Mongol invasions of India
The Mongol Empire launched several invasions into the Indian subcontinent from 1221 to 1327, with many of the raids made by the unruly Qaraunas of Mongol origin. The Mongols occupied other parts of Punjab for decades; as the Mongols progressed into the Indian hinterland and reached the outskirts of Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate led a campaign against them in which the Mongol army suffered serious defeats. After pursuing Jalal ad-Din into India from Samarkand and defeating him at the battle of Indus in 1221, Genghis Khan sent two tumens under commanders Dorbei the Fierce and Bala to continue the chase; the Mongol commander Bala chased Jalal ad-Din throughout the Punjab region and attacked outlying towns like Bhera and Multan, sacked the outskirts of Lahore. Jalal ad-Din regrouped, forming a small army from survivors of the battle and sought an alliance, or an asylum, with the Turkic rulers of Delhi Sultanate, but was turned down. Jalal ad-Din fought against the local rulers in Punjab. After being defeated by many of them in the open, he retreated to the outskirts of Punjab seeking refuge in Multan.
While fighting against the local governor of Sindh, Jalal ad-Din heard of an uprising in the Kirman province of southern Iran and he set out for that place, passing through southern Baluchistan on the way. Jalal ad-Din was joined by forces from Ghor and Peshawar, including members of the Khalji and Ghori tribes. With his new allies he marched on Ghazni and defeated a Mongol division under Turtai, assigned the task of hunting him down; the victorious allies quarreled over the division of the captured booty. By this time Ögedei Khan, third son of Genghis Khan, had become Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. A Mongol general named Chormaqan sent by the Khan attacked and defeated Jalal ad-Din, thus ending the Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty; some time after 1235 another Mongol force invaded Kashmir, stationing a darughachi there for several years, Kashmir became a Mongolian dependency. Around the same time, a Kashmiri Buddhist master and his brother Namo arrived at the court of Ögedei. Another Mongol general named Pakchak attacked Peshawar and defeated the army of tribes who had deserted Jalal ad-Din but were still a threat to the Mongols.
These men Khaljis, escaped to Multan and were recruited into the army of the Delhi Sultanate. In winter 1241 the Mongol force invaded besieged Lahore. However, on December 30, 1241, the Mongols under Munggetu butchered the town before withdrawing from the Delhi Sultanate. At the same time the Great Khan Ögedei died; the Kashmiris revolted in 1254–1255, Möngke Khan, who became Great Khan in 1251, appointed his generals and Takudar, to replace the court and appointed the Buddhist master, Otochi, as darugachi of Kashmir. However, the Kashmiri king killed Otochi at Srinagar. Sali invaded Kashmir, killing the king, put down the rebellion, after which the country remained subject to the Mongol Empire for many years; the Delhi prince, Jalal al-Din Masud, traveled to the Mongol capital at Karakorum to seek the assistance of Möngke Khan in seizing the throne from his elder brother in 1248. When Möngke was crowned as Great Khan, Jalal al-Din Masud attended the ceremony and asked for help from Möngke. Möngke ordered Sali to assist him to recover his ancestral realm.
Sali made successive attacks on Lahore. Sham al-Din Muhammad Kart, the client malik of Herat, accompanied the Mongols. Jalal al-Din was installed as client ruler of Lahore and Sodra. In 1257 the governor of Sindh offered his entire province to Hulagu Khan, Mongke's brother, sought Mongol protection from his overlord in Delhi. Hulagu led a strong force under Sali Bahadur into Sindh. In the winter of 1257 - beginning of 1258, Sali Noyan entered Sind in strength and dismantled the fortifications of Multan, but Hulagu refused to sanction a grand invasion of the Delhi Sultanate and a few years diplomatic correspondence between the two rulers confirmed the growing desire for peace. Hulagu had many other areas of conquests to take care of in southwestern Asia. Large-scale Mongol invasions of India ceased and the Delhi Sultans used the respite to recover the frontier towns like Multan and Lahore, to punish the local Ranas and Rais who had joined hands with either the Khwarazim or the Mongol invaders. Large numbers of tribes that took shelter in the Delhi Sultanate as a result of the Mongol invasions changed the balance of power in North India.
The Khalji tribe usurped power from the older Delhi Sultans and began to project their power into other parts of India. At about this time the Mongol raids into India were renewed; the medieval sources claim invasions by hundreds of thousands of Mongols, numbers approximating the size of the entire cavalry armies of the Mongol realms of Central Asia or the Middle East: about 150,000 men. A count of the Mongol commanders named in the sources as participating in the various invasions might give a better indication of the numbers involved, as these commanders led tumens, units nominally of 10,000 men; these invasions were led by either various descendants of Genghis Khan or by Mongol divisional commanders. After civil war broke out in the Mongol Empire in the 1260s, the Chagatai Khanate controlled Central Asia and its leader since the 1280s was Duwa Khan, seco
Mongol invasion of the Latin Empire
In the summer of 1242, a Mongol army invaded the Latin Empire of Constantinople. The army, a detachment of the army under Qadan devastating Bulgaria, entered the empire from the north, it was met by the Emperor Baldwin II, victorious in a first encounter but was subsequently defeated. The encounters took place in Thrace, but little can be said about them owing to the paucity of sources. Subsequent relations between Baldwin and the Mongol khans have been taken as evidence by some that Baldwin was captured and forced to make submission to the Mongols and pay tribute. Together with the major Mongol invasion of Anatolia the following year, the Mongol defeat of Baldwin precipitated a power shift in the Aegean world. There is only one primary source that mentions a Mongol raid into the Latin Empire: the anonymous Austrian Chronicle completed about 1327, its account was copied into the Chronicle of Leoben and the Annals of Heiligenkreuz. The event is dated to 1243, an obvious error for 1242. According to the Austrian chronicles: Tatars and Cumans, meeting no resistance or opposition, withdrew from Hungary with an endless booty of gold and silver and animals, leading many captives of both sexes to the scandal of the Christians.
Entering Greece, they depopulated the entire land except for well-fortified cities. But the king of Constantinople, named Baldwin, went out in battle against them, at first he was victorious, but the second time he was defeated by them. A brief account in the Chronography of the Syriac prelate Bar Hebraeus must refer to the Mongol invasions of Bulgaria and Thrace in 1242, although it is mis-dated to 1232: And the Khan continued to wax strong, and he prepared to attack Constantinople from the quarter of the Bulgarians. And the kings of the Franks heard of this, they gathered together and they met Batu in battle, they broke him and made him flee; this passage seems to confirm that the Mongol armies in Bulgaria, which were under the overall command of Batu, attacked in the direction of Constantinople and were defeated at some point either by the Bulgars or the Latins. John of Garland in his epic poem On the Triumph of the Church, which he completed about 1252 while teaching at the University of Paris, lists the victims of the expansion of the Mongol empire: The avenger arriving from the East mows down everything he encounters And subdues the West with his sword.
The leaders of Armenia are dead, the lords of Syria surrender, The Black Sea groans at the yoke of subjection. The Caucasus bows, the Danube offers up its weapons in surrender, defeated, mourns its leader. Thrace was, at the time, a part of the Latin Empire. John seems to imply that Baldwin II, was killed defending Thrace against the Mongols. While this was not so, there is evidence that the rumour of Baldwin's death in 1242 was current in western Europe that year. Philippe Mouskes in his Rhymed Chronicle of French history, which goes up to 1242, reports that in that year news reached the French court "from Greece... that the emperor was dead." Prince Geoffrey II of Achaea, married to Baldwin's sister Agnes sailed with an army to Constantinople on the basis of this rumour hoping to seize the throne. The historian Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall in the nineteenth century was the first modern historian to notice the passage in the Chronicon Austriacum and attribute the attack to Qadan's army passing through Bulgaria.
Baldwin II had made an alliance with some Cumans under their leaders Saronius and Jonas by 1239. It seems that he was giving shelter to Cumans fleeing the Mongols; the same act of giving shelter to the Mongols' Cuman enemies was the pretext for the Mongol invasion of Hungary, also for the invasion of Bulgaria. It is that the attack the Latin Empire resulted from the same motive: to punish the protectors of the Cumans. Baldwin II was in Constantinople on 12 February 1242, when he addressed a letter to King Louis IX of France, he was again in Constantinople when he addressed a letter to Louis's influential mother, Blanche of Castile, on 5 August 1243. The Mongol invasion must have taken place between these dates, since it drew Baldwin away from the capital; the sources indicate only that the battles took place in Greece, a broad term in medieval sources, which could mean all the territory claimed by the Latin and Byzantine empires. It included Thrace, part of the Latin Empire and bordered Bulgaria, which makes it the location of the Mongol raids.
According to the Chronicon Austriacum, Baldwin fought two battles with the invading force, which included some Cuman allies of the Mongols. Historians have offered several explanations of the Austrian chronicle's two battles and for Baldwin's motive in riding out to meet the invader. Peter Jackson suggests that Baldwin's initial victory may have come at the expense of these Cumans before the Mongol force arrived to defeat him. John Giebfried, on the other hand, suggests that the two battles may in fact be two phases of a single battle, making Baldwin II the victim of a feigned retreat, he argues, that Baldwin possessed sufficiently strong forces to have defeated a Mongol army. He had an alliance of his own with a group of Cumans and had recruited a large army in western Europe for his crusade against Tzurulon in 1239. Jean Richard suggests that in 1242 Baldwin may have been defending his Cuman allies when they came under Mongol attack. Henry Howorth suggests that he had been called to the defence of the young ruler of Bulgaria, Kaliman I, his vassal.
Baldwin may have been captured after his defeat, which would explain how rumours of his death originated. In that event, he was forced to accept Mongol overlordship and to make annual tribute payments in return for release. By 12
Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty
The Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty known as the Mongol–Jin War, was fought between the Mongol Empire and the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in Manchuria and north China. The war, which started in 1211, lasted over 23 years and ended with the complete conquest of the Jin dynasty by the Mongols in 1234; the Jurchen rulers of the Jin dynasty collected tribute from some of the nomadic tribes living on the Mongol steppes and encouraged rivalries among them. When the Mongols were unified under Khabul in the 12th century, the Jurchens encouraged the Tatars to destroy them, but the Mongols were able to drive Jin forces out of their territory; the Tatars captured Khabul's successor and handed him over to the Jin imperial court. Emperor Xizong of the Jin dynasty had ordered Ambaghai executed by crucifixion; the Jin dynasty conducted regular punitive expeditions against the Mongol nomads, either enslaving or killing them. In 1210, a delegation arrived at the court of Genghis Khan to proclaim the ascension of Wanyan Yongji to the Jin throne and demanded the submission of the Mongols as a vassal state.
Because the Jurchens defeated the powerful steppe nomads and allied with the Keraites and the Tatars, they claimed sovereignty over all the tribes of the steppe. High court officials in the Jin government defected to the Mongols and urged Genghis Khan to attack the Jin dynasty, but fearful of a trap or some other nefarious scheme, Genghis Khan refused. Upon receiving the order to demonstrate submission, Genghis Khan turned to the south and spat on the ground, his defiance of the Jin envoys was tantamount to a declaration of war between the Mongols and Jurchens. After Genghis Khan returned to the Kherlen River, in early 1211, he summoned a kurultai. By organising a long discussion, everyone in the community was included in the process; the Khan prayed on a nearby mountain. He removed his hat and belt, bowed down before the Eternal Sky, recounted the generations of grievances his people held against the Jurchens and detailed the torture and murder of his ancestors, he explained. At the dawn on the fourth day, Genghis Khan emerged with the verdict: "The Eternal Blue Sky has promised us victory and vengeance".
Wanyan Yongji, angry on hearing how Genghis Khan behaved, sent the message to the Khan that "Our Empire is like the sea. How can we fear you?" When the conquest of the Tangut-led Western Xia empire started, there were multiple raids between 1207–1209. When the Mongols invaded Jin territory in 1211, Ala'Qush, the chief of the Ongut, supported Genghis Khan and showed him a safe road to the Jin dynasty's heartland; the first important battle between the Mongol Empire and the Jin dynasty was the Battle of Yehuling at a mountain pass in Zhangjiakou which took place in 1211. There, Wanyan Jiujin, the Jin field commander, made a tactical mistake in not attacking the Mongols at the first opportunity. Instead, he sent a messenger to the Mongol side, Shimo Ming'an, who promptly defected and told the Mongols that the Jin army was waiting on the other side of the pass. At this engagement, fought at Yehuling, the Mongols massacred thousands of Jin troops; the Mongols learnt at an early age to always fight on the move.
They would pass through towns to draw their opponent away from their animals. When they fell for the Mongol army's trap, the Mongols would take their animals. While Genghis Khan headed southward, his general Jebe travelled further east into Manchuria and captured Mukden. However, Genghis Khan was wounded by an arrow in his knee in 1212 after the Mongols returned from their relaxation in the borderlands between grass and the Gobi Desert; the Khitan leader Liu-ke had declared his allegiance to Genghis in 1212 and freed Manchuria from the Jin. When the Mongol army besieged the Jin central capital, Zhongdu, in 1213, Li Ying, Li Xiong and a few other Jin generals assembled a militia of more than 10,000 men who inflicted several defeats on the Mongols; the Mongols smashed the Jin armies, each numbering in the hundreds of thousands, broke through Juyong Pass and Zijing Gap by November 1213. From 1213 until early 1214, the Mongols pillaged the entire North China plain. In 1214, Genghis Khan surrounded the court of the Golden Khan in Zhongdu.
The Jin general Hushahu had murdered the emperor Wanyan Yongji and enthroned Wanyan Yongji's nephew, Emperor Xuanzong. When the Mongols besieged Zhongdu, the Jin government temporarily agreed to become a tributary state of the Mongol Empire, presenting a Jurchen princess to Genghis Khan, but when the Mongols withdrew in 1214, believing the war was over after being given a large tribute by the Jurchens, Li Ying wanted to ambush them on the way with his forces. However, the Jin ruler, Emperor Aizong, was afraid of offending the Mongols again so he stopped Li Ying. Emperor Aizong and the general Zhuhu Gaoqi decided to shift the capital south to Kaifeng, above the objections of many courtiers including Li Ying. From on, the Jin were on the defensive and Zhongdu fell to the Mongols in 1215. After the shift of the Jin capital to Kaifeng, the Jin chancellor Wanyan Chenghui and general Moran Jinzhong were left to guard Zhongdu. At this point, one of the Jin armies defected to the Mongols and launched an attack on Zhongdu from the south, taking Lugou Bridge.
Genghis Khan dispatched his troops to attack Zhongdu again, led by the surrendered Khitan generals Shimo Ming'an, Yelü Ahai and Yelü Tuhua. Moran Jinzhong's second-in-command, Pucha Qijin, surrendered to the Mo
Sultanate of Rum
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate, Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State or Turkey Seljuk State was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia, conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, established by the Seljuk Turks. The name Rûm was a synonym for Greek, as it remains in modern Turkish, although it derives from the Arabic name for Romans, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, itself a loan from Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, "Romans"; the Sultanate of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1077, following the Battle of Manzikert, with capitals first at İznik and at Konya. It reached the height of its power during the late 12th and early 13th century, when it succeeded in taking Byzantine key ports on the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. In the east, the sultanate reached Lake Van. Trade from Iran and Central Asia across Anatolia was developed by a system of caravanserai. Strong trade ties with the Genoese formed during this period.
The increased wealth allowed the sultanate to absorb other Turkish states, established in eastern Anatolia. The Seljuq sultans bore the brunt of the Crusades and succumbed to the Mongol invasion in 1243. For the remainder of the 13th century, the Seljuqs acted as vassals of the Ilkhanate, their power disintegrated during the second half of the 13th century. The last of the Seljuq vassal sultans of the Ilkhanate, Mesud II, was murdered in 1308; the dissolution of the Seljuq state left behind many small Anatolian beyliks, among them that of the Ottoman dynasty, which conquered the rest and reunited Anatolia to become the Ottoman Empire. In the 1070s, after the battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk commander Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, a distant cousin of Malik-Shah I and a former contender for the throne of the Seljuk Empire, came to power in western Anatolia. In 1075, he captured the Byzantine cities of Nicomedia. Two years he declared himself sultan of an independent Seljuq state and established his capital at İznik.
Suleiman was killed in Antioch in 1086 by Tutush I, the Seljuk ruler of Syria, Suleiman's son Kilij Arslan I was imprisoned. When Malik Shah died in 1092, Kilij Arslan was released and established himself in his father's territories. Kilij Arslan was defeated by soldiers of the First Crusade and driven back into south-central Anatolia, where he set up his state with capital in Konya. In 1107, he ventured east and captured Mosul but died the same year fighting Malik Shah's son, Mehmed Tapar. Meanwhile, another Rum Seljuq, Malik Shah, captured Konya. In 1116 Kilij Arslan's son, Mesud I, took the city with the help of the Danishmends. Upon Mesud's death in 1156, the sultanate controlled nearly all of central Anatolia. Mesud's son, Kilij Arslan II, captured the remaining territories around Sivas and Malatya from the last of the Danishmends. At the Battle of Myriokephalon in 1176, Kilij Arslan II defeated a Byzantine army led by Manuel I Komnenos, dealing a major blow to Byzantine power in the region.
Despite a temporary occupation of Konya in 1190 by the Holy Roman Empire's forces of the Third Crusade, the sultanate was quick to recover and consolidate its power. During the last years of Kilij Arslan II's reign, the sultanate experienced a civil war with Kaykhusraw I fighting to retain control and losing to his brother Suleiman II in 1196. Süleymanshah II rallied his vassal emirs and marched against Georgia, with an army of 150,000-400,000 and encamped in the Basiani valley. Tamar of Georgia marshaled an army throughout her possessions and put it under command of her consort, David Soslan. Georgian troops under David Soslan made a sudden advance into Basiani and assailed the enemy’s camp in 1203 or 1204. In a pitched battle, the Seljuqid forces managed to roll back several attacks of the Georgians but were overwhelmed and defeated. Loss of the sultan's banner to the Georgians resulted in a panic within the Seljuq ranks. Süleymanshah himself was wounded and withdrew to Erzurum. Both the Rum Seljuk and Georgian armies suffered heavy casualties, but coordinated flanking attacks won the battle for the Georgians.
Suleiman II was routed by the Kingdom of Georgia in the Battle of Basian and died in 1204. He was succeeded by his son Kilij Arslan III. Kaykhusraw I seized Konya in 1205 reestablishing his reign. Under his rule and those of his two successors, Kaykaus I and Kayqubad I, Seljuq power in Anatolia reached its apogee. Kaykhusraw's most important achievement was the capture of the harbour of Attalia on the Mediterranean coast in 1207, his son Kaykaus captured Sinop and made the Empire of Trebizond his vassal in 1214. He subjugated Cilician Armenia but in 1218 was forced to surrender the city of Aleppo, acquired from al-Kamil. Kayqubad continued to acquire lands along the Mediterranean coast from 1221 to 1225. In the 1220s, he sent an expeditionary force across the Black Sea to Crimea. In the east he began to put pressure on the Artuqids. Kaykhusraw II began his reign by capturing the region around Diyarbakır, but in 1239 he had to face an uprising led by a popular preacher named Baba Ishak. After three years, when he had quelled the revolt, the Crimean foothold was lost and the state and the sultanate's army had weakened.
It is in these conditions that he had to fac
Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288)
The Battle of Bạch Đằng was one of the greatest victories in Vietnamese military history. It was a battle between Đại Việt, commanded by Supreme Commander Trần Hưng Đạo, the invading army of the Yuan dynasty, commanded by general Omar Khan; the Battle of Bạch Đằng was the last confrontation between the Yuan dynasty. The battle took place near Ha Long Bay in present-day northern Vietnam; the battle was a tactical masterpiece of the same stature as the other battle at Bach Dang River. In 1287 the Yuan commander Toghan, a son of Kublai Khan, invaded Vietnam for the third time. Under his command were 80,000 regular troops, 21,000 tribal auxiliaries from Yunnan and Hainan, a 1,000-man vanguard under the general Abachi, 500 ships under the Muslim Omar and Chinese Fanji. After the defeat of the first two invasions, Kublai sent veterans such as Arigh Khaiya, Nasir al-Din and his grandson Esen-Temür; the invading force employed a different strategy as well. The Vietnamese forces, led by Trần Hưng Đạo, employed a Fabian strategy.
They withdrew from inhabited areas, leaving the Mongols with nothing to conquer, focused on harassing the invading army. A fleet prepared to bring provisions to Toghan's army by maritime route was ambushed and burned by the admiral Trần Khánh Dư. Lacking supplies, Toghan retreated through the Bạch Đằng River. Trần Hưng Đạo, aware of the Yuan retreat, prepared an attack; the Bạch Đằng River ran through Thuy Nguyen before reaching the sea. This was where the earlier well-known battle of Ngô Quyền against the Southern Han had taken place in 938. Beginning from March, Trần Hưng Đạo began preparing the battlefield, he used the same tactic that Ngô Quyền had against the Chinese in 938. He studied the tidal lore, ordered beds of stakes to be planted under the water and arranged ambushes in a unified plan of campaign. Trần Hưng Đạo ordered his soldiers to nail the iron-headed poles under the waters of the Chanh, Kênh and Rút rivers. All three rivers are the northern distributaries of the Bach Dang River.
Ghềnh Cốc is a reef located across the Bach Dang to the bottom of Chanh river and to the top of Kênh river. Ghềnh Cốc was used as a place for the ambush, in collaboration with the underwater iron-headed poles, they were to block the enemy ships. Đại Việt's small flotilla secretly stationed themselves behind Ghềnh Cốc, Ðồng Cốc, Phong Cốc and on the Khoái, Thái, Gia Ðước, Ðiền Công rivers. The army deployed in Hung Yen, along the left bank of the river Bach Dang and Tràng Kênh, at the right bank of Bach Dang River and Mount Ðá Vôi; as was foreseen, the invading Yuan forces in Thăng Long suffered an acute shortage of food. Without any news about the supply fleet, Prince Toghan found himself surrounded and had to order his army to retreat to Vạn Kiếp; this was when Đại Việt's army began the general offensive by recapturing a number of locations occupied by the Mongol invaders. Groups of partisans were given orders to harass the enemy in Vạn Kiếp; the Mongol prince had to retreat. In early April the supply fleet led by Omar, escorted by infantry, fled home along the Bạch Đằng river.
As bridges and roads were destroyed and attacks were launched by Đại Việt's troops, the Mongols reached Bạch Đằng. Đại Việt's small flotilla harassed the Yuan formation to wait for the tide to recede. The Mongols cautiously engaged their opponent, fearing an ambush while missing their chance to escape the arranged trap. Soon they found their movement restricted by iron-tipped stakes protruding out of the low tide while the escape routes had been blocked by Đại Việt's large warships. Đại Việt's troops took to boarding and hand-to-hand actions with the aid of fast fire ships and missile weapons, fiercely launched the attack and broke the combat formation of the enemy. Inflicted with a sudden and strong attack, the Mongols tried to withdraw to the sea in panic. Frightened, the Mongolian troops jumped down to get to the banks where they were dealt a heavy blow by a large army led by the Trần king and Trần Hưng Đạo; the supply fleet of the Yuan dynasty was destroyed, Omar was captured and executed by the Vietnamese.
At the same time, Đại Việt's army made continuous attacks and destroyed Toghan's army on its route of withdrawal through Lạng Sơn. Toghan risked his life making a shortcut through forests to flee home. Upon receiving news of the Mongol defeat, Kublai angrily banished Toghan to Yangzhou for life; the Mongols and the Vietnamese agreed to exchange their war prisoners. While the emperor Nhân Tông was willing to pay tribute to the Yuan, relations again foundered on the question of attendance at the Yuan court and hostile relations continued; the Trần Dynasty decided to accept the supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in order to avoid further conflicts. Because he refused to come in person, Kublai detained his envoy, Dao-tu Ki, in 1293. Kublai's successor Temür Khan released all detained envoys, settling instead for a tributary relationship, which continued until the end of the Yuan dynasty. Upon the victory of Vietnamese, a series of celebrations broke out over the news; the serious defeat of the Mongolian Empire in its conquest of Vietnam left significant impacts as well.
The Mongols' failure brought surrounding minor Asian states more confidence about their own wars against the Mongols. The Mongols' defeat crushed the Mongols'
Mongol invasions of Durdzuketia
During the 13th and 14th centuries, the Mongols launched two long, massive invasions of the territory of modern Chechnya and Ingushetia, which included the lands of Alania in the West, Simsir in the Northeast, the Georgian-allied kingdom of Durdzuketia in the South. They caused massive destruction and human death for the Dzurdzuks, but greatly shaped the people they became afterward; the ancestors of the Chechens and Ingush fended off the Mongols which attacked in two separate waves, but this came at great cost to them, the states they had set up were utterly destroyed as was their previous organized culture. These invasions are among the most significant occurrences in Chechen and Ingush history, have had long-ranging effects on Chechnya and their peoples. During what was the late Middle Ages of Western Europe, the Caucasus was invaded by Mongols and their Turkic vassals; the first appearance of Mongol troops in the Caucasus was an arrival of scouts in 1220-1222. Kypchak Turkic peoples - some of which becoming future affiliates of Genghis Khan - had been invading and settling areas further and further South and West, including the fertile river valleys of the Terek and the Kuban.
In the 1230s, the Mongols gained rule over the Kypchaks, turned them into vassals. The Mongol invasion of Georgia had commenced a year earlier to the invasion of the Vainakh kingdom of Dzurdzuketia; the Kingdom of Georgia was traditionally strong ally of Dzurdzuketia, but it was unable to help the Durdzuks when it was under invasion itself. In 1237, the assault on the North Caucasus began. Mongols launched the first attacks: against the Circassians and the Alans. Alanian villages in what is now northern Ingushetia, a part of northwestern Chechnya and North Ossetia were destroyed. Having consolidated their rule over the western parts of the Terek, the Mongols moved East along the river to attack the Durdzuk states of Durdzuketia and Simsir. Durdzuketia and Simsir were attacked from the south and east, by the Mongol troops which had conquered Derbent, capital of the Lezghins, in modern Dagestan; the attack on Durdzuketia having been commenced and the Mongols went as far as the highlands in their attacks.
Here, the Dzurdzuk proved no match for the arrows and flames of the Mongols, their villages were destroyed. Jaimoukha states that a majority of the Dzurdzuk people were killed or enslaved by the Mongols. Within a few years of the invasion, Dzurdzuketia was history, but its resistant people survived up in the mountains. Adding to the misfortune of the Durdzuks, the Mongols established control over much of the Sunzha river, an existential threat to the Chechen people due to their need for the Sunzha's agriculture to support their population; those remaining joined their mountainous brethren in the highlands, fleeing out of lack of an alternative. They regrouped in the mountains and reorganized themselves, planning a counterattack on the Turkic and Mongol invaders, their goal was to survive both culturally. The Dzurdzuks had both the forests and the mountains on their side, waged a successful guerrilla war. Three hordes fell in the attempted assault of the densely forested Dzurdzuketia; the Mongols managed to gain control over large areas at times, but there were pockets of resistance which they could not conquer, which soon expanded and reconnected with each other.
Jaimoukha cites a writing of Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, a Papal Ambassador to the Mongols, in 1245-1247. He asserted that the Khan's armies had failed to take the mountainous parts of the eastern part of Alania, to which they had been laying siege for 12 years because of the persistence of the defenders. William of Rubruck, the emissary of the Kingdom of France to Sartaq Khan travelled to the Caucasus in 1253, he wrote that the Circassians had never "bowed to Mongol rule", despite the fact that whole fifth of the Mongol armies were at that time devoted to the task of crushing North Caucasian resistance. In 1239-1240, the Mongols deployed Chinese weapons such as catapults with gunpowder were used, as they had earlier done under Genghis Khan in Transoxania in 1219 and 1220. In order to avoid future conflicts with the Mongols and give the Dzurdzuks time to recover, the ruler of the Princedom of Simsir, known to the Mongols as Gayur Khan, allied itself with the Golden Horde. To underline Simsim's loyalty to the Horde, Gayur adopted Sunni Islam as a state religion, although this move was purely symbolic.
However this proved to be a mistake. In the second half of the 14th century, the Golden Horde began to weaken. Timurlane dealt a major defeat from which it would never recover, but Timurlane did not inten
Erzincan is the capital of Erzincan Province in northeastern Turkey. Nearby cities include Erzurum, Tunceli, Bingöl, Elâzığ, Malatya, Gümüşhane and Giresun. Located at an altitude of 1,185 meters above sea level, the city's climate produces snowy winters and warm summers; the city is notable for handcrafted copper goods and a special cheese called "tulum peyniri" in Turkish. It was once noted for its silverware. Current industries include sugar textile industries; the city is home to the headquarters of the Turkish Third Army. Acilisene, the ancient city, now Erzincan, was the site of the Peace of Acilisene by which in AD 387 Armenia was divided into two vassal states, a smaller one dependent on the Byzantine Empire and a larger one dependent on Persia; this is the name by which it is called by Strabo in his Geography, 11.4.14. The etymological origin of the word is disputed, but it is agreed that the city was once called Erez. For a while it was called Justinianopolis in honour of Emperor Justinian.
In more recent Greek it has been called as Κελτζηνή and Κελεζηνή In the Armenian language, the 5th-century Life of Mashtots called it Yekeghiats In the more recent past, it was known in Armenian as Երզնկա In the settlement of Erez, at a yet unidentified site, there was a pre-Christian shrine dedicated to the Armenian goddess Anahit. A text of Agathangelos reports that during the first year of his reign, King Trdat of Armenia went to Erez and visited Anahit's temple to offer sacrifice, he ordered Gregory the Illuminator, secretly a Christian, to make an offering at its altar. When Gregory refused, he was taken captive and tortured, starting the events that would end with Trdat's conversion to Christianity some 14 years later. After that conversion, during the Christianisation of Armenia, the temple at Erez was destroyed and its property and lands were given to Gregory, it became known for its extensive monasteries. It is hard to tell; the first whose name is known is of the mid-5th century: Ioannes, who in 459 signed the decree of Patriarch Gennadius I of Constantinople against the simoniacs.
Georgius or Gregorius was one of the Fathers of the Second Council of Constantinople, appearing as "bishop of Justinianopolis". Theodorus was at the Third Council of Constantinople in 681, signing as "bishop of Justinianopolis or the region of Ecclenzine". Georgius was at the Photian Council of Constantinople; until the 10th century, the diocese itself appears in none of the Notitiae Episcopatuum. At the end of that century, they present it as an autocephalous archdiocese, those of the 11th century present it as a metropolitan see with 21 suffragans; this was the time of greatest splendour of Acilisene, which ended with the decisive defeat of the Byzantines by the Seljuq Turks at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. After the 13th century, there is no mention of diocesan bishops of Acilisene and the see no longer appears in Notitiae Episcopatuum. No longer a residential bishopric, Acilisene is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. In 1071 Erzincan was absorbed into the Mengüçoğlu under the Seljuk Sulëiman Kutalmish.
Marco Polo, who wrote about his visit to Erzincan, said that the "people of the country are Armenians" and that Erzincan was the "noblest of cities" which contained the See of an Archbishop. In 1243 it was destroyed in fighting between the Seljuks under the Mongols. However, by 1254 its population had recovered enough that William of Rubruck was able to say an earthquake had killed more than 10,000 people. During this period, the city reached a level of semi-independence under the rule of Armenian princes. Erzincan was one of the most pivotal towns in Safavid history, it was there, in the summer of 1500, that about 7,000 Qizilbash forces, consisting of the Ustaclu, Rumlu, Zhulkadir, Afshar and Varsak tribes, responded to the invitation of Ismail I, whom would aid in him establishing his dynasty. The Battle of Erzincan took place during the Caucasus Campaign of the First World War. In 1916 Erzincan was the headquarters for the Turkish Third Army commanded by Kerim Pasha; the Russian General Nikolai Yudenich led the Russian Caucasus Army who captured Mama Hatun on 12 July 1916.
They gained the heights of Naglika and took a Turkish position on the banks of the Durum Durasi river, with their cavalry breaking through the Boz-Tapa-Meretkli line. They advanced on Erzincan arriving by 25 June and taking the city in two days; the city was untouched by battle and Yudenich seized large quantities of supplies. Despite the strategic advantages gained from this victory, Yudenich made no more significant advances and his forces were reduced due to Russian reverses further north. Colonel Kâzım Karabekir was appointed the commander of the First Caucasian Army Corps. Aware of the withdrawal of the Russian Army following the Russian Revolution, they retook Erzincan in February 1918. A short-lived soviet council had been at Erzincan between 1916-1921. Today's Erzincan and Tunceli provinces were under Russian occupation. After the revolution, Bolshevik soldiers took control of the officer corps. Arşak Cemalyan, a Bolshevik soldier, called Kurdish and Armenian representatives to take charge of the administration of Erzincan Soviet.
The city was destroyed by a major earthquake on December 27, 1939. The sequence of seven violent shocks, the biggest measuring 7.8 on the moment magnitude scale, was the most powerful one to strike Turkey in recent history. The first stage of the earthquake killed about 8,000 people; the next day, it was reported