Béla IV of Hungary
Béla IV known as Béla the Great, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1235 and 1270, Duke of Styria from 1254 to 1258. Being the oldest son of King Andrew II, he was crowned upon the initiative of a group of influential noblemen in his father's lifetime in 1214, his father, who opposed Béla's coronation, refused to give him a province to rule until 1220. In this year, Béla was appointed Duke of Slavonia with jurisdiction in Croatia and Dalmatia. Around the same time, Béla married a daughter of Theodore I Laskaris, Emperor of Nicaea. From 1226, he governed Transylvania with the title Duke, he supported Christian missions among the pagan Cumans who dwelled in the plains to the east of his province. Some Cuman chieftains acknowledged his suzerainty and he adopted the title of King of Cumania in 1233. King Andrew died on 21 September 1235 and Béla succeeded him, he attempted to restore royal authority. For this purpose, he revised his predecessors' land grants and reclaimed former royal estates, causing discontent among the noblemen and the prelates.
The Mongols invaded Hungary and annihilated Béla's army in the Battle of Mohi on 11 April 1241. He escaped from the battlefield, but a Mongol detachment chased him from town to town as far as Trogir on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Although he survived the invasion, the Mongols devastated the country before their unexpected withdrawal in March 1242. Béla introduced radical reforms, he allowed the barons and the prelates to erect stone fortresses and to set up their private armed forces. He promoted the development of fortified towns. During his reign, thousands of colonists arrived from the Holy Roman Empire and other neighboring regions to settle in the depopulated lands. Béla's efforts to rebuild his devastated country won him the epithet of "second founder of the state", he set up a defensive alliance against the Mongols, which included Daniil Romanovich, Prince of Halych, Boleslaw the Chaste, Duke of Cracow and other Ruthenian and Polish princes. His allies supported him in occupying the Duchy of Styria in 1254, but it was lost to King Ottokar II of Bohemia six years later.
During Béla's reign, a wide buffer zone—which included Bosnia and other newly conquered regions—was established along the southern frontier of Hungary in the 1250s. Béla's relationship with his oldest son and heir, became tense in the early 1260s, because the elderly king favored his daughter Anna and his youngest child, Béla, Duke of Slavonia, he was forced to cede the territories of the Kingdom of Hungary east of the river Danube to Stephen, which caused a civil war lasting until 1266. Béla's family was famed for his piety: he died as a Franciscan tertiary, the veneration of his three saintly daughters—Kunigunda and Margaret—was confirmed by the Holy See. Béla was the oldest son of King Andrew II of Hungary by Gertrude of Merania, he was born in the second half of 1206. Upon King Andrew's initiative, Pope Innocent III had appealed to the Hungarian prelates and barons on 7 June to swear an oath of loyalty to the King's future son. Queen Gertrude showed blatant favoritism towards her German relatives and courtiers, causing widespread discontent among the native lords.
Taking advantage of her husband's campaign in the distant Principality of Halych, a group of aggrieved noblemen seized and murdered her in the forests of the Pilis Hills on 28 September 1213. King Andrew only punished one of the conspirators, a certain Count Peter, after his return from Halych. Although Béla was a child when his mother was assassinated, he never forgot her and declared his deep respect for her in many of his royal charters. In his correspondence with his sister, the noted Franciscan saint, Elizabeth of Hungary, he was counseled to restrain his anger at the nobles for the death of their mother. Andrew II betrothed Béla to an unnamed daughter of Tzar Boril of Bulgaria in 1213 or 1214, but their engagement was broken. In 1214, the King requested the Pope to excommunicate some unnamed lords who were planning to crown Béla king. So, the eight-year-old Béla was crowned in the same year, but his father did not grant him a province to rule. Furthermore, when leaving for a Crusade to the Holy Land in August 1217, King Andrew appointed John, Archbishop of Esztergom, to represent him during his absence.
During this period, Béla stayed with his maternal uncle Berthold of Merania in Steyr in the Holy Roman Empire. Andrew II returned from the Holy Land in late 1218, he had arranged the engagement of Béla and Maria, a daughter of Theodore I Laskaris, Emperor of Nicaea. She accompanied King Andrew to Hungary and Béla married her in 1220; the senior king ceded the lands between the Adriatic Sea and the Dráva River—Croatia and Slavonia—to Béla in 1220. A letter of 1222 of Pope Honorius III reveals that "some wicked men" had forced Andrew II to share his realms with his heir. Béla styled himself as "King Andrew's son and King" in his charters. Béla separated from his wife in the first half of 1222 upon his father's demand. However, Pope Honorius refused to declare the marriage illegal. Béla took refuge in Austria from his father's anger, he returned, together with his wife, only after the prelates had in the first half of 1223 persuaded his father to forgive him. Having returned to his Duchy of Slavonia, Béla launched a campaign against Domald of Sidraga, a rebellious Dalmatian nobleman, captured Domald's fortress at Klis.
Domald's domains were confiscated
Johannes de Thurocz
Johannes de Thurocz, was a Hungarian historian and the author of the Latin Chronica Hungarorum, the most extensive 15th-century work on Hungary, the first chronicle of Hungary written by a layman. Thurocz's parents came from Turóc County, Upper Hungary where they were members of a yeoman family recorded since the first half of the 13th century. Johannes' uncle Andreas received a property at Pýr as a donation from King Sigismund of Luxembourg, Johannes' father Peter inherited this estate. Thurocz was educated in a Premonstratensian monastery in Ipolyság, where he studied law. In 1465 he appeared as a prosecutor of the Premonstratensian monastery of Ipolyság. From 1467 to 1475 he served as a notary of the judge royal Ladislaus Pálóci, from 1476 to 1486 as the main notary of the judge royal Stephen Báthory at the royal court, from 1486 to 1488 as a head notary and judge of the royal personnel clerk Thomas Drági. No evidence of any university studies has been preserved, it is possible that the title Latin: "magister" in front of his name was a polite title for an official or civil servant.
Thurocz's chronicle was written in three main parts: The first part is Thurocz's interpretation of a poem by Lorenzo de Monacis of Venice. It deals with the rule of King Charles II of Hungary, was written on the initiative of Thurocz's superior Stephen of Haserhag, or that of the country judge Thomas Drági. Physically, this part is attached to part c) below. Thurocz wrote the second part was written in 1486 and describes the deeds of Hungarian kings up to Louis the Great; this part in turn consists of three sub-sections:the so-called Hunnish chronicle based on old Hungarian chronicles and preserved manuscripts, in which Thurocz attempts to correct the errors of his predecessors. The third part describes events from the death of King Charles II the Small until the conquest of Vienna and Wiener Neustadt by King Matthias Corvinus in August 1487, it was inspired by the famous historico-geographical lexicon Cosmographia by Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini and was based on existing diplomatic documents and letters.
However, information from the Cosmographia was selected somewhat haphazardly. According to his own words in the work's dedication, Thurocz had no ambitions as an historian. In fact, his chronicle omits a number of significant events. Besides more reliable sources, the work relies extensively on oral tradition, folk songs and anecdotes, contains many references to "miraculous" events and wonders. Destiny and fortune play a significant role in history. Like many of his contemporaries he was convinced of the close relationship between human fortune, historical events and the motion of celestial bodies. Thurocz sought an explanation of a number of events in the moral imperative, he gave much attention to describing the inner feelings of historical characters, but had an evident tendency to idealize the Hungarian heroes Attila and Matthias Corvinus, while downplaying the significance of Hungary's queens. The first editions of Chronica Hungarorum were published in 1488 in Brno, Augsburg. Further editions followed over the following centuries in Frankfurt, Vienna and Buda.
Extant early editions include: Illuminations the hand coloured woodcut illustrations, the initial letters Inc C 75, accession number F 1450/76 Slovak National Library at Matica slovenská in Martin, the second edition, Augsburgian, 2. Version Bucharest, National Library of Romania, Inc. I 41 Datare sigura: 03/07/1488 III Non. Jun. 1488 The Brno edition, published 20 March 1488, printed by Couradus Stahel and Matthias Preinlein. One copy is preserved at the Biblioteca Mănăstirii Brâncoveanu in Romania; the Augsburg Augusta Vindelicorum edition, dated 3 June 1488. Publisher Erhard Ratdolt for Theobald Feger, a citizen of Buda. German 1490 manuscript: one copy at Heidelberg. Sources of early Hungarian history Chronica Hungarorum The German illuminated manuscript and the German text The original Latin text of the chronicle
Wenceslaus I of Bohemia
Wenceslaus I, called One-Eyed, was King of Bohemia from 1230 to 1253. Wenceslaus was a son of his second wife Constance of Hungary. In 1224, Wenceslaus married Kunigunde of Hohenstaufen, third daughter of Philip of Swabia, King of Germany, his wife Irene Angelina. Wenceslaus encouraged large numbers of Germans to settle in the villages and towns in Bohemia and Moravia. Stone buildings began to replace wooden ones in Prague as a result of the influence of the new settlers. Wenceslaus and Kunigunde had five known children: Vladislaus, Margrave of Moravia Ottokar II of Bohemia Beatrice of Bohemia married Otto III, Margrave of Brandenburg. Agnes of Bohemia married Henry Margrave of Meissen. An unnamed daughter. Died young. On 6 February 1228, Wenceslaus was crowned as co-ruler of the Kingdom of Bohemia with his father. On 15 December 1230, Ottokar died and Wenceslaus succeeded him as the senior King of Bohemia, his early reign was preoccupied by the threat to Bohemia posed by Duke of Austria. The expansionism of Frederick caused the protestation of several other rulers.
In 1236, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II was involved in a war against the Lombard League. The Emperor demanded Wenceslaus and other rulers of the Holy Roman Empire to lend him part of their own troops for his war effort. Wenceslaus led a group of princes who expressed their reluctance to divert any troops from the defense of their own territories, citing fear of invasion from the Duchy of Austria, they requested imperial intervention in the situation. In June 1236, the Emperor imposed an imperial ban on the Duke of Austria. Troops dispatched against the Duke forced him to flee Vienna for Wiener Neustadt, he would continue to rule a rump state for the following year. The Emperor declared direct imperial rule in both Austria and the Duchy of Styria held by the fleeing Duke. Ekbert von Andechs-Meranien, former Bishop of Bamberg was installed as governor in the two Duchies. Ekbert would govern from February to his death on 5 June 1237. Wenceslaus was hardly pleased with this apparent expansion of direct imperial authority close to his borders.
Wenceslaus and Duke Frederick formed an alliance against the Emperor. Frederick the Emperor chose to lift the ban in 1237 rather than maintain another open front. Wenceslaus managed to negotiate the expansion of Bohemia north of the Danube, annexing territories offered by Duke Frederick in order of forming and maintaining their alliance. Wenceslaus and Frederick found another ally in the person of Otto II, Duke of Bavaria. In June 1239, Wenceslaus and Otto left the Reichstag at Eger, abandoning the service of excommunicated Emperor Frederick II. Despite their intent to elect an anti-king, no such election would take place until 1246. In 1246, Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia, was elected King of Germany in opposition to Emperor Frederick II and Conrad IV of Germany. In 1241 Wenceslaus repelled a raid on Bohemia by forces serving under Batu Khan and Subutai of the Mongol Empire as part of the Mongol invasion of Europe; the Mongols raided the Kingdom of Poland and Moravia, led by Baidar and Orda Khan with a force of around 20,000 Mongols, causing much destruction.
During the Mongol invasion of Poland, Duke Henry II the Pious of Silesia, Wenceslaus' brother in law asked his help in fighting off the Mongols. However as Wenceslaus was coming to his aid in Legnica with a force of 50,000 soldiers, impatience forced Henry II to attack the Mongols without Bohemia's help which resulted in the devastating Battle of Legnica. Following the Mongol victory, Wenceslaus fell back to protect Bohemia, he gathered reinforcements from Thuringia and Saxony along the way, before taking refuge in Bohemia's mountainous countries whose terrain would reduce the mobility of the Mongolian cavalry. When a Mongol vanguard assaulted Kłodzko, the Bohemian cavalry defeated them in the mountain passes. After their failure against Wenceslaus' army, the Mongols led by Baidar and Kadan turned away from Bohemia and Poland and went southward to reunite with Batu and Subutai in Hungary, who had crushed the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohi; when Subutai heard in 1242 that Grand Khan Ögedei had died the previous year, the Mongol army retreated eastward, because Subutai had three princes of the blood in his command and Genghis Khan had made clear that all descendants of the Khagan should return to the Mongol capital of Karakorum for the kurultai which would elect the next Khagan.
Such was Wenceslaus' success against the invaders that chroniclers sent messages to Emperor Frederick II of his "victorious defense". On 15 June 1246, Frederick II, Duke of Austria, was killed in the Battle of the Leitha River against Béla IV of Hungary, his death ended reign of the Babenburg dynasty in Austria. The matter of his succession would result in years of disputes among various heirs. Wenceslaus' foreign policy became focused on acquiring Austria for the Přemyslid dynasty. Meanwhile, Emperor Frederick II managed to once again place Austria under direct imperial rule; however imperial governor Otto von Eberstein had to contend with an Austrian rebellion, preventing immediate benefits from the annexation of the Duchy. The Privilegium Minus, the document which had elevated Austria to a Duchy on 17 September 1156, allowed for the female line of the House of Babenberg to succeed to the throne. Gertrude, Duchess of Austria, niece of the late Frederick II, thus was able to claim the Duchy in her own right.
Wenceslaus arranged for her marriage to his eldest son, Margrave of Moravia. Vladislaus was declared a jure uxoris Duke of Austria and managed to secur
The Morava is a river in Central Europe, a left tributary of the Danube. It is the main river of Moravia; the river originates on the Králický Sněžník mountain in the north-eastern corner of Pardubice Region, near the border between the Czech Republic and Poland and has a vaguely southward trajectory. The lower part of the river's course forms the border between the Czech Republic and Slovakia and between Austria and Slovakia. Though the German name March may refer to Mark, "border, frontier", the river's name more is derived from Proto-Indo-European *mori, "waters", it was first documented as Maraha in an 892 deed. The shores of the Morava have been inhabited for a long time; the village of Stillfried, in the Austrian part of the river course, has been the place of a human settlement 30,000 years ago. Agriculture began to be practiced in the Morava valley 7,000 years ago. Fortified settlements began to appear in the river valley during the New Stone Age; the lower part of the river, downstream of the confluence with the Thaya at Hohenau an der March, which today marks the Austro-Slovakian border, is one of the oldest national boundaries still extant in continental Europe: it was the eastern boundary of the Carolingian Empire with the Avar Khaganate around 800 and from the 10th century onwards marked the border of the Imperial marcha orientalis Duchy of Austria with the Kingdom of Hungary.
At the times of the Cold War, this section of the river was part of the Iron curtain, being the frontier between Austria and Czechoslovakia. In July 1997, the Morava basin was affected by heavy stratiform raining, which lasted several days and caused catastrophic floods on the Oder River basin in Poland and Germany. In the Czech Republic, 49 people lost their life, more than 250 villages had to be evacuated and the total damage cost 63 billion crowns; the river originates in the Králický Sněžník mountains in north-western Moravia, not far from the border with Poland. The lowlands formed by the river are the Upper Moravian Vale or Hornomoravský úval and the Lower Moravian Vale or Dolnomoravský úval in Moravia, the Moravian Field or Marchfeld in Lower Austria, the Záhorie Lowland or Záhorská nížina in Slovakia; the latter three are continuous parts of one large basin, forming the major part of the Vienna Basin. In the Czech Republic, there are some larger towns lying upon Morava Olomouc, Kroměříž, Uherské Hradiště and Hodonín.
Brno, the second largest city of Czech Republic, lies within the river basin. The catchment area of the river has a population of c. 3,5 million people. Downstream from Hodonín, the river flows along sparsely inhabited, forested border area, all the way to its outfall into the Danube, just below the Devín Castle at the outskirts of the Slovak capital Bratislava. After 354 km of its course, Morava feeds the Danube by an average discharge rate of 120 m3/s, gathered from a drainage area of 26 658 km2; the river's longest tributary by far is the Thaya or Dyje, flowing in at the tripoint of Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The biggest tributary from the left is Bečva; the Morava is a lowland river with a basin. The average slope of the river is 1.8‰ and at the confluence 4‰. The bedrock of the river basin is crystalline bedrock and flysch; the Morava river is unusual in. The Morava river forms an important link between the Danube Valley and the plains of northern Europe, for animals as well as, at least for humans.
Its weak slope across flat plains furthermore means that the river is prone to meander and flood, creating vast floodplains. Because of these reasons, the floodplains of the Morava river are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems in Europe, its richness in plant and animal species ranks it second in diversity only to the Danube Delta. During the 20th century however, large tracts of the river downstream from Litovel, have been regulated with the ensuing effect of loss of inundation areas. Since the river basin is densely populated and the Czech part, the river receives a lot of wastewater. Agriculture contributes to spreading nitrogen and other nutrients into the river; the central part of the river has retained much of its natural character and in years conscious efforts have been made to protect the nature and ecosystem of the river basin. March of Austria March of Moravia Geographic data related to Morava at OpenStreetMap
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe. It is said to occupy continuous territory that are otherwise conventionally Western Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe; the concept of Central Europe is based on a common historical and cultural identity. Central Europe is going through a phase of "strategic awakening", with initiatives such as the CEI, Centrope and the Visegrád Four. While the region's economy shows high disparities with regard to income, all Central European countries are listed by the Human Development Index as highly developed. Elements of unity for Western and Central Europe were Latin; however Eastern Europe, which remained Eastern Orthodox, was the area of Graeco-Byzantine cultural influence. According to Hungarian historian Jenő Szűcs, foundations of Central European history at the first millennium were in close connection with Western European development, he explained that between the 11th and 15th centuries not only Christianization and its cultural consequences were implemented, but well-defined social features emerged in Central Europe based on Western characteristics.
The keyword of Western social development after millennium was the spread of liberties and autonomies in Western Europe. These phenomena appeared in the middle of the 13th century in Central European countries. There were self-governments of towns and parliaments. In 1335, under the rule of the King Charles I of Hungary, the castle of Visegrád, the seat of the Hungarian monarchs was the scene of the royal summit of the Kings of Poland and Hungary, they agreed to cooperate in the field of politics and commerce, inspiring their post-Cold War successors to launch a successful Central European initiative. In the Middle Ages, countries in Central Europe adopted Magdeburg rights. Before 1870, the industrialization that had developed in Western and Central Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world. In Eastern Europe, industrialization lagged far behind. Russia, for example, remained rural and agricultural, its autocratic rulers kept the peasants in serfdom.
The concept of Central Europe was known at the beginning of the 19th century, but its real life began in the 20th century and became an object of intensive interest. However, the first concept mixed science and economy – it was connected with intensively growing German economy and its aspirations to dominate a part of European continent called Mitteleuropa; the German term denoting Central Europe was so fashionable that other languages started referring to it when indicating territories from Rhine to Vistula, or Dnieper, from the Baltic Sea to the Balkans. An example of that-time vision of Central Europe may be seen in J. Partsch's book of 1903. On 21 January 1904, Mitteleuropäischer Wirtschaftsverein was established in Berlin with economic integration of Germany and Austria–Hungary as its main aim. Another time, the term Central Europe became connected to the German plans of political and cultural domination; the "bible" of the concept was Friedrich Naumann's book Mitteleuropa in which he called for an economic federation to be established after the war.
Naumann's idea was that the federation would have at its centre Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire but would include all European nations outside the Anglo-French alliance, on one side, Russia, on the other. The concept failed after the German defeat in the dissolution of Austria -- Hungary; the revival of the idea may be observed during the Hitler era. According to Emmanuel de Martonne, in 1927 the Central European countries included: Austria, Germany, Poland and Switzerland; the author use both Human and Physical Geographical features to define Central Europe, but he doesn't care about the legal development, the social, economic, infrastructural developments in these countries. The interwar period brought new geopolitical system and economic and political problems, the concept of Central Europe took a different character; the centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia and Poland. Central Europe ceased to be the area of German aspiration to lead or dominate and became a territory of various integration movements aiming at resolving political and national problems of "new" states, being a way to face German and Soviet pressures.
However, the conflict of interests was too big and neither Little Entente nor Intermarium ideas succeeded. The interwar period brought new elements to the concept of Central Europe. Before World War I, it embraced German states, non-German territories being an area of intended German penetration and domination – German leadership position was to be the natural result of economic dominance. After the war, the Eastern part of Central Europe was placed at the centre of the concept. At that time the scientists took an interest in the idea: the International Historical Congress in Brussels in 1923 was committed to Central Europe, the 1933 Congress continued the discussions. Hungarian scholar Magda Adam wrote in her study Versailles System and Central Europe: "Today we know that the bane of Central Europe was the Little Entente, military alliance of Czechoslovakia and Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes (later Yu
Kunigunda of Halych
Kunigunda Rostislavna was Queen consort of Bohemia and its Regent from 1278 until her death. She was a member of the House of Chernigov, a daughter of Rostislav Mikhailovich, she was born in Ruthenia, in the domains of her paternal grandfather Michael of Chernigov. Her grandfather was the last Grand Prince of Kiev, deposed not by a more powerful prince but by the Mongol Empire, her parents were Rostislav Mikhailovich, future ruler of Belgrade and Slavonia, his wife Anna of Hungary. After the death of her father's father, Kunigunda's family relocated to Hungary, where her mother's father, Béla IV of Hungary, made her father governor of certain Serbian-speaking regions in the Danube Valley, her father proclaimed himself Emperor of Bulgaria in 1256 but did not stay there to defend his title. Kunigunda was married – as a token of alliance from her maternal grandfather Béla – to King Ottokar II of Bohemia in Pressburg on 25 October 1261. Ottokar was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, divorced from Margaret, Duchess of Austria because she had been unable to provide heirs for the King.
Kunigunda, 41 years Margaret's junior, bore Ottokar several children including: Kunigunde of Bohemia. Married Boleslaus II of Masovia. Agnes of Bohemia. Married Rudolf II, Duke of Austria. Wenceslaus II of Bohemia. However, the peace between Bohemia and Hungary ended after 10 years, when Kunigunda's uncle Stephen came to power as the King of Hungary. In 1278, King Ottokar tried to recover his lands lost to Rudolph I of Germany in 1276, he made allies and collected a large army, but he was defeated by Rudolph and killed at the Battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen on the March on 26 August 1278. Moravia was subdued and its government entrusted to Rudolph's representatives, leaving Kunigunda, now Queen Regent of Bohemia in control of only the province surrounding Prague, while the young Wenceslaus was betrothed and married to one of Rudolph's daughters, Judith. Kunigunda married secondly a Bohemian magnate Záviš, Lord of Falkenštejn, in Prague in 1285. However, she died only a few months later. Záviš married again to the Hungarian Princess Elisabeth.
He was executed on behalf of the King on 24 August 1290. Kunigunda's son Wenceslaus II kept the Kingdom of Bohemia, succeeded in obtaining Poland and Hungary although not sustainably, she is one of the pivotal ancestresses of both the House of Luxembourg and the Habsburgs. Kateřina Charvátová. Václav II.: král český a polský. ISBN 978-80-7021-841-9. Gabriela V. Šarochová. Radostný úděl vdovský: královny-vdovy přemyslovských Čech. ISBN 80-86569-24-1
Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was the head of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254. Born in Genoa in an unknown year, Sinibaldo was the son of Beatrice Grillo and Ugo Fieschi, Count of Lavagna; the Fieschi were a noble merchant family of Liguria. Sinibaldo received his education at the universities of Parma and Bologna and, for a time, taught canon law at Bologna, it is pointed out by Agostino Paravicini-Bagliani, that there is no documentary evidence of such a professorship. From 1216-1227 he was Canon of the Cathedral of Parma, he was considered one of the best canonists of his time, was called to serve Pope Honorius III in the Roman Curia as Auditor causarum, from 11 November 1226 to 30 May 1227. He was promoted to the office of Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, though he retained the office and the title for a time after he was named Cardinal. Vice-Chancellor Sinibaldo Fieschi was created Cardinal Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina on 18 September 1227 by Pope Gregory IX.
He served as papal governor of the March of Ancona, from 17 October 1235 until 1240. It is repeated, from the 17th century on, that he became bishop of Albenga in 1235, but there is no foundation to this claim. Innocent's immediate predecessor was Pope Celestine IV, elected 25 October 1241, whose reign lasted a mere fifteen days; the events of Innocent IV's pontificate are therefore inextricably linked to the policies dominating the reigns of popes Innocent III, Honorius III and Gregory IX. Gregory had been demanding the return of portions of the Papal States taken over by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II when he died; the Pope had called a general council so he could depose the emperor with the support of Europe's spiritual leaders, but Frederick had seized two cardinals traveling to the council in hopes of intimidating the curia. The two prelates remained incarcerated and missed the conclave that elected Celestine; the conclave that reconvened after his death fell into camps supporting contradictory policies about how to treat with the emperor.
After a year and a half of contentious debate and coercion, a papal election reached a unanimous decision. Cardinal de' Fieschi reluctantly accepted election as Pope 25 June 1243, taking the name Innocent IV; as Cardinal de' Fieschi, Sinibaldo had been on friendly terms with Frederick after his excommunication. The Emperor greatly admired the cardinal's wisdom, having enjoyed discussions with him from time to time. Following the election the witty Frederick remarked that he had lost the friendship of a cardinal but made up for it by gaining the enmity of a pope, his jest notwithstanding, Frederick's letter to the new pontiff was couched in respectful terms, offering Innocent congratulations and success expressing hope for an amicable settlement of the differences between the empire and the papacy. Negotiations leading to this objective proved abortive. Innocent refused to back down from his demands, Frederick II refused to acquiesce, the dispute continued, its major point of contention being the reinstatement of Lombardy to the Patrimony of St Peter.
The Emperor's machinations caused a good deal of anti-papal feeling to rise in Italy in the Papal States, imperial agents encouraged plots against papal rule. Realizing how untenable his position in Rome was growing, Innocent IV secretly and hurriedly withdrew, fleeing Rome on 7 June 1244. Traveling in disguise, Innocent made his way to Sutri and Civitavecchia, to Genoa, his birthplace, where he arrived on 7 July. From there, on 5 October, he fled to France. Making his way to Lyon, where he arrived on November 29, 1244, Innocent was greeted by the magistrates of the city. Finding himself now in secure surroundings and out of the reach of Frederic II, Innocent summoned, in a sermon preached on December 27, 1244, as many bishops as could get to Lyon, to attend what became the 13th General Council of the Church, the first to be held in Lyon; the bishops met for three public sessions: 28 June, 5 July, 17 July 1245. Their principal business was to subjugate the Emperor Frederick II. An earlier pope, Gregory IX, had issued letters on 9 June 1239, ordering all the bishops of France to confiscate all Talmuds in the possession of the Jews.
Agents were to raid each synagogue on the first Saturday of Lent of 1240, seize the books, placing them in the custody of the Dominicans or the Franciscans. The Bishop of Paris was ordered to see to it that copies of the Pope's mandate reached all the bishops of France, Aragon, Castile and León, Portugal. On 20 June 1239, there was another letter, addressed to the Bishop of Paris, the Prior of the Dominicans and the Minister of the Franciscans, calling for the burning of all copies of the Talmud, any obstructionists to be visited with ecclesiastical censures. On the same day he wrote to the King of Portugal ordering him to see to it that all copies of the Talmud be seized and turned over to the Dominicans or Franciscans. Louis IX, King of France, on account of these letters held a trial in Paris in 1240, which found the Talmud guilty of 35 alleged charges. Twenty-four cartloads of the Talmud were burned. Innocent IV continued Gregory IX's policy. In a letter of 9 May 1244, he wrote to King Louis IX, ordering the Talmud and any books with Talmudic glosses to be examined by the Regent Doctors of the University of Paris, if condemned by them, to be burned.
However, an argument was presented that this policy was a negation of the Church’s tradition