Battle of Kizugawa
The 1614 battle of the Kizugawa was one of a number of battles surrounding the siege of Osaka, in which the Tokugawa shogunate destroyed the Toyotomi clan, the last major opposition to its control of Japan. A fortress loyal to the Toyotomi controlled a section of the Kizu River near Osaka. After a shogunal reconnaissance mission, a pair of amphibious assaults were launched to seize it. Ishikawa Tadafusa led 2300 men across the river on boats from the west while other groups under the command of Hachisuka Yoshishige attacked from the south and east; the assaults were successful, the fortress fell to the Tokugawa forces. Turnbull, Stephen.'The Samurai Sourcebook'. London: Cassell & Co. p255
The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō. The period was characterized by economic growth, strict social order, isolationist foreign policies, a stable population, "no more wars", popular enjoyment of arts and culture; the shogunate was established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The period came to an end with the Meiji Restoration on May 1868, after the fall of Edo. A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which existed with the Tennō's court, to the Tokugawa, when the samurai became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal" form of shogunate. Instrumental in the rise of the new-existing bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area.
He maintained two million koku of land, a new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town, had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi's death, Ieyasu moved to seize control from the Toyotomi clan. Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyō at the Battle of Sekigahara gave him control of all Japan, he abolished numerous enemy daimyō houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyō, but his assumption of the title of shōgun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada as shōgun and himself as retired shōgun in 1605; the Toyotomi were still a significant threat, Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Tokugawa army destroyed the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka; the Tokugawa period brought 250 years of stability to Japan.
The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shōgun had national authority and the daimyō had regional authority; this represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, a land assessment system reaping great revenues; the feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyō. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan, or "related houses", they were twenty-three daimyō on the borders of Tokugawa lands. The shinpan held honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu; the second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or "house daimyō", rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service.
By the 18th century, 145 fudai controlled the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the tozama, former opponents or new allies; the tozama were located on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land. Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyō, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government positions; the Tokugawa shogunate not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyō and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shōgun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family; the Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu's granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619.
A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyō houses. The code encompassed private conduct, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed. Although the daimyō were not taxed per se, they were levied for contributions for military and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads and palaces; the various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but depleted the wealth of the daimyō, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative units; the daimyō did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms. Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but was suspicious of outsiders, he wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade
Battle of Dōmyōji
On June 3, 1615 the Eastern Army of Tokugawa Ieyasu and the Osaka Army of Toyotomi Hideyori clashed in battle at Dōmyōji, Osaka. This battle was one of Japan's major historical battles between samurai forces; this battle was one of a number of battles that took place during the Summer Campaign of the Siege of Osaka that led up to the fall of Osaka to the forces of Tokugawa and the death of Toyotomi Hideyori. A vanguard force ahead of the Osaka Army was commanded by Gotō Mototsugu, he had with him a force of 2,800 samurai and his mission was to guard against the arrival of elements of The Eastern Army. The eastern border of Osaka is protected by a natural border known as the Ikoma Mountain Range. Gotō was given the task of guarding the area near Komatsu-yama, a hilly area located near one of few mountain passes; this pass in the range is created by the Yamato River. He had planned to occupy the high ground provided by the slopes of Komatsuyama and prevent the enemy from entering the flat plains of Osaka that exist once past Komatsu-yama.
On 3 June Gotō Mototsugu and his forces were at Dōmyōji, a low-lying section of land north of Komatsu-yama on the opposite side of the Ishikawa river, a tributary of the Yamato-gawa river. In order to take their positions on Komatsu-yama they would have to ford the Ishikawa river, as they were doing so scouts reported that the Eastern Army had exited the pass through the range and were moving up the southern slopes of Komatsu-yama. At 4:00 AM Gotō Mototsugu and his samurai made a dash to Komatsu-yama in order to push the Tokugawa forces back. By 5:00 AM Gotō Mototsugu was forced back to the summit of Komatsu-yama by a strong attack by the enemy. All this time Gotō Mototsugu was awaiting the planned arrival of reinforcements, delayed by thick fog. At 10:00 AM Gotō Mototsugu was shot and committed ritual suicide. With his death his remaining samurai forces lost control of Komatsuyama and were forced to fight as they were pushed down the southern slope of Komatsu-yama and across the Ishikawa river.
As the fog had cleared the Osaka Army forces on the southern side of the Ishikawa river had been revealed. Susukida Kanesuke led the left flank of the Osaka Army. After advance Eastern Army sections cleared the Ishikawa and made their way up the gentle slope of Dōmyōji. Susukida Kanesuke and his samurai fought them fiercely in an area next to Emperor Ingyo's massive tomb. Susukida Kanesuke, in disgrace at the time, fought valiantly although dying in battle and in doing so, he redeemed his honor. Sanada Yukimura in command of the Osaka Army on the right of Susukida Kanesuke was taken on by Date Masamune in the area of Emperor Ōjin's Tomb and Konda Hachiman Shrine; this fight took place at around 12:00 and by 5:00 PM Sanada Yukimura made the decision to begin a retreat towards Osaka Castle having lost two powerful commanders. Tokugawa Tadateru, the sixth son of Tokugawa Ieyasu was given the order to pursue Sanada's force, but he refused, his refusal led to his exile at Kōya-san. Sanada Yukimura and his army disengaged in retreat from the Eastern Army.
Whilst the geographic features of this battle remain the area referred to as Komatsu-yama has been renamed in history to Tamate-yama. The pass through the range, the rivers and tombs of course remain giving any interested party the chance to visit and visualize this battle
Keichō was a Japanese era name after Bunroku and before Genna. This period spanned from October 1596 to July 1615; the reigning emperors were Go-Yōzei-tennō and Go-Mizunoo-tennō. 1596 Keichō gannen: The era name was changed to Keichō to mark the passing of various natural disasters. The preceding era ended and a new one commenced on October 27 of the 5th Bunroku. 1596: Keichō Invasion. September 18, 1598: Toyotomi Hideyoshi died in his Fushimi Castle at the age of 63. October 21, 1600: Battle of Sekigahara; the Tokugawa clan and its allies decisively vanquish all opposition. January 15, 1602: A fire at the Hōkō-ji temple complex in Kyoto was caused by careless workmen. 1603: Tokugawa Ieyasu became shōgun, which becomes the beginning of what will become the Edo bakufu. Toyotomi Hideyori was elevated to Naidaijin in Miyako Daijō-kan. 1604-1606: Tokugawa Ieyasu undertook the rebuilding of Asama Shrine at the base of Mount Fuji in Suruga Province in fulfillment of a vow and in gratitude for the help of the kami during the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600.
1605: Tokugawa Hidetada was named successor shōgun after his father "retires" from the position of shōgun. 1605: The first official map of Japan was ordered in this year and completed in 1639 at a scale of 1:280,000. January 23, 1605: A new volcanic island, Hachijōko-jima, arose from the sea at the side of Hachijō Island in the Izu Islands which stretch south and east from the Izu Peninsula. 1606: Construction began on Edo Castle. 1607: Construction began on Sunpu Castle in Suruga. 1609: Invasion of Ryukyu by Shimazu daimyō of Satsuma. August 24, 1609: Trading pass issued to Dutch East Indies Company in the name of Ieyasu Tokugawa. November 15, 1610: Toyotomi Hideyori sponsors work, begun to rebuild the Hōkō-ji in line with the plans which his father had supported. At this time, Hideyori decides to order a great bell cast in bronze. May 20, 1610: Hideyori came to Kyoto to visit the former-shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu. Emperor Go-Yōzei abdicates. 1611: Emperor Go-Mizunoo formally accedes to the throne. 1613: In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura Tsunenaga headed a diplomatic mission to the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain and visiting various ports-of-call in Europe.
This historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy. On the return trip and his companions re-traced their route across Mexico in 1619, sailing from Acapulco for Manilla, sailing north to Japan in 1620; this is conventionally considered the first Japanese ambassador in Europe. 1614: Siege of Osaka. The shōgun vanquished Hideyori and set fire to Osaka Castle, he returned for the winter to Edo. August 24, 1614: A new bronze bell for the Hōkō-ji was cast – see 19th century photo of Hōkō-ji belland see old photo of bell; this incident of the inscription was, of course, a mere pretext, but Ieyasu realized that he could not enjoy the power he had usurped as long as Hideyori lived, although the latter more than once dispatched his kerei Katagiri Kastumoto to Sunpu Castle with profuse apologies, Ieyasu refused to be placated."October 18, 1614: A strong earthquake shook Kyoto. 1615: Osaka Summer Battle begins. Copper and gold coins called Keichō-tsūhō were issued in the Keichō era helping to unify the currency system.
Keichō-chokuhan called Keichō shinkoku-bon, were Imperial publications, produced during the Keichō era at the command of Emperor Go-Yōzei and printed using moveable type, imported from the Joseon Kingdom on the Korean peninsula. Keichō no katsuji-ban was the general name for the first works printed with moveable typ during the Keichō era. Things Heard and Seen During the Keichō Era called the Kembun-shū was a book, a collection of tales and anecdotes compiled by Miura Jōshin. de Winter, Michiel.. "VOC in Japan: Betrekkingen tussen Hollanders en Japanners in de Edo-periode, tussen 1602–1795". Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
The Tokugawa Shogunate known as the Tokugawa Bakufu and the Edo Bakufu, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1603 and 1867. The head of government was the shōgun, each was a member of the Tokugawa clan; the Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern. Following the Sengoku period, the central government had been re-established by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was based on the strict class hierarchy established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi; the daimyō were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, samurai might act as local rulers.
Otherwise, the inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value; as a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, proved compelling enough to challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate. In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyō, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration; the Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" of imperial rule.
Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. The bakuhan taisei was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"—that is, the shogunate; the han were the domains headed by daimyō. Vassals provided military service and homage to their lords; the bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty to the shōgun, responsible for foreign relations and national security; the shōgun and lords were all daimyōs: feudal lords with their own bureaucracies and territories. The shōgun administered the most powerful han, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa.
Each level of government administered its own system of taxation. The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power; the shogunate had the power to discard and transform domains. The sankin-kōtai system of alternative residence required each daimyō to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo. During their absences from Edo, it was required that they leave family as hostages until their return; the huge expenditure sankin-kōtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shōgun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage. Tokugawa's descendants further ensured loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the shōgun. Fudai daimyō were hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama became vassals of Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara. Shinpan were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in the Edo period, the shogunate viewed the tozama as the least to be loyal. In the end, it was the great tozama of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, to a lesser extent Hizen, that brought down the shogunate.
These four states are called Satchotohi for short. The number of han fluctuated throughout the Edo period, they were ranked by size, measured as the number of koku of rice that the domain produced each year. One koku was the amount of rice necessary to feed one adult male for one year; the minimum number for a daimyō was ten thousand koku. Regardless of the political title of the Emperor, the shōguns of the Tokugawa family controlled Japan; the administration of Japan was a task given by the Imperial Court in Kyoto to the Tokugawa family, which returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. While the Emperor had the prerogative of appointing the shōgun, he had no say in state affairs; the shogunate appointed a liaison, the Kyoto Shoshidai, to deal with the Emperor and nobility. Towards the end of the shogunate, after centuries of the Emperor having little say in state affairs and being secluded in his Kyoto palace, in the wake of the reigning shōgun, Tokugawa Iemochi, marrying the sister of Emperor Kōmei, in 1862, the Imperial Court in Kyoto
Ban Naoyuki known as Ban Dan'emon, was a Japanese samurai general of the late Sengoku and early Edo periods. He first served as a retainer of Katō Yoshiaki, one of the "Seven Spears of Shizugatake", who went on to become lord of the Aizu domain, in Mutsu. Naoyuki served Lord Katō as a gunnery commander. Naoyuki followed his lord during the invasion of Korea in the 1590s, for his actions in combat there he was given a stipend of 350 koku. However, at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, he opposed Yoshiaki's orders and subsequently left his service. After that, he served several lords, including Kobayakawa Hideaki, Matsudaira Tadayoshi, Fukushima Masanori, he served the Toyotomi clan at the Osaka Winter Campaign in 1614. However, during the next year's Summer Campaign, he was killed in action fighting Asano Nagaakira's forces in Izumi province. Ban Dan'emon Shōkai Ban Dan'emon Retsuden
Toyotomi Hideyori was the son and designated successor of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the general who first united all of Japan. His mother, Yodo-dono, was the niece of Oda Nobunaga; when Hideyoshi died in 1598, the five regents he had appointed to rule in Hideyori's place began jockeying amongst themselves for power. Tokugawa Ieyasu seized control in 1600, after his victory over the others at the Battle of Sekigahara. Hideyori's arranged marriage to Senhime, the seven-year-old granddaughter of Ieyasu, was designed to mitigate Toyotomi clan dissension and plotting. In this period, the eight-year-old boy practiced calligraphy with phrases wishing for peace throughout the world. However, Ieyasu continued to view the young Hideyori as a potential threat. Tokugawa forces attacked Hideyori in the Siege of Osaka in the winter of 1614; the attack failed, but Hideyori was induced to sign a truce and dismantle the defenses of his stronghold at Osaka Castle. In April 1615, Ieyasu received word that Toyotomi Hideyori was gathering more troops than in the previous November, that he was trying to stop the filling of the moat of Osaka Castle.
Toyotomi forces began to attack contingents of the shōgun's forces near Osaka. On June 5, 1615, as Toyotomi's forces began to lose the battle, a smaller force led directly by Hideyori sallied forth from Osaka Castle too late, was chased right back into the castle by the advancing enemies. There was no time to set up a proper defense of the castle, it was soon set ablaze and pummeled by artillery fire. Hideyori and his mother committed seppuku, the final major uprising against Tokugawa rule for another 250 or so years was put to an end, his widow remarried but became a Buddhist nun. According to James Murdoch's A History of Japan During The Century of Early Foreign Discourse, based upon the works of many Japanese sources as well as based on the writings of the Jesuits, their annual letters, the letters of Will Adams and the diaries of Adams' Dutch comrades, the events of Hideyori's death and the final fall of Osaka Castle were as such – Sanada Yukimura had been tactician of the climactic battle outside the gates of Osaka.
Recognizing that they had a serious numerical disadvantage, they decided to attempt a tactic of inducing surprise and confusion in the Tokugawa camp. This was to be effected by first, Osaka captain Akashi Morishige getting behind the Tokugawa van, which would be taken with Akashi's surprise attack, fall on Akashi, allowing Sanada with his troops and Mōri Katsunaga, in charge of the Osaka rōnin, to fall into the Tokugawa front; when the confusion was to be at its height, Hideyori would have marched out of Osaka castle with his home troops and would in theory be the final blow to the Tokugawas. What happened, according to Murdoch, was that Akashi was not able to get behind the Tokugawa troops, having been discovered and engaged before he emerged from the lanes; the plans fell apart as Mōri's rōnin eager to fight, began shooting at the Tokugawa ranks, not waiting for Sanada to command them to do so. Sanada at once told the rōnin to stop but they only doubled their efforts. Mori Katsunaga, deciding to take advantage of his rōnin's eagerness decided to launch them forward nevertheless.
Upon this, Sanada realized in order to keep any structure of his original plan, he too, would need to engage alongside the rōnin. He decided to launch himself alongside Katsunaga's force, straight into the Tokugawas, while dispatching a messenger to Hideyori to march out at that moment instead of a bit further on as had been decided in the plan. Hideyori began moving with his troops to leave Osaka. Meanwhile, the Osaka troops had been doing quite well in spite of the numerical disadvantage, it has been said, in Murdoch's book, as he goes to show in an extract from a missionaries letter regarding the event that the Osaka assault was quite successful and drove the Tokugawa back quite promptly. The plan of creating Tokugawa confusion worked and according to the Jesuits, Ieyasu himself, serving as the ultimate reinforcement to the center force, had told his men to kill him if victory seemed for nigh. Not only did the Jesuits write this, but, in another account, Murdoch states that Ieyasu had at least for some time had designs of seppuku because victory seemed to be escaping him.
According to Siebold, at this critical moment, as Hideyori was leaving Osaka to enter the fray, Ieyasu sent forth into Osaka the son of Osaka captain Ōno Harunaga, a hostage to the Tokugawa. Ono Harunaga's son entered the castle and dispatched a letter from Tokugawa to his father; the letter said "Do not let Hideyori leave the castle. In the castle is a conspiracy and as soon as Hideyori leaves it he will be attacked from the rear." It is according to Siebold, that Hideyori's portion of the plan miscarried. He was just about to leave when he was brought word of its contents, at this point, stalled in entering the fray. Despite the ferocity and initial victories of the Osaka troops, the numerical advantage of the Tokugawa forces proved too much. According to the Nihon Senshi: "Hideyori, when he received intelligence of the defeat of his rōnin, said, "Death is what I have been ready to meet for long", was about to sally from the castle in order to fight his last battle when he was stopped by Hayami, one of his seven captains, who urged that a commander-in-chief should not expose his person among the promiscuous dead.
Let Hideyori de