Echigo Province was an old province in north-central Japan, on the shores of the Sea of Japan. It bordered on Uzen, Iwashiro, Kōzuke and Etchū Provinces, it corresponds the island of Sado. Its abbreviated form name was Esshū, with Etchū Provinces. Under the Engishiki classification system, Echigo was ranked as one of the 35 "superior countries" in terms of importance, one of the 30 "far countries" in terms of distance from the capital. Echigo and Kōzuke Province were known as the Jōetsu region. In the late 7th century, during the reign of Emperor Monmu, the ancient province of Koshi Province was divided into three separate provinces: Echizen, Etchū, Echigo; the new Echigo Province consisted of Iwafune and Nutari Districts, was one of two border provinces of the Yamato state with the Emishi. In 702, Echigo was given the four districts of Kubiki, Koshi and Kanbara from Etchū; when Japan extended its territory northward in 708, Dewa District was established under Echigo. But this district was transformed into Dewa Province in 712.
Sado Province was temporarily merged with Echigo between 743 and 752. Since the division of Sado in 752, the territory of Echigo remained constant to the Meiji period; the provincial capital of Echigo was located in Kubiki District, in what is now the city of Jōetsu, but its exact location is now unknown. The temple of Gochikokubun-ji in Jōetsu, claims to be the successor of the provincial temple of Echigo Province. Two Shinto shrines vie for the title of ichinomiya of Echigo Province: Yahiko Shrine in Yahiko, Kota Shrine in Jōetsu. Echigo was ruled directly by the Hōjō clan during the Kamakura period, followed by the Uesugi clan from the start of the Muromachi period to the late Sengoku period. Under the Tokugawa shogunate of the Edo period, Echigo was divided among several feudal domains; the Hokurikudō highway passed through the province, numerous post stations were established. The port of Niigata was of major importance in the coastal kitamaebune trading system; the area became a battleground during the Battle of Hokuetsu in the Boshin War of the Meiji Restoration.
Following the establishment of the Meiji government, the various domains became prefectures with the abolition of the han system in 1871. These various prefectures merged to form Niigata Prefecture in 1876. Echigo Province Dewa District - split off to become Dewa Province Iwafune District Kanbara District Higashikanbara District Kitakanbara District Minamikanbara District Nakakanbara District - dissolved Nishikanbara District Koshi District - part of Etchū Province. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Media related to Echigo Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903 Echigo on "Edo 300 HTML"
Etchū Province was a province of Japan in the area, today Toyama Prefecture in the Hokuriku region of Japan. Etchū bordered on Noto and Kaga Provinces to the west and Hida Provinces to the south, Echigo Province to the east and the Sea of Japan to the north, its abbreviated form name was Esshū. Koshi Province was an ancient province of Japan and is listed as one of the original provinces in the Nihon Shoki; the region as a whole was sometimes referred to as Esshū. In 701 AD, per the reforms of the Taihō Code, Koshi was divided into three separate provinces: Echizen, Etchū, Echigo. However, in 702 AD, the four western districts of Etchū Province were transferred to Echigo Province. Etchū annexed Noto Province in 741 AD, but Noto was separated out again in 757 AD. In 746 AD, the noted poet Ōtomo no Yakamochi became Kokushi, left many references to the region in the poetic anthology Man'yōshū; the Nara period provincial capital and provincial temple were located in what is now the city of Takaoka, Toyama.
Under the Engishiki classification system, Etchū was ranked as a "superior country" in terms of importance and "middle country" in terms of distance from the capital. Despite this classification, Etchū never developed a powerful local gōzoku clan and was controlled by its more powerful neighbours. During the Muromachi period, the Hatakeyama clan emerged as shugo of the region, but preferred to remain in Kyoto, to rule through appointed deputies, such as the Jinbō clan and the Shiina clan. Into the Sengoku period, the Hatakeyama transferred their power base to Nanao Castle in Noto province, Etchū became an area contested by the Uesugi clan and the Oda clan with the Ikkō-ikki helping play one side against the other; the area was conquered by Oda Nobunaga's general Shibata Katsuie and his deputy Sassa Narimasa, who were replaced by Maeda Toshiie under the rule of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The Maeda clan retained control of the province under Kaga Domain during the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate. During the mid-Edo period, Nei District and much of Niikawa District were separated from Kaga Domain into the 100,000 koku Toyama Domain, ruled by a branch of the Maeda clan.
Following the Meiji Restoration and the abolition of the han system in 1871, Etchū Province was divided into Kanazawa Prefecture, Toyama Prefecture, Nanao Prefecture and Niikawa Prefecture, but these areas were reconsolidated into Ishikawa Prefecture in 1876. In 1883, Ishikawa Prefecture was divided, with the original four districts of Etchū Province becoming the new Toyama Prefecture. However, the name “Etchū Province” continued to appear in official documents afterwards for some administrative purposes. For example, Etchū is explicitly recognized in treaties in 1894 between Japan and the United States and between Japan and the United Kingdom. Toyama Prefecture Imizu District – dissolved Himi District – split from Imizu District on April 1, 1896. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 77691250 Media related to Etchu Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdoch's map of provinces, 1903
Oyabe is a city in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 March 2018, the city had an estimated population of 30,328 in 10,331 households, and a population density of 230 persons per km². Its total area was 134.07 square kilometres. Oyabe is in the Tonami flatlands of far western Toyama Prefecture, is bordered by Ishikawa Prefecture to the west. Much of the area is a dispersed settlement typical of this region of Japan. Oyabe has a humid continental climate characterized by mild summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall; the average annual temperature in Oyabe is 14.0 °C. The average annual rainfall is 2454 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.7 °C, lowest in January, at around 2.7 °C. Toyama Prefecture Tonami Nanto Takaoka Ishikawa Prefecture Kanazawa Tsubata Per Japanese census data, the population of Oyabe has declined over the past 40 years; the area of present-day Oyabe was part of ancient Etchū Province and developed as a post station on the Hokuriku kaidō highway during the Edo period.
The town of Isurugi was created with the establishment of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889. It was raised to city status upon merging with the town of Tochu on August 1, 1962, was renamed Oyabe. Oyabe has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 1６ members. Oyabe has five public elementary schools and four public junior high schools operated by the town government, three public high schools operated by the Toyama Prefectural Board of Education. Ainokaze Toyama Railway Isurugi Hokuriku Expressway National Route 8 National Route 359 National Route 471 Oyabe Yotaka - adapted from a traditional field festival, it is held on the nights of 10 and 11 June; the festival is 400 years old and has been passed down from generation to generation in 84 different locations in Oyabe. Helicopter and Disaster Prevention Festival, held from 26-27 August Calamus Festival, held on 18 June Toshio Yamada, politician Hiroshi Hase, Japan's Minister of Education, Sports and Technology Oyabe travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Official Oyabe Festival website
Four Heavenly Kings
The Four Heavenly Kings are four Buddhist gods, which originates from the Indian version of Lokapalas, each of whom watches over one cardinal direction of the world. In Chinese mythology, they are known collectively as the "Fēng Tiáo Yǔ Shùn" or "Sì Dà Tiānwáng". In the ancient language Sanskrit they are called the "Chaturmahārāja", or "Chaturmahārājikādeva": "Four Great Heavenly Kings"; the Hall of the Heavenly Kings is a standard component of Chinese Buddhist temples. The Kings are collectively named as follows: The Four Heavenly Kings are said to live in the Cāturmahārājika heaven on the lower slopes of Mount Sumeru, the lowest of the six worlds of the devas of the Kāmadhātu, they are the protectors of the world and fighters of evil, each able to command a legion of supernatural creatures to protect the Dharma. Four Heavenly Kings statues at the royal crematorium of King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand All four Kings serve Śakra, the lord of the devas of Trāyastriṃśa. On the 8th, 14th and 15th days of each lunar month, the Kings either send out emissaries or go themselves to inspect the state of virtue and morality in the world of men.
They report their findings to the assembly of the Trāyastriṃśa devas. On the orders of Śakra, the Kings and their retinues stand guard to protect Trāyastriṃśa from another attack by the Asuras, which once threatened to destroy the realm of the devas, they vowed to protect the Buddha, the Dharma, the Buddha's followers from danger. According to Vasubandhu, devas born in the Cāturmahārājika heaven are 1/4 of a krośa in height, they have a five-hundred-year lifespan. The attributes borne by each King link them to their followers; the umbrella was a symbol of regal sovereignty in ancient India, the sword is a symbol of martial prowess. Vaiśravaṇa's mongoose, which ejects jewels from its mouth, is said to represent generosity in opposition to greed. Statues of the Four Heavenly Kings of Jikō-ji, Takasago, Hyōgo, Japan; the Spice Boys are a collective of antagonists called 魔族四天王 in the anime Dragonball Z. The Elite Four from the Pokémon franchise are known as the Four Heavenly Kings in the original Japanese.
The Four Guardians from the video game series Mega Man Zero are known as the Four Heavenly Kings in the original Japanese. The Four Kings of Heaven is the collective name of four antagonists in the Sailor Moon franchise; the Four Heavenly Kings is an association of aliens in Ultraman Mebius. The Four Heavenly Kings of Orochi from The King of Fighters video game series; the Four Heavenly Kings is a group of four powerful "Gourmet Hunters" in the anime/manga Toriko. The Elite Four from the anime Kill la Kill are known as the Four Heavenly Kings in the original Japanese; the Four Heavenly Kings of Shadaloo from Street Fighter However Sagat is replaced by Fang in Street Fighter V. Guardians of the directions Bacab Lokapala Tetramorph Titan Anemoi Four Dwarves Four Stags Svetovid Schumacher, Mark. "Shitenno - Four Heavenly Kings of Buddhism, Guarding Four Cardinal Directions". Digital Dictionary of Buddhism in Japan
Battle of Uji (1180)
The first battle of Uji is famous and important for having opened the Genpei War. In early 1180, Prince Mochihito, the Minamoto Clan's favored claimant to the Imperial Throne, was chased by Taira forces to the Mii-dera, a temple just outside Kyoto. Due to the interference of a Mii-dera monk with Taira sympathies, the Minamoto army arrived too late to help defend the temple. Minamoto no Yorimasa and Prince Mochihito, along with a force of about fifteen hundred men including the warrior monks of Mii-dera and the Watanabe clan, fled south towards Nara, they crossed the Uji River, just outside the Byōdō-in, tore up the planks of the bridge behind them to prevent the Taira following them. Three warrior monks in particular are named in the Heike Monogatari: Gochi-in no Tajima, Tsutsui Jōmyō Meishū, Ichirai Hōshi; these three, along with the other monks of Mii-dera, fought with bow and arrow, a variety of swords and daggers, naginata. As for the Heike troops, they were led by Ashikaga Tadatsuna, one of the few warrior of direct Minamoto descent who stayed loyal to his oath to the Taira family when it was crumbling around him, until he and his father were murdered by one of their retainers, Kiryū Rokurō.
A young hero of 18 years old, Tadatsuna is remembered as having the strength of hundred men, a voice echoed over 10 li, teeth of 1 sun long. Describing it as such, Azuma Kagami further stated that "there will be no warrior in future ages like this Tadatsuna." Led by their young general, the Taira force soon began to ford the river and caught up with the Minamoto. Tadatsuna was the first warrior on the frontline, gallantly proclaimed his name and lineage before charging the enemies, as it was the traditional custom. Yorimasa tried to help the Imperial Prince get away, but was struck with an arrow in the right elbow. While his sons and Kanetsuna were dying to fend off the enemies eager for the old man's head, Yorimasa committed seppuku."Yorimasa committed hara-kiri in a way, to set the standard for generations to come."As for Prince Mochihito, he was captured and killed shortly afterwards by the Taira warriors. Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Warrior Monks AD 949-1603. Oxford: Osprey Publishing
Taira no Shigemori
Taira no Shigemori was the favorite son of the Taira clan patriarch, Taira no Kiyomori. He supported his father in the Heiji Rebellion, he died, "some said of grief at his father's stubborn and misguided treatment of his opponents." He was the ancestor of Oda Nobunaga by Taira no Chikazane. His sons were Taira no Koremori and Taira no Sukemori
Battle of Uji (1184)
Minamoto no Yoshinaka tried to wrest power from his cousins Yoritomo and Yoshitsune, seeking to take command of the Minamoto clan. To that end, he burned the Hōjūji Palace, kidnapped Emperor Go-Shirakawa. However, his cousins Noriyori and Yoshitsune caught up with him soon afterwards, following him across the Bridge over the Uji, New Year's Day, 1184, which Yoshinaka had torn up to impair their crossing; this was an ironic reversal of the first Battle of the Uji, only four years earlier. Much as the Taira did in that first battle, Minamoto no Yoshitsune led his horsemen across the river, defeated Yoshinaka. Kajiwara Kagesue Sasaki Takatsuna