Battle of Beroe
The Battle of Beroe was a conflict near Stara Zagora, ancient Ulpia Augusta Traiana, between the Romans and Goths in 250 which resulted in a Gothic Victory. After the Battle of Nicopolis ad Istrum where the Goths were defeated, emperor Decius reached Beroe but his army was exhausted and he had to rest his men and horses but Cniva and his Goths attacked him and the Roman army was defeated
Hostilian was Roman emperor from July to November 251. Hostilian was born to Decius and Herennia Etruscilla at an unknown date and elevated to Caesar in May 251 by Decius, the same month as his older brother, Herennius Etruscus, was raised to co-emperor. After Decius and Herennius Etruscus were killed at the Battle of Abritus, an ambush by the Goths, Trebonianus Gallus was proclaimed emperor by the legions, he elevated Hostilian to co-emperor and his son, Volusianus, to Caesar. Hostilian died in November 251, either due to being murdered by Trebonianus Gallus. Hostilian was born at an unknown date, to Decius, a Roman general who became Emperor, his wife Herennia Etruscilla. Decius became emperor after being sent to lead troops in the provinces of Pannonia and Moesia, where he was declared emperor by his troops in September 249, in opposition to Philip the Arab, he led his troops against their forces meeting in September 249, near Verona, Italy. Philip was killed in battle, after which the Roman Senate declared Decius emperor and honored him with the name Traianus, a reference to Emperor Trajan.
Hostilian was elevated to caesar by his father Decius. The elevation came after the promotion of his older brother, Herennius Etruscus, to augustus in the same month, making Herennius Etruscus co-emperor, with Hostilian as the heir of either or both of them. After Decius and Herennius Etruscus were killed by the Goths at the Battle of Abritus, an ambush in July 251, Trebonianus Gallus was declared emperor. To placate the public, Trebonianus Gallus elevated Hostilian to augustus immediately, making him co-emperor. Hostilian was co-emperor until his death in November 251. Aurelius Victor and the author of the Epitome de Caesaribus say. Zosimus claims. After his death, Trebonianus Gallus made his son, co-emperor; the aurei of Hostilian fall into four types bearing the bust of Hostilian on the obverse, with the reverse showing: Mars walking to the right. Adkins, Lesley. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195123326. Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Facts On File.
ISBN 9781438110271. Chrystal, Paul. Roman Women: The Women who influenced the History of Rome. Fonthill Media. ISBN 978-1781552872. Friedberg, Arthur L.. Gold Coins of the World - 9th edition: From Ancient Times to the Present. An Illustrated Standard Catlaog with Valuations. Coin & Currency Institute. ISBN 9780871840097. Haas, Christopher J.. "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church, A. D. 257-260". Church History. 52. JSTOR 3166947. Manders, Erika. Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A. D. 193 - 284. Brill. ISBN 9789004189706. Salisbury, F. S.. "The Reign of Trajan Decius". The Journal of Roman Studies. 14. Doi:10.2307/296323. JSTOR 296323. Varner, Eric R.. Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture. Brill. ISBN 978-9004135772
Septimia Zenobia was a third century queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Syria. Many legends surround her ancestry, her husband became king in 260, elevating Palmyra to supreme power in the Near East by defeating the Sassanians and stabilizing the Roman East. After Odaenathus' assassination, Zenobia became the regent of her son Vaballathus and held de facto power throughout his reign. In 270, Zenobia launched an invasion which brought most of the Roman East under her sway and culminated with the annexation of Egypt. By mid-271 her realm extended from Ancyra, central Anatolia, to southern Egypt, although she remained nominally subordinate to Rome. However, in reaction to Roman emperor Aurelian's campaign in 272, Zenobia declared her son emperor and assumed the title of empress; the Romans were victorious after heavy fighting. Zenobia was a cultured monarch and fostered an intellectual environment in her court, open to scholars and philosophers, she was protected religious minorities. The queen maintained a stable administration.
Zenobia died after 274, many tales have been recorded about her fate. Her rise and fall have inspired historians and novelists, she is a patriotic symbol in Syria, her face was dark and of a swarthy hue, her eyes were black and powerful beyond the usual wont, her spirit divinely great, her beauty incredible. So white were her teeth. Zenobia was born c. 240–241. She bore the gentilicium Septimia, her native Palmyrene name was Bat-Zabbai. In Greek—Palmyra's diplomatic and second language, used in many Palmyrene inscriptions—she used the name Zenobia; the philologist Wilhelm Dittenberger believed that the name Bat Zabbai underwent a detortum, resulting in the name Zenobia. In Palmyra, names such as Zabeida, Zabbai or Zabda were transformed into "Zenobios" and "Zenobia" when written in Greek; the historian Victor Duruy believed that the queen used the Greek name as a translation of her native name in deference to her Greek subjects. The ninth-century historian al-Tabari, in his fictionalized account, wrote that the queen's name was Na'ila al-Zabba'.
Manichaean sources called her "Tadi". No contemporary statues of Zenobia have been found in Palmyra or elsewhere, only inscriptions on statues bases survive, indicating that a statue of the queen once stood in the place. Palmyrene sculptures were impersonal, unlike Greek and Roman ones: a statue of Zenobia would have given an idea of her general style in dress and jewelry but would not have revealed her true appearance. British scholar William Wright visited Palmyra toward the end of the nineteenth century in a vain search for a sculpture of the queen. In addition to archaeological evidence, Zenobia's life was recorded in different ancient sources but many are flawed or fabricated; the author of the Augustan History invented many events and letters attributed to Zenobia in the absence of contemporary sources. Some Augustan History accounts are corroborated from other sources, are more credible. Byzantine chronicler Joannes Zonaras is considered an important source for the life of Zenobia. Palmyrene society was an amalgam of Semitic tribes, Zenobia cannot be identified with any one group.
Information about Zenobia's ancestry and immediate family connections is contradictory. Nothing is known about her mother, her father's identity is debated. Manichaean sources mention a "Nafsha", sister of the "queen of Palmyra", but those sources are confused and "Nafsha" may refer to Zenobia herself: it is doubtful that Zenobia had a sister. Not a commoner, she would have received an education appropriate for a noble Palmyrene girl; the Augustan History contains details of Zenobia's early life, although their credibility is doubtful. According to the Augustan History, the queen's hobby as a child was hunting, and, in addition to her Palmyrene Aramaic mother tongue, Zenobia was fluent in Egyptian and Greek and spoke Latin. Around age 14, Zenobia became the second wife of the ras of Palmyra. Noble families in Palmyra intermarried, it is probable that Zenobia and Odaenathus shared some ancestors. Based on archaeological evidence, several men have been suggested by historians as Zenobia's father: Julius Aurelius Zenobius appears on a Palmyrene inscription as a strategos of Palmyra in 231–232.
The archaeologist William Waddington argued in favor of Zenobius' identification as the father, assuming that his statue stood opposite to where the statue of the queen stood in Great Colonnade. However, the linguist Jean-Baptiste Chabot pointed out that Zenobius' statue stood opposite to that of Odaenathus not Zenobia and rejected Waddington's hypothesis; the only gentilicium appearing on Zenobia's inscriptions was "Septimia" (not "Julia Aurelia", which she woul
Decius known as Trajan Decius, was Roman Emperor from 249 to 251. A distinguished politician during the reign of Philippus Arabus, Decius was proclaimed emperor by his troops after putting down a rebellion in Moesia. In 249, he defeated and killed Philip near Verona and was recognized as emperor by the Senate afterwards. During his reign, he attempted to strengthen the Roman state and its religion, leading to the Decian persecution, where a number of prominent Christians were put to death. In the last year of his reign, Decius co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus, until they were both killed by the Goths in the Battle of Abritus. Decius, born at Budalia, near Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior, was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the Danube provinces simply called Illyricum. Unlike some of his immediate imperial predecessors such as Philip the Arab or Maximinus who did not have extensive administrative experience before assuming the throne, Decius was a distinguished senator who had served as suffect consul in 232, had been governor of Moesia and Germania Inferior soon afterwards, served as governor of Hispania Tarraconensis between 235–238, was urban prefect of Rome during the early reign of Emperor Philip the Arab.
Around 245, Philip entrusted Decius with an important command on the Danube. By the end of 248 or 249, Decius was sent to quell the revolt of Pacatianus and his troops in Moesia and Pannonia. After the collapse of the revolt, Decius let. Philip advanced against him and was killed at Verona, Italy, in September 249; the Senate recognized Decius as Emperor, giving him the attribute Traianus in reference to the emperor Trajan. According to the Byzantine historian Zosimus, Decius was clothed in purple and forced to undertake the government, despite his reluctance and unwillingness. Decius' political program was focused on the restoration of the strength of the State, both militarily opposing the external threats, restoring the public piety with a program of renovation of the State religion. Either as a concession to the Senate, or with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor; the choice was left to the Senate. But Valerian, well aware of the dangers and difficulties attached to the office at such a time, declined the responsibility.
The invasion of the Goths and Decius' death put an end to the abortive attempt. During his reign, he proceeded with several building projects in Rome, "including the Thermae Decianae or Baths of Decius on the Aventine", completed in 252 and survived through to the 16th century. In January 250, Decius is said to have issued one of the most remarkable Roman imperial edicts. From the numerous surviving texts from Egypt, recording the act of sacrifice, it appears that the edict itself was clear: All the inhabitants of the empire were required to sacrifice before the magistrates of their community'for the safety of the empire' by a certain day; when they sacrificed they would obtain a certificate recording the fact that they had complied with the order. That is, the certificate would testify the sacrificant's loyalty to the ancestral gods and to the consumption of sacrificial food and drink as well as the names of the officials who were overseeing the sacrifice. According to D. S. Potter, Decius did not try to impose the superiority of the Roman pantheon over any other gods.
It is probable that the edict was an attempt to legitimize his position and to respond to a general unease provoked by the passing of the Roman millennium. While Decius himself may have intended the edict as a way to reaffirm his conservative vision of the Pax Romana and to reassure Rome's citizens that the empire was still secure, it sparked a "terrible crisis of authority as various Christian bishops and their flocks reacted to it in different ways." Measures were first taken demanding that the bishops and officers of the church make a sacrifice for the Emperor. The sacrifice was "on behalf of" the Emperor, not to the Emperor, since a living Emperor was not considered divine. Certificates were issued to those who satisfied the commissioners during the persecution of Christians under Decius. Forty-six such certificates have been published, all dating from four of them from Oxyrhynchus. Anyone, including Christian followers, who refused to offer a sacrifice for the Emperor and the Empire's well-being by a specified date risked torture and execution.
A number of prominent Christians did, in fact, refuse to make a sacrifice and were killed in the process, including Pope Fabian himself in 250, "anti-Christian feeling led to killings at Carthage and Alexandria." In reality, towards the end of the second year of Decius' reign, "the ferocity of the persecution had eased off, the earlier tradition of tolerance had begun to reassert itself." The Christian church, despite no indication in the surviving texts that the edict targeted any specific group, never forgot the reign of Decius whom they labelled as that "fierce tyrant". At this time, there was a second outbreak of the Antonine Plague, which at its h
Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greek city on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the modern city of Antakya and lends the modern city its name. Antioch was founded near the end of the fourth century BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals; the city's geographical and economic location benefited its occupants such features as the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Royal Road. It rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the Near East; the city was the capital of the Seleucid Empire until 63 B. C. when the Romans took control. From the early 4th century the city was the seat of the Count of the Orient, head of the regional administration of sixteen provinces, it was the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Antioch was one of the most important cities in the eastern Mediterranean of Rome's dominions, it covered 1,100 acres within the walls of which one quarter was mountain, leaving 750 acres about one-fifth the area of Rome within the Aurelian Walls.
Antioch was called "the cradle of Christianity" as a result of its longevity and the pivotal role that it played in the emergence of both Hellenistic Judaism and early Christianity. The Christian New Testament asserts, it was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, its residents were known as Antiochenes. The city was a metropolis of a quarter million people during Augustan times, but it declined to relative insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes, a change in trade routes, which no longer passed through Antioch from the far east following the Mongol invasions and conquests. Two routes from the Mediterranean, lying through the Orontes gorge and the Beilan Pass, converge in the plain of the Antioch Lake and are met there by the road from the Amanian Gate and western Commagene, which descends the valley of the Karasu River to the Afrin River, the roads from eastern Commagene and the Euphratean crossings at Samosata and Apamea Zeugma, which descend the valleys of the Afrin and the Quweiq rivers, the road from the Euphratean ford at Thapsacus, which skirts the fringe of the Syrian steppe.
A single route proceeds south in the Orontes valley. The settlement called Meroe pre-dated Antioch. A shrine of the Semitic goddess Anat, called by Herodotus the "Persian Artemis", was located here; this site was included in the eastern suburbs of Antioch. There was a village on the spur of Mount Silpius named Iopolis; this name was always adduced as evidence by Antiochenes anxious to affiliate themselves to the Attic Ionians—an eagerness, illustrated by the Athenian types used on the city's coins. Io may have been a small early colony of trading Greeks. John Malalas mentions an archaic village, Bottia, in the plain by the river. Alexander the Great is said to have camped on the site of Antioch, dedicated an altar to Zeus Bottiaeus; this account is found only in the writings of Libanius, a 4th-century orator from Antioch, may be legend intended to enhance Antioch's status. But the story is not unlikely in itself. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, his generals divided up the territory. After the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, Seleucus I Nicator won the territory of Syria, he proceeded to found four "sister cities" in northwestern Syria, one of, Antioch, a city named in honor of his father Antiochus.
He is reputed to have built sixteen Antiochs. Seleucus founded Antioch on a site chosen through ritual means. An eagle, the bird of Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the site to which the eagle carried the offering. Seleucus did this on the 22nd day of the month of Artemisios in the twelfth year of his reign. Antioch soon rose above Seleucia Pieria to become the Syrian capital; the original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the grid plan of Alexandria by the architect Xenarius. Libanius describes the first arrangement of this city; the citadel was on Mt. Silpius and the city lay on the low ground to the north, fringing the river. Two great colonnaded streets intersected in the centre. Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out on the east and by Antiochus I, from an expression of Strabo, appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the Greek, town, it was enclosed by a wall of its own. In the Orontes, north of the city, lay a large island, on this Seleucus II Callinicus began a third walled "city", finished by Antiochus III.
A fourth and last quarter was added by Antiochus IV Epiphanes. From west to east the whole was about 6 kilometres in diameter and a little less from north to south; this area included many large gardens. The new city was populated by a mix of local settlers that Athenians brought from the nearby city of Antigonia and Jews; the total free population of Antioch at its foundation has been estimated at between 17,000 and 25,000, not including slaves and native settlers. During the late Hellenistic period and Early Roman period, Antioch's population reached its peak of over 500,000 inhabitants and was the third largest city in the Empire after Rome and Alexandria. In the second half o
Aurelian was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war, he defeated the Goths, Juthungi and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273; the following year he conquered the Gallic Empire in the west. He was responsible for the construction of the Aurelian Walls in Rome, the abandonment of the province of Dacia, his successes were instrumental in ending the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century, earning him the title Restitutor Orbis or "Restorer of the World". Although Domitian was the first emperor who had demanded to be hailed as dominus et deus, these titles never occurred in written form on official documents until the reign of Aurelian. Aurelian was born on 9 September, most in 214 AD, although 215 AD is possible; the ancient sources do not agree on his place of birth, although he was accepted as being a native of Illyricum but, another common belief was that he was born in Greece.
Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior is the preferred location, created by Aurelian as Emperor when he abandoned the old trans-Danubian territory of Dacia. The academic consensus is that he was of humble birth and that his father was a peasant-farmer who took his Roman nomen from his landlord, a senator of the clan Aurelius. Saunders suggests that his family might in fact have been of Roman settler origin and of much higher social status. Using the evidence of the ancient sources, it was at one time suggested that Aurelian's mother was a freedwoman of a member of the clan Aurelius and that she herself was a priestess of the Sun-God in her native village; these two propositions, together with the tradition that the clan Aurelius had been entrusted with the maintenance of that deity's cult in Rome, inspired the notion that this could explain the devotion to the sun-god that Aurelian was to manifest as Emperor - see below. However, it seems that this pleasant extrapolation of dubious facts is now accepted as being no more than just that.
It is accepted that Aurelian joined the army in 235 AD at around age twenty. It is generally assumed that, as a member of the lowest rank of society—albeit a citizen—he would have enlisted in the ranks of the legions. Saunders suggests that his career is more understood if it is assumed that his family was of Roman settler origins with a tradition of military service and that he enlisted as an equestrian; this would have opened up for him the tres militia—the three steps of the equestrian military career—one of the routes to higher equestrian office in the Imperial Service. This could be a more expeditious route to senior military and procuratorial offices than that pursued by ex-rankers, although not less laborious. However, Saunders's conjecture as to Aurelian's early career is not supported by any evidence other than his nomen which could indicate Italian settler ancestry—although this is contested—and his rise to the highest ranks, more understood if he did not have to start from the bottom.
His suggestion has not been taken up by other academic authorities. Whatever his origins, Aurelian must have built up a solid reputation for military competence during the tumultuous mid-decades of the century. To be sure, the exploits detailed in the Historia Augusta vita Divi Aureliani, while not always impossible, are not supported by any independent evidence and one at least is demonstrably an invention typical of that author. However, he was associated with Gallienus's cavalry army and shone as an officer of that corps d'élite because, when he emerged in a reliable context in the early part of the reign of Claudius II, he seems to have been its commander, his successes as a cavalry commander made him a member of emperor Gallienus' entourage. In 268, Aurelian and his cavalry participated in general Claudius' victory over the Goths at the Battle of Naissus; that year Gallienus traveled to Italy and fought Aureolus, his former general and now usurper for the throne. Driving Aureolus back into Mediolanum, Gallienus promptly besieged his adversary in the city.
However, while the siege was ongoing the Emperor was assassinated. One source says Aurelian, present at the siege and supported general Claudius for the purple—which is plausible. Aurelian was married to Ulpia Severina. Like Aurelian she was from Dacia, they are known to have had a daughter together. Claudius was acclaimed Emperor by the soldiers outside Mediolanum; the new Emperor ordered the senate to deify Gallienus. Next, he began to distance himself from those responsible for his predecessor's assassination, ordering the execution of those directly involved. Aureolus was still besieged in Mediolanum and sought reconciliation with the new emperor, but Claudius had no sympathy for a potential rival; the emperor had Aureolus killed and one source implicates Aurelian in the deed even signing the warrant for his death himself. During the reign of Claudius, Aurelian was promoted rapidly: he was given command of the elite Dalmatian cavalry, was soon promoted to overall Magister equitum the head of the army after the Emperor – and the Emperor Claudius' own position before his acclamation.
The war against Aureolus and the concentration of forces in It
Marcus F. Ru. Jotapianus or Jotapian, he was known as Iotapianus or Iotapian. Jotapianus was a usurper in the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire during the reign of Emperor Philip the Arab, around 249. Jotapianus is known from his rare coins and from accounts in Aurelius Victor and Polemius Silvius. Jotapianus was a member of the Near East indigenous aristocracy, his name is similar to those of Queen Julia Iotapa and her daughter, princess Julia Jotapa of the Kingdom of Commagene, so he could have been a member of the Royal Family of Commagene, which had lost its power in favour of the Romans under Emperor Vespasian in 72. Aurelius Victor reports. According to some scholars, he referred to Alexander Severus, while other scholars note that King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene claimed descendance from Greek King Alexander the Great, he could be a possible descendant of Gaius Julius Agrippa or his brother Gaius Julius Alexander Berenicianus or his sister Julia Iotapa. Jotapianus led a rebellion started in Syria, towards the end of Philip's rule, against the increase in taxation ordered by the rector Orientis Priscus, Philip's brother.
It is possible that Philip somehow favoured his Arabia over the other Eastern provinces, since his rule was not accepted by the local population. Jotapianus made Antioch his capital, but the rebellion came to an end and Jotapianus was killed by his own soldiers during Emperor Decius' rule. Coins issued by Jotapianus had been found. All of them are antoniniani, all of them show a crude design, all of them have a VICTORIA AVG reverse, celebrating a victory of the rebels over Philip troops or rather "the power of the Emperor to conquer", it has been suggested that Jotapianus issued Aureus, none of which are known to have survived. The coins are the only source for his names, M. F. RV. which could be expanded as Marcus Fulvius Rufus. Furthermore, their style suggest that the revolt was short and spread over a small territory, since Jotapianus controlled no major mint