Three soldiers were killed "...in cold blood after surrender", according to Zelaya's report, 10 men were injured. He put Olañeta casualties at 20 wounded. Royalist sources seem to acknowledge that they suffered a number of casualties, without elaborating further. After holding Pequereque during a few hours, Zelaya decided to fall back to Ancacato; the troops of Olañeta took back Pequereque three days after the battle. The Dragoons retreated to the plain of Vilcapugio to avoid a further engagement with the enemy, who by that time had gathered the bulk of their forces around Ancacato.
Two days Zelaya set his headquarters further south, at Las Leñas. Zelaya was replaced by Colonel Juan Ramón Balcarce and sent by Belgrano to Cochabamba to recruit a bigger cavalry force from local volunteers, he would join the main expeditionary force after the defeat of Vilcapugio. Araóz de la Madrid, Gregorio: Obsebvaciones sobre las Memorias póstumas del brigadier general d. Josè M. Paz, por G. Araoz de Lamadrid y otros gefes contemporaneos. Imprenta de la Revista, Buenos Aires, 1855. García Camba, Andrés: Memorias para la Historia de las armas españolas en el Perú. Sociedad tipográfica de Hortelano y compañia, 1846. V. II. Levene, Ricardo. Historia de la nación argentina. Volume 6, Part 1. Academia Nacional de la Historia. Mitre, Bartolomé: Historia de Belgrano. Imprenta de Mayo, Buenos Aires, 1859. V. II. Paz, José María: Memorias Póstumas. Imprenta de la Revista, Buenos Aires, 1855. Battle of Vilcapugio Action of Tambo Nuevo Battle of Ayohuma
The Primera Junta or First Assembly is the most common name given to the first independent government of Argentina. It was created on 25 May 1810, as a result of the events of the May Revolution; the Junta had representatives from only Buenos Aires. When it was expanded, as expected, with the addition of the representatives from the other cities of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, it became popularly known instead as the Junta Grande; the Junta operated at El Fuerte, used since 1776 as a residence by the Viceroys. This Junta—officially named the Junta Provisional Gubernativa de las Provincias del Río de la Plata a nombre del Señor Don Fernando VII —allegedly meant to govern in the name of the King of Spain, while he was imprisoned by Napoleon Bonaparte. Juntas were a form of transitional or emergency government, which attempted to maintain Spanish sovereignty, that emerged during the Napoleonic invasion in Spanish cities that had not succumbed to the French; the most important for Spanish America was the Junta of Seville, which claimed sovereignty over the overseas possessions, given the fact that the province of Seville had enjoyed exclusive rights to the American trade.
Its claims had been rejected by Spanish Americans, its authority was superseded by a Supreme Central Junta of Spain, which included American representation. When the Supreme Central Junta abolished itself in 1810, the politically active inhabitants of Buenos Aires saw no better moment than this to establish a local government, they had been influenced by the recent democratic and republican philosophical wave, were concerned about the commercial monopoly exerted by the Spanish crown, suffocating the local economy. Buenos Aires province had mitigated this problem through contraband. Local politicians, such as former council member and legal advisor to the viceroy, Juan José Castelli, who wanted a change towards self-government and free commerce, cited traditional Spanish political theory and argued that the King being imprisoned, sovereignty had returned to the people; the people were to assume the government until the King returned, just as the subjects in Spain had done two years earlier with the establishment of juntas.
The Viceroy and his supporters countered that the colonies belonged to Spain and did not have a political relationship with only the King. Therefore, they should follow any governmental body established in Spain as the legal authority, namely the Supreme Central Junta of Spain and its successor, the Council of Regency; the meeting of a Buenos Aires cabildo abierto during 22 May 1810, came under strong pressure from the militias and a crowd that formed in front of the cabildo hall on the Plaza Mayor, up to 25 May. The crowd favored the stance of the local politicians, the cabildo ended up creating the Primera Junta, the first form of local government in the territory that would become Argentina. Spain would never recover its dominion over that territory. From the beginning of the new government, two factions manifested their differences, a more radical one, whose visible leader was the Junta's Secretary, Mariano Moreno, the conservative wing that supported the Junta's President, Cornelio Saavedra.
In general the principles of the May Revolution were popular sovereignty, the principle of representation and federalization, division of powers, the maintenance of the mandates, publication of the government's actions President Cornelio SaavedraSecretaries: Mariano Moreno Juan José PasoCommittee member Manuel Alberti Miguel de Azcuénaga Manuel Belgrano Juan José Castelli Domingo Matheu Juan Larrea Despite the replacement of Cisneros, the Royal Audience and the Cabildo stood with the authorities that existed before the revolution, who opposed the Junta since its first day. The Audience refused at first to swear allegiance to the Junta, when they did, prosecutor Caspe did so with clear gestures of contempt. Caspe would be ambushed near his home, in retaliation for this; the Cabildo imposed a time limit on the Junta: if the General Congress was not formed in six months, the Cabildo would reassume government. The Junta answered the same day; the Audience requested that the Junta submitted to the Regency Counsel, but the Junta refused, on the grounds that Cisneros did not so submit and the Audience did not request him to.
The Audience itself swore allegiance to the Counsel shortly after, they were all banished in response. Together with the ex-viceroy Cisneros, they were forced to take the ship Dart that left them at the Canary Islands. From the early days of the Primera Junta there was a strong rivalry between Moreno. According to Ignacio Núñez, the Morenists accused Saavedra of plotting to restore the tyranny of the viceroys in his office, while the Saavedrists accused Moreno of usurping government roles that were not intended for him. Matheu would point in his memories that the Morenists were upset because they perceived that Saavedra enjoyed receiving honors and distinctions that they had chosen to avoid; the Junta was received with mixed reactions from the other cities of the viceroyalty. Santa Fe, Entre Ríos, Misiones and Mendoza supported the change, others did not. Upper Peru, which benefited from the system of mita to exploit the mines in
José Manuel de Goyeneche, 1st Count of Guaqui
José Manuel de Goyeneche y Barreda, 1st Count of Guaqui, OCIII, OIC, LCSF, KOS was a Spanish soldier and diplomat. His father was captain of cavalry Juan de Goyeneche y Aguerrevere and his mother was María Josefa de Barreda y Benavides, daughter of field marshal Don Nicolás de Barreda y Ovando, from a noble family of military men and conquistadors, he travelled when young to Spain, to finish his studies, entered the army as cadet raising to lieutenant of cavalry and captain of grenadiers. He took part of the defense of Cádiz against the British in two occasions, having been in command of two hundred grenadiers and two gun batteries in the second. In 1808, during the French invasion of the Iberian peninsula, he was commissioned as representative of the legitimate government of Spain to the Supreme Junta in Seville with the rank of brigadier, for the proclamation of king Ferdinand VII in the viceroyalties of Peru and River Plate, to ensure the fidelity and compliance of those colonies to the legitimate Spanish king, take the news of the general revolt against French invasion of Spain and ask of help from the colonies.
His powers were vast, including firing and incarcerating anybody in public office who manifested any opposission to Ferdinand VII, legitimate King of Spain. He travelled to Peru, where viceroy Abascal named him Captain General and president of the Real Audiencia of Cusco. In 1809 he took command of the Peruvian royalist armies in Upper Peru, sent to suppress the revolutionary forces at La Paz though this province belonged the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, he defeated those forces and ordered the execution of a dozen of their leaders returned to Cusco. After receiving news of the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, Viceroy Abascal announced the incorporation of Upper Peru to the Viceroyalty of Peru. General Goyeneche organized new forces, but did not advanced South until after the Battle of Suipacha, which left the region under control of the revolutionaries. In May 1811 he signed an armistice with the political leader of the independentist army Juan José Castelli though events betrayed that neither one was intending to abide by it.
Castelli deployed part of his troops to try to surround Goyeneche's forces but Goyeneche employed his time better and attacked first. The ensuing battle of Huaqui on June 20, 1811 was a decisive victory for Goyeneche. In a few weeks afterwards he occupied the whole of Upper Peru, including the cities of La Paz, Cochabamba and Potosí, re-establishing Spanish control over the territory, his decisive victory at the Battle of Huaqui earned him the title of Count of Guaqui. The rebellion at Cochabamba took a year to suppress which delayed his invasion of the Salta Province, in present-day northern Argentina. After defeating the tough resistance of the Cochabamba locas, including women fighters he entered the city and repressed the rebel with severity which cost the lives of dozens of men and children. In 1813, general Pío de Tristán, under orders from Goyeneche, chased the Army of the River Plate South to Argentine territory. Tristán was defeated at the Battle of Tucumán. A few months Tristán defeated again at the Battle of Salta, falling prisoner along with his whole army.
Goyeneche's armies were left unprotected in their southern flank, which forced him to retreat towards Oruro. Goyeneche resigned as commander in chief and was substituted by Joaquín de la Pezuela, returning to Spain shortly afterwards. Upon returning to Spain, he was named Lieutenant General of the Royal Armies, member of the Junta for the Wars in the Indies, member of the War Council and president of the Junta for Overseas Commerce, he was elected as deputy to the Cortes for Arequipa and senator of the realm for the Province of Canarias. King Ferdinand made him a peer, Knight of the Military Order of Santiago, he died in Madrid in 1846. His remains are interred in the family crypt at the San Isidro cemetery in the Spanish capital. Viceroyalty of Peru
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Battle of Ayohuma
The Battle of Ayohuma was an action fought on 14 November 1813, during the second Upper Peru Campaign of the Argentine War of Independence. The republican forces of the Army of the North, led by General Manuel Belgrano were defeated by the royalists, commanded by Joaquín de la Pezuela. After the rout of Vilcapugio, Belgrano established his headquarters at Macha. There he reorganized his army, obtaining help from Francisco Ocampo, from the provinces of Upper Peru. At the end of October 1813, the republican army included around 3,400 men, of which 1,000 were veterans. An important fraction of the republican army, under the command of General Díaz Vélez had remained isolated at Potosí after Vilcapugio, but was able to reunite with Belgrano after a small action at Tambo Nuevo relieved them from the pressure of the royalist army. Despite their recent victory, Pezuela's troops were short of supplies, they had sought refuge on the Condo-Condo heights, being surrounded by hostile populations and still recovering from the casualties suffered at Vilcapugio, they could not take the offensive against the Army of the North.
However, on 29 October, they left their camp in Condo-Condo in order to attack the republicans before they could obtain further reinforcements. On 12 November, they arrived at Toquirí, a hill dominating the small plain of Ayohuma, half a league from the village of the same name. In the meantime, just two leagues away from Toquirí, on 8 November, Belgrano had discussed his plans with his officials; the majority of them wanted to withdraw to Potosí. That same night the army left Macha; the armies that were about to face each other exhibited a significant disproportion. While the republican cavalry outnumbered the royalists' two-to-one, Pezuela had twice as much infantry and 18 pieces of artillery, against only eight carried by Belgrano's troops. At dawn of 14 November the royalists began their descent from their high position and by mid-morning they had deployed the bulk of their forces on the plain. Belgrano's troops were meanwhile attending Mass if aware of the enemy movements. An hour Pezuela had completed their maneuver, outflanking the republicans on their right.
In the opinion of Lieutenant Gregorio Aráoz de Lamadrid, one of Belgrano's best officers, this move proved decisive for the outcome of the battle. Pezuela's artillery opened fire, blasting holes in the republicans ranks. In a hail of enemy fire, Belgrano ordered the advance of his infantry and cavalry toward the enemy right flank, but they could not overcame Pezuela's entrenchments. To make matters worse, the republicans' lighter guns were no match for the royalist ones. Belgrano was forced to retreat. By a trumpet call and waving the United Provinces flag on the top of a hill, he managed to gather some 500 men, leaving around 200 dead, 200 injured, 500 prisoners and all his artillery on the battlefield. Among the dead was the commander of the Batallón de Castas, Colonel José Superí, killed by the royalist artillery, his battalion was made of soldiers of mulatto descent. José María Paz, an officer who would play a key role in the Argentine Civil Wars, had to rescue his brother, Captain Julián Paz, when the latter's horse was killed by gunfire while crossing a stream.
Three mulatto auxiliary women, María Remedios del Valle and her two daughters, became famous for their efforts to provide water to the troops and assist wounded soldiers on the battlefield in spite of the heavy royalist bombardment, they are since remembered as the Niñas de Ayohuma in Argentina. Belgrano's 500 survivors retreated to Potosí, but the city had to be evacuated on 18 November due to the approaching royalists. Belgrano moved back to Tucumán, where on 30 January 1814, he resigned the command of the Northern Army to General San Martín, he would write about the tactical superiority of the Spaniard officers as compared to his limited knowledge of warfare. Battle of Pequereque Battle of Vilcapugio Action of Tambo Nuevo Flag of Macha García Camba, Andrés. Memorias para la Historia de las armas españolas en el Perú. Sociedad tipográfica de Hortelano y compañia, V. I. Goman, Adolfo Mario. Enigmas sobre las primeras banderas argentinas. Cuatro Vientos. ISBN 987-564-702-0
Antonio González de Balcarce
Antonio González de Balcarce was an Argentine military commander in the early 19th century. González de Balcarce was born in Buenos Aires, he joined the armed forces as a cadet in 1788. In the battle for Montevideo in 1807, he was taken to England. After his release, he fought in the service of Spain during the Peninsular War against the Emperor Napoleon. Returning to Buenos Aires, he participated in the May Revolution in 1810. Subsequently, he was named second commander for the military campaign of the independentist forces in the Viceroyalty of Perú, where he won the Battle of Suipacha on November 7, 1810, the first victory over the Spanish royal forces, he was called back and became the Governor of Buenos Aires Province in 1813. In 1816, he served as the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata ad interim, became the Major General of the armed forces the following year under the government of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. According to historian William Denslow, Antonio Balcarce was a member of the well-known masonic lodge Lautaro.
He took part of the crossing of the Andes to Chile and was San Martin's second-in-command during the battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipu. He fell ill in Chile and had to return to Buenos Aires, where he died in 1819