Battle of Jodoigne

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Battle of Jodoigne
Bor-Nederlantsche-oorloghen MGG 1260.tif
Battle of Jodoigne/Battle of Geldenaken. Bor Nederlantsche oorloghen
DateOctober 20, 1568 [1]
LocationJodoigne, Spanish Netherlands
(present-day Belgium)
Result Spanish victory
Belligerents
Spain Spain Dutch Republic Dutch Rebels
Commanders and leaders
Duke of Alba William of Orange
Strength
16,000 infantry
5,500 cavalry
Engaged
2,000 infantry
1,000 cavalry
6 pieces artillery
21,000 infantry
9,000 cavalry
Engaged
2,000 infantry
500 cavalry
Casualties and losses
80 dead More than 2,000 dead.

The Battle of Jodoigne was fought on October 20th, 1568, between Spanish and Dutch Rebel forces.

Background[edit]

In 1568, the Dutch Revolt had developed into war, during the summer, Louis and Adolf of the House of Orange had fought the Spanish, won the Battle of Heiligerlee, and then lost the Battle of Jemmingen.
Prince William of Orange set out to do better in the autumn, by raising a substantial army and invading the Spanish Netherlands.
Since his victory in July at Jemmingen, the Spanish commander Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba (or Alva) had enforced military discipline on the cities of the Netherlands, so even with protestant leanings there would be little welcome for Orange's army.[2]

The Campaign[edit]

Campaign Map of Prince of Orange vs Duke of Alva October 1568

Prince William of Orange assembled his army at Aix (now Vaalserberg, French mont de Vaals) while the prince and his dignitaries met in Chateau Withem (Now Wittem, Dutch: Kasteel van Wittem). Setting off on October 5th, the army crosses the river Meuse during the night and on October 6th they occupy the fortified town of Stockem (or Stockheim, now part of Dilsen-Stokkem). The next day, the fortified town of Tongres (Now Tongeren, Walloon: Tongue, Dutch: Tongeren, German: Tongern) also opens the gates to Orange.[3]
Orange's army included German 16,000 foot, 8,000 horse, and French and Low Dutch 2,000 foot and 2,000 horse. The commanders included Orange and his brother Louis, Casimire son of Palsgrame, Count Suarzemburg, two dukes of Saxony: Count Hochstrat and William Lume, and one of the Counts de Marca.[4] Troops in his force include those of Canon Philippe de la Marek, brother of William II de la Marck, Baron of Lummen, Jean d'Haultepenne, Lord Barvéa, Baron of Brandenburg, the young Lord of Haneiïe, Seigneur de Lavaux-Sainte-Anne Everard de Merode, Seigneur du Val, the Lord of Bétho, master of his artillery Guillaume de Prez (also known as de Barchon), quarter-master André Bourlette, Philippe de Neuliorge, Érard Spirinck, Edmond de Marne, his brother Hubert, Bernard de Haccourt, and Guillaume de Crahain.[5]
The problem for Orange is supplies. The small cities that do yield are insufficient to sustain the large army, he had hoped to support his army with supplies from Protestant Germany, that would pass through Liège. However, the Prince-Bishop of Liège, Gerard van Groesbeeck, opposed any help to Orange, the burgomasters of Liège also declined to allow raising of pioneers in the area. Orange had the audacity to write to the Prince Bishop of Liège extorting 100,000 ecus, which was also declined.[6]
October 7th, Alva set out from Maastricht with his army. His commanders include: Don Fadrique de Toledo (Alva’s son), Don Fenand de Toledo (another son of Alva), Maitre de Camp Marquis de Cetenona Chiappin Vitelli, Berlaymont, Noircarmes, Conte de Meghem, Sre Francisco d’Yvarra (sent as an advisor by the Spanish King), and De La Cressionaire. Alva sends 10 enseigns ahead to reinforce Thilmont (Now Tienen, French: Tirlemont). His main army consists of one squadron infantry under Conte de Meghem, one under Berlaymont and one initially under Alva’s own command, later delegated to Conte de Lalaine, the cavalry units were under their own colonels.
October 9th, the two armies exchange fire near Tongres. [7]
October 10th, Orange moves onto the fortified town of Saint Tron (Now: Sint-Truiden, French: St Trond, Limburgs: Sintruin) which, despite the presence in the city of troops sent by Liege, opens its doors.[8] Orange pillaged the abbey of St Tron and compelled the abbot to pay twenty thousand crowns for his ransom.[9]
Alva had ordered nearby Leeuw (now Zoutleeuw or French Léau) to send its garrison to reinforce Thilmont. That left the Leeuw fortifications defenseless, so when a foraging party led by Orange's brother Louis arrived, it had to yield. [10]
October 12th, in a minor skirmish, Alva attacks some stragglers of Orange's force, kills 600 of Orange’s army and captures about 100 wagons of baggage. October 14th, the small village of Konichsem (or Coninxheim, now Koninksem, part of Tongres) was plundered. Alva further reinforces Tirlemont with Sr de Beauvoir, 6 companies of experienced Walloons, with 700 harquebuses, plus captain Monteros with his company of Spanish mounted harquebuses, to block the road to Brussels where the Conseil d’etat was located. Duc d’Arschot commands the defense at Brussels. Alva also called up 10 companies of Walloons under Jean de Croy, le comte du Roeulx. October 15,16 and 17 see more skirmishing around Tongres. [11]
Orange was running short of funds to pay the soldiers. The result was a mutiny in which Captain Malburg was killed and Orange himself was lucky to survive as a pistol bullet lodged in the scabbard of this sword.[12]
Moving camp 29 times, Orange sought to confront Alva in a decisive battle, but neither side could maneuver the enemy into battle in a particularly unfavorable position.[13]
Meanwhile, an army of Huguenots, led by Francois de Hangest Sieur de Genlis & d'Abbecourt, had crossed the Meuse near the Fortress of Charlemont (French: Fort de Charlemont, near Givet). Orange and Genlis resolved to meet near Wavre.

The Battle[edit]

To get to Wavre, Orange had to move his army across the river Jaulche (Dutch: Grote Gete), which although only a small river has steep banks and is difficult to cross. To protect his crossing, Orange set a rear-guard, near Judoigne (Now French: Jodoigne, or Dutch: Geldenaken), under the command of Colonel Philip van Marbais Lord of Louverval, including 2,000 men with fire-lock weapons and 500 horse, most were Walloons or from Gascony, chosen to keep the Spanish occupied while the main army crossed the river.[14]
Alva caught that rear-guard decisively. Although Alva's forces numbered 16,000[15] only the van commanded by Vitelli would engage. That was the Mondragon regiment, the cavalry companies of counts Jean Batiste de Monte, de Sansecondo and de Nugorala, one company of cavalry of Geroge Machuca and the company of mounted musketeers of de Montero.[16]
Alva also sent his son, Fadrique, with six pieces of cannon to support the attack.[17]
Orange lost over 2,000 men and some key commanders: Count Hochstrate received a mortal wound, and died not long after,[18] and Colonel Philip van Marbais Lord of Louverval was captured, taken to Brussels, and beheaded.[19]
Although many of the Spanish were wounded, only 80 died.[20]

Aftermath[edit]

When Orange met Genlis, he found the Huguenot army was dissappointingly small, numbering about 2,000 infantry and 500 cavalry (estimates of the total vary between 2,000 and a probably exaggerated 5,800).[21] That was not even enough to provide a decisive advantage over Alva. Seeking a way back to Germany before the winter, Orange would be refused passage through the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. Orange and Alva would fight again at the Battle of Le Quesnoy. Orange's army would pass through France to Strasbourg, where Orange paid off most of his army.
Alva took revenge on the towns that supported Orange. For example, the burgemeisters of Leeuw were sentenced to death for yielding to Louis, even though they had sent their garrison as ordered to reinforce Thilmont, his generals managed to persuade Alva that was unjust, so he commuted the sentence to executing just one of them.[22] To the north of the campaign, the town of Diest, owned by William of Orange, had sent provisions to support Orange's army. As punishment, the town had to fund a tercio of the Army of Flanders and some years later, in 1572, the Spanish King Philip II confiscated Diest, destroying its fortifications.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Jodoigne Battle". Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  2. ^ History of the Low-Countrey Warres written in Latine by Famianus Strada Englished by Sr Rob Stapylton Londond 1667.
  3. ^ Relation de L'Expedition du Prince D'Orange dans les Pays-Bas, Secretaire d'Etat Courteville, 1568, Archives du Royaume
  4. ^ History of the Low-Countrey Warres written in Latine by Famianus Strada Englished by Sr Rob Stapylton Londond 1667.
  5. ^ Relation de L'Expedition du Prince D'Orange dans les Pays-Bas, Secretaire d'Etat Courteville, 1568, Archives du Royaume
  6. ^ Relation de L'Expedition du Prince D'Orange dans les Pays-Bas, Secretaire d'Etat Courteville, 1568, Archives du Royaume
  7. ^ Relation de L'Expedition du Prince D'Orange dans les Pays-Bas, Secretaire d'Etat Courteville, 1568, Archives du Royaume
  8. ^ Relation de L'Expedition du Prince D'Orange dans les Pays-Bas, Secretaire d'Etat Courteville, 1568, Archives du Royaume
  9. ^ A Gazetteer of the Netherlands: Containing a Full Account of All the Cities, Towns, and Villages, in the Seventeen Provinces, and the Bishoprick of Liege G.G. & J. Robinson, 1794 - Netherlands
  10. ^ Verborgen geschiedenis Van een opgehangen schepen en twee “heksen”, Gaston Pulinckx 2006 Zoutpot
  11. ^ Relation de L'Expedition du Prince D'Orange dans les Pays-Bas, Secretaire d'Etat Courteville, 1568, Archives du Royaume
  12. ^ History of the Low-Countrey Warres written in Latine by Famianus Strada Englished by Sr Rob Stapylton Londond 1667
  13. ^ History of the Low-Countrey Warres written in Latine by Famianus Strada Englished by Sr Rob Stapylton Londond 1667.
  14. ^ History of the Low-Countrey Warres written in Latine by Famianus Strada Englished by Sr Rob Stapylton Londond 1667.
  15. ^ History of the Low-Countrey Warres written in Latine by Famianus Strada Englished by Sr Rob Stapylton Londond 1667
  16. ^ Histoire universelle de Jacque-Auguste de Thou depuis 1543 jusqu'en 1607, traduite sur l'édition latine de Jacques-Auguste de Thou London 1734
  17. ^ History of the Low-Countrey Warres written in Latine by Famianus Strada Englished by Sr Rob Stapylton Londond 1667.
  18. ^ Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de Hollande et des autres Provinces-Unies. Author: Aubery du Maurier, Louis, 1609-1687
  19. ^ B. Onnekink: Lof- verkondigende verhandeling over de laatste bede van Willem den Eersten [...]. , 1779
  20. ^ History of the Low-Countrey Warres written in Latine by Famianus Strada Englished by Sr Rob Stapylton Londond 1667.
  21. ^ Michel de Castelnau Collection universelle des mémoires particuliers relatives a l’histoire de France Tome XLV Londres 1788
  22. ^ Verborgen geschiedenis Van een opgehangen schepen en twee “heksen”, Gaston Pulinckx 2006 Zoutpot
  23. ^ https://dutchrevolt.leiden.edu/dutch/geografie/D/Pages/diest.aspx retrieved June 24,2018

Coordinates: 50°43′N 4°52′E / 50.717°N 4.867°E / 50.717; 4.867