Bulgarian–Serbian wars (medieval)
The Bulgarian-Serbian wars were a series of conflicts between the Bulgarian Empire and the medieval Serbian states between the 9th and 14th centuries in the western Balkans. Before the 12th century, the Serbian states were dependent upon and influenced by the dominant Balkan powers, the Bulgarian and Byzantine Empires; the rulers of both those countries sought to control Serb princes to use them as allies in the Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars. The first war between Bulgarians and Serbs occurred during the reign of Khan Presian between 839 and 842, precipitated by Byzantine diplomacy. After series of campaigns the Bulgarian Emperor Simeon I destroyed the Serb state in 924; the Bulgarian Emperor Peter I granted formal independence to Serbia in 931 and appointed his protégé Časlav Klonimirović as its ruler. They were again subjected by Emperor Samuil in 998. In the 13th century Stefan Dragutin and his brother Stefan Milutin fought against the Bulgarian governors of Belgrade and Braničevo and Kudelin and managed to defeat them.
In 1327 the Emperors of Bulgaria and Byzantium signed an anti-Serbian alliance to stop Serbia's growing power but in 1330 Bulgarian Emperor Michael III Shishman was defeated by Stefan Dečanski in the battle of Velbazhd. According to Byzantine sources, the Bulgarians and the Serbs co-existed peacefully prior to the 9th century. In 818 Slavic tribes along the Timok River rebelled against the centralized Bulgarian suzerainty along its western frontier. Khan Omurtag launched an attack into the disputed lands in 827, secured control over territory as far as Pannonia, expelled the local Slavic chiefs, installed Bulgarian governors. Serbian tribes began to unify under a prince named Vlastimir in resistance to Bulgarian expansion, the Byzantine emperor Theophilos, overlord of the Serbian tribes, supported this unity and granted the Serbs independence as a counterweight to the Bulgarians. According to Porphyrogenitus, the Bulgars sought to continue their conquest of Slav lands and to force the Serbs into subjugation.
Bulgarian khan Presian I launched an invasion into Serbian territory in 839, leading to three years of war. Presian was defeated, lost a large part of his army, made no territorial gains; the Byzantines achieved their objective, however, as Bulgarian attentions were diverted, the Byzantines managed to cope with Slavic rebellions in Peloponnese. Fine notes another instance when a Bulgarian invasion may have been chosen to coincide with Byzantine preoccupation with Slavic uprisings. "The best-known one broke out among the Slavs of the Peloponnesus during the reign of Theophilus. They liberated themselves and ravaged the area before they were subdued by a Byzantine commander"; the war ended with the death of Theophilos in 842, releasing Vlastimir from his obligations to the emperor and giving the Bulgarians the opportunity to attack the Byzantine Empire and annex the area of Ohrid and Devol in 842–843. Vlastimir died in about 850, his state was divided between his sons Mutimir and Gojnik. In 853 or 854, the new Bulgarian ruler Boris I sent an army, led by his son Vladimir, to attack the Serbs, aiming to replace Byzantine influence over them.
The Serbian army led by Mutimir and his brothers defeated the Bulgarians, capturing Vladimir and twelve leading boyars, who had to be ransomed. Boris I and Mutimir agreed on peace. Mutimir sent his sons Pribislav and Stefan to escort the prisoners to the border, where they exchanged items as a sign of peace. Boris himself gave them "rich gifts", receiving in return "two slaves, two falcons, two dogs, 80 furs". Mutimir soon seized the Serbian throne, exiling his brothers to the Bulgarian court, ruled until his death in about 890. A power struggle ensued within the ruling family before Mutimir's nephew Peter emerged to capture the throne in 892, gaining the recognition of the Bulgarian khan, Simeon; this resulted in twenty years of peace within Serbia and a Serbian-Bulgarian alliance from 897-917. For the next half century following the campaign of Boris I, both countries were at peace, the Serbs looked to Bulgaria as a source of their culture. In 917 the Byzantines managed to bribe the Serbian prince Petar Gojniković to turn against his ally, Simeon I.
After the Byzantine army was annihilated in the battle of Achelous on 20 August that year, the Bulgarian emperor had to delay his march to Constantinople in order to secure his western borders. In the autumn of 917 Simeon sent an army under the generals Theodore Sigritsa and Marmais to invade Serbia and punish Gojniković for his treason, they convinced Petar Gojniković to meet them, but when the Serbian Prince came he was captured and taken to Preslav where he died in prison. The Bulgarians installed Petar's cousin Pavle Branović, under the wing of Simeon, in his place. In 921, the Bulgarians controlled every Byzantine possession on the Balkans, the latter tried once again to turn the Serbs against Bulgaria. Romanos Lekapenos sent Zaharije Pribisavljević against Pavle, loyal to Simeon, but Zaharije was defeated and sent to Bulgaria, to be used against Pavle if the latter was insubordinate. However, the Byzantines managed to bribe Pavle, while the Bulgarians were besieging Adrianople, the Serbs started hostilities against Bulgaria.
This time Simeon defeated them - he sent Zaharije with a Bulgarian army into Serbia. Pavle was defeated, his throne was taken by Zaharije. Zlatarski dates that campaign to 922, while Fine suggests it took place in the period between 921 and 923. Byzantine historians, wrote that after Zaharije "recalled the beneficence of the Byzantine Emperor rebelled against the Bulgarians because he did not want to submit to them but prefer
Battle of Velbazhd
The Battle of Velbazhd is a battle which took place between Bulgarian and Serbian armies on 28 July 1330, near the town of Velbazhd. The growing power of the Serbian Kingdom from the late 13th century raised serious concerns in the traditional Balkan powers Bulgaria and Byzantine Empire which agreed for joint military actions against Serbia in 1327. Three years the bulk of the Bulgarian and Serbian armies clashed at Velbazhd and the Bulgarians were caught by surprise. Serbian victory shaped the balance of power in Balkans in the next two decades; the Bulgarians did not lose territory after the battle but were unable to stop the Serbian advance towards Macedonia. Serbia managed to conquer Macedonia and parts of Thessaly and Epirus reaching its greatest territorial extent ever, their new King Stefan Dušan was crowned Emperor with Bulgarian help in 1346. However, decades after Dušan's death in 1355 his Empire disintegrated as did Bulgaria after the death of Ivan Alexander in 1371 and both states were subsequently destroyed by the Ottoman Turks.
During the long but unsuccessful reign of Emperor Constantine Tikh Asen the Bulgarian Empire lost its possessions in northern Macedonia including Skopie, the original feudal estate of the Emperor to the Byzantines. Both Empires were faced with serious external and internal problems and from the 1280s the Serbs began to expand their Kingdom to the south in northern Macedonia. During the internal war in the Byzantine Empire waged between the aged emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos and his ambitious grandson Andronikos III Palaiologos, the Serbian King Stefan Uroš III supported the side of old emperor and in the process gained some minor forts in Macedonia. After in 1328 Andronikos III deposed his grandfather. Serbia and the Byzantines entered a period of bad relations, closer to the state of undeclared war. On the other hand, the Bulgarian Emperor Michael Asen III supported his brother-in-law Andronikos III. In 1324, he divorced and ousted his wife and Stefan's sister Anna Neda, married Andronikos III's sister Theodora.
During that time the Serbs captured some important towns such as Prosek and Prilep and besieged Ohrid. The two Empires were worried about the fast growth of Serbia and on 13 May 1327 settled a anti-Serb peace treaty. After another meeting with Andronikos III in 1329, the rulers decided to invade their common enemy. Michael Shishman desired to retake the north-western and south-western Bulgarian lands which the Serbs had conquered; the plan included the thorough elimination of Serbia and its partition between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. According to some Serbian chroniclers, he demanded the submission of the Serbian king and threatened to "set up his throne in the middle of the Serbian land". Both sides took careful preparations. Michael called in his ally Basarab of Wallachia who sent him a strong unit, as well as detachments of Ossetians/Jassiges and Tatars, a total of 3,000 men. Michael's army was estimated by contemporaries to be 15,000 strong. Stefan Uroš strengthened his army by more Catalan and German mercenaries, experienced warriors which presented an elite unit of Serbian army which comprised a total of 17,000 fighters.
According to the plan the Bulgarians were to advance from the east and the Byzantines from the south and to join forces somewhere in present-day north Macedonia but their coordination was feeble. In July 1330 Andronikos III invaded Macedonia but after he captured Prilep and five minor fortresses he halted his army and decided to await the outcome of the decisive battle between Bulgarians and Serbs. Serbian objective was to fight in separate battles. Fearing an attack on Morava valley by the way of Nish the Serbian King gathered his army in the field of Dobrich, on the confluence of the Toplica river into the Morava. On 19 July the Bulgarian army led by the Emperor himself set off from the capital Tarnovo, marched through the Iskar Gorge and Sofia and entered the northern parts of the Struma valley. From there he continued towards Zemen and set his camp in the village of Shishkovtsi On the next day the army reached the important border castle near the modern village of Izvor. From there it was divided into two groups: the main forces under Michael Shishman through the northern parts of the Konyavska mountain and headed towards the Zemen gorge.
The smaller part which included the army support went through an easier but longer road through the mountain and arrived between the villages of Konyavo and Dvorishte. Other Bulgarian forces under the command of the Emperor's brother Belaur set off from his seat in Vidin but did not participate in the battle, among the main reasons for the following defeat. According to some historians they were stationed as a reserve around the Izvor castle while others think that he arrived too late. From his camp on the confluence between the Toplica and the Morava rivers Stefan Decanski expected an attack from Vidin to the north-east, his purpose was to hinder a Bulgarian advance to the interior of his state. Upon the news for the Bulgarian presence in the Struma valley the king marched southwards along the Bulgarian Morava and the valley of the river Pchinya until he reached the Staro Nagorichino village where stopped for a pray in a nearby monastery. After that he continued to the Ioakim Osogovski Monastery where he prayed again and advanced on Bulgarian territory near the Kamenitsa river in the vicinity of Velba
Battle of Bregalnica
The Battle of Bregalnica was fought between the Kingdom of Bulgaria army and the Kingdom of Serbia during the Second Balkan War. It was the largest battle of the war. Savo Skoko Vojvoda Radomir Putnik Vol.1. Hall, Richard C.. The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: Prelude to the First World War. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22946-4; the numbers of the strength of Serbian Army do not indicate the exact strength of the forces deployed during the Battle of Bregalnica but rather the entire strength of the Serbian Army in Macedonia at the beginning of hostilities
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late
Battle of Kilkis–Lachanas
The Battle of Kilkis–Lachanas took place during the Second Balkan War between Greece and Bulgaria for the town of Kilkis in Macedonia. The battle ended with a Greek victory. During the night of 16–17 June 1913, the Bulgarians, without official declaration of war, attacked their former Greek and the Serbian allies, managed to evict the Serbs from Gevgelija, cutting off communication between them and the Greeks. However, they failed to drive the Serbs away from the Vardar/Axios river line. After repulsing the initial Bulgarian attack of 17 June, the Greek army, under King Constantine, advanced with 8 divisions and a cavalry brigade, while the Bulgarians under General Ivanov retreated to the strong defensive position of the Kilkis–Lachanas line; the Bulgarian 2nd Army commanded by General Nikola Ivanov held a line from Lake Dojran south east to Kilkis, Lachanas and across the Pangaion Hills to the Aegean. The army had been in place since May, was considered a veteran having fought at the siege of Adrianople in the First Balkan War.
On 16 June 1913 it had about 75,076 men and 175 guns in 57 infantry battalions, 10 cavalry squadrons and 37 batteries. General Ivanov claimed after the war that his Army consisted of only 36,000 men of whom 20,000 were "still untrained" and that many of his units were understrength; the Greek General Staff overestimated the numbers of Bulgarians, reckoning them to be between 80,000 and 105,000. Although General Ivanov underestimated the number of his soldiers, he still faced a much larger Greek enemy; the Greek army, commanded by King Constantine I, had 8 divisions and a cavalry brigade with 176 artillery guns in an 80 km line extended from the Gulf of Orphanos to the Gevgelija area, since it was not possible for the Greek headquarter to know where the Bulgarian attack will take place, giving by necessity the Bulgarian Army the possibility to enjoy temporary local superiority to the chosen for the attack area. The Greek plans were defensive in nature; as such Thessaloniki was garrisoned by the newly raised Thessaloniki Fortress Command.
The Greek divisions deployed forward had the mission to allow the Bulgarians to attack first and while holding their positions as best as they could the Greek army would concentrate the rest of its units for a counterattack on the Bulgarian flank which would be determined as the weakest. The Greek disposition was such: on the Greek left the 10th Infantry Division occupied the area around Axioupoli, an Army Section with the 3rd and 5th divisions the area between Axios and Gallikos rivers, the 4th Division between Gallikos river and the highway Thessaloniki-Serres, the 1st Division between the lakes Langada and Volvi and the 7th between lake Volvi and the Gulf of Orphanos; the 2nd and 6th divisions were held as reserve north of Thessaloniki, while the Cavalry Brigade was stationed in Sindos west of Thessaloniki. On 15 June the Bulgarian Army took orders to advance towards Thessaloniki; the Greeks stopped them and by 18 June an order for general counterattack was issued for the next day. The 10th division was attacking toward the heights of Kallinovo north of lake Artzan, the 3rd, 5th, 4th and 2nd divisions attacked toward the area of Kilkis, the 6th and 1st toward Lachanas and the 7th toward Karakoli saddle and Nigrita.
The Cavalry brigade operated between the 3rd divisions. At Kilkis the Bulgarians had since long constructed strong defenses, including captured Ottoman guns which dominated the plain below; the area was defended by its 1st brigade. Kilkis itself was garrisoned by the 2nd brigade of 8 battalions, supported by several artillery batteries. Against them attacked 38 Greek battalions with 100 guns; the 3rd brigade covered the sector between the Doiran lake Artzan. Following the outbreak of hostilities reinforcements started arriving to the Bulgarian side in the form of the 10th cavalry regiment which covered the flanks of the Kilkis position, the Serres brigade which started boarding trains on 18 June; the Greek divisions attacked across the plain in rushes under Bulgarian artillery fire. On 19 June they overran the Bulgarian forward lines everywhere but suffered heavy losses as the Bulgarian artillery fired incessantly with high accuracy from its excellent obeservation on the hills of Kilkis; the 5th division alone suffered some 1,275 losses on that day.
On 20 June, despite having committed all forces and advancing the Greeks failed to break the Bulgarian defence. The Greek Cavalry brigade detected Bulgarian reinforcements arriving by rail; as a result, the Greek HQ ordered the offensive to continue the next morning, while ordered the 10th division to diengage from the enemy at Kallinovo and send forces southward to participate in the fighting of Kilkis and the 1st and 6th divisions to create a 6-battalion strong detachment plus mountain artillery to reinforce the forces attacking Kilkis on the flank on the next day. Acting under the previous order of the HQ which requested Kilkis be captured by the night of 20 June, the 2nd division attacked alone in the night. During the night of 20 to 21 June, following an artillery fire exchange, two regiments of the 2nd division crossed Gallikos river and attacked piercing successively the 1st,2nd and 3rd defensive lines of the Bulgarians entering the town of Kilkis by the morning of 21 June. In the morning the rest of the divisions joined the attack and the Bulgarians retreated to the north, where the Greeks pursued them but in short depth due to exhaustion, allowing the Bulgarians to break contact.
In the three days
Battle of Tripolje
The Battle of Tripolje known as the Battle of Gračanica, was fought in November 1402 between the Serbian Despotate, ruled by the Lazarević dynasty, the Branković family, aided by the Ottoman Empire. Following the Ottoman defeat at Ankara in 1402, Serbian ruler Stefan Lazarević saw an opportunity to free himself of Ottoman overlordship. Awarded the high honorary title of despot by Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos, Lazarević began to wield increasing autonomy in his political decision making. Following a quarrel, said to have arisen because of his nephew Đurađ Branković's intent to join forces with the new Ottoman sultan, Lazarević had Branković imprisoned. Freed by a friend, Branković joined the Ottoman ranks and was set to fight Lazarević. Buoyed by Ottoman reinforcements, Branković set up in Kosovo, along the route through which Lazarević would return from the Adriatic coast to the Serbian interior; the two sides clashed at the field of Tripolje on 21 November 1402. The larger part of Lazarević's army, commanded by his brother Vuk, engaged Branković's forces while Lazarević clashed with the Ottomans.
While Vuk experienced setbacks fighting Branković's forces, Lazarević encountered more success in fending off the Ottomans, thereby deciding the battle in his favor. The Lazarević brothers fell out following the battle. Lazarević allied himself with Hungary in 1403, ending his subservience to the Ottomans, while the Lazarević–Branković conflict continued over the years; the Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Ankara in July 1402 and the subsequent disappearance of Sultan Bayezid I presented an opportunity for the Serbian magnates to take advantage of the turmoil and wield more autonomy in their political decision making. Having fought on the side of the Ottomans, they returned from Ankara through Byzantine-held territory; the new political landscape made for closer Byzantine–Serbian cooperation, in August 1402, at Constantinople, Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos awarded one of the Serbian magnates, Stefan Lazarević, the high title of Despot. Second only to imperial dignity, the title brought the bearer great honor.
From Constantinople, Lazarević was hoping to pave the way for an independent Serbia. While staying there, he came to quarrel with another Serbian magnate, his nephew Đurađ Branković. Although the reasons remain unknown, fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Ragusan chronicler Mavro Orbini attributes the quarrel to Lazarević's suspicions that Branković wanted to join forces with Süleyman Çelebi, Bayezid's oldest son, who held power in Rumelia; the historian Dimitris Kastritsis notes that the rivalry between Branković and Lazarević dated back to the time of Bayezid, who had expelled Branković's father from his lands and granted some of them to Lazarević. Although Lazarević aimed to induce Emperor John VII to imprison Branković, it is not certain if he succeeded. In 1402, Lazarević ordered Branković imprisoned, but the latter spent little time in captivity, as he was freed with the help of a friend in September of that year. Branković went to Süleyman Çelebi, whom he asked for troops to fight Lazarević.
The Lazarević–Branković conflict became an opportunity for the Ottomans, who readied for war, to regain the power they had once wielded in the Balkans. A Serbian contingent returning home from Asia Minor was abruptly attacked and destroyed near Edirne on the orders of an Ottoman commander, it became clear to Lazarević. Branković and the Ottomans sought to prevent his brother Vuk from returning home. Branković's forces were joined by an Ottoman contingent, ordered by Süleyman to take control of local roads and prevent the Lazarević brother's crossing, expected to take place in the Branković-controlled territory of Kosovo. Still mistrustful of Branković's intentions, Süleyman sent one of his commanders to monitor Branković, to ensure that he was loyal; the Lazarević brothers and a detachment of about 260 men left Constantinople and embarked for the coast of Zeta by ship. Before landing in Zeta, Lazarević had become aware of Branković's plans, they met with their brother-in-law Đurađ II Balšić, who supported them militarily, had their mother Milica raise an army in the Despotate.
Lazarević's army made its way inland in late October 1402, on detouring roads towards the Žiča monastery. Branković's forces and the Ottoman contingent gathered near the Gračanica Monastery; the two sides clashed on 21 November 1402, near the Gračanica Monastery. The date of the battle coincided with the Presentation of Mary. Lazarević divided his army into two groups. Constantine of Kostenets, Lazarević's biographer, wrote that the army was divided between the two brothers, in case one fell the other would be saved and stay a "good shepherd of the flock". Lazarević assigned the larger group to his brother Vuk, it is unknown. Branković enjoyed significant Ottoman support. While Lazarević engaged the Ottomans, Vuk engaged Branković's forces. Upon seeing Lazarević's bravery on the battlefield, it is said that many Ottoman soldiers felt like retreating. Lazarević had been famed for his bravery at the earlier battles of Ankara. Among the Ottoman vassals were his troops. Vlatković is believed to have divulged the Ottomans' battle plans, even turned on them during the battle, thereby contributing to its outcome in Lazarević's favor.
Orbini claims that Vlatković discouraged the Ottomans by telling them that they would not be able to withstand the first rush. According to Orbini, Lazarević "chased Tu
Battle of Dubravnica
The Battle of Dubravnica was fought in the summer of 1380 or December 1381, on the Dubravnica River near Paraćin in today's central Serbia, between the Serbian forces of Prince Lazar of Serbia led by commanders Vitomir and Crep and the invading Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I. Vitomir and Crep were the regional lords, one of their fortresses, was in the vicinity of the battle. Battle of Dubravnica was the first historical mention of any Ottoman movements into Prince Lazar's territory; the Serbian army emerged victorious. After this battle the Turks didn't linger into Serbia until 1386, when their armies were routed near Pločnik. Battle of Pločnik Battle of Bileća Battle of Kosovo Battle of Kosovo, about the battle and surrounding facts