Minor campaigns of 1815
On 1 March 1815 Napoleon Bonaparte escaped from his imprisonment on the isle of Elba, and launched a bid to recover his empire. A confederation of European powers pledged to stop him, during the period known as the Hundred Days Napoleon chose to confront the armies of Prince Blücher and the Duke of Wellington in what has become known as the Waterloo Campaign. He was decisively defeated by the two allied armies at the Battle of Waterloo, which marched on Paris forcing Napoleon to abdicate for the second time. However Russia and some of the minor German states fielded armies against him, of these other armies the ones engaged in the largest campaigns and saw the most fighting were two Austrian armies, The Army of the Upper Rhine and the Army of Italy. Upon assumption of the throne, Napoleon found that he was left with little by the Bourbons, by the end of May the total armed forces available to Napoleon had reached 198,000 with 66,000 more in depots training up but not yet ready for deployment.
By the end of May Napoleon had deployed his forces as follows, II Corps cantoned between Valenciennes and Avesnes. The preceding corps were to be formed into LArmée du Nord, for the defence of France, Bonaparte deployed his remaining forces within France observing Frances enemies and domestic, intending to delay the former and suppress the latter. Its composition in June was 38 guns, and 5, 392–8,400 men II Corps of Observation – Armée du Var, based at Toulon, with a strength of 10,000 men. There were two major deployments,8,000 men under Clausel cantoned around Toulouse and under Decaen cantoned around Bordeaux guarding the Pyrenean frontier. Lamarque led 10,000 men into La Vendée to quell a Royalist insurrection in that region, the Austrian military contingent was divided into three armies. This was the largest of these armies, commanded by Field Marshal Karl Philipp, besides these there were contingents of Fulda and Isenburg. These were recruited by the Austrians from German territories that were in the process of losing their independence by being annexed to other countries at the Congress of Vienna.
Finally, these were joined by the contingents of the Kingdom of Saxony, Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen and its composition in June was, This army was composed entirely of Swiss. The Swiss General Niklaus Franz von Bachmann commanded this army and this force was to observe any French forces that operated near its borders. The column formed by the wing was to be supported by the Russian Army, under Field Marshal Count Barcaly de Tolly. The object of the operations, in the first instance, was the concentration of the Army of the Upper Rhine, as soon as Prince Schwarzenberg was made acquainted with the commencement of hostilities in what is now Belgium, he gave his orders for the advance of his Army. On 19 June, the Bavarian Army crossed the Rhine at Mannheim and Oppenheim, on 20 June there were some minor skirmishes between advanced posts near Landau and Dahn. On 23 June, the Austrian army having approached the Sarre, the right column, under Lieutenant General Count Beckers, attacked Saarbrücken, where it was opposed by the French General Meriage
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany in the region of Alsace. In 2014, the city proper had 276,170 inhabitants, Strasbourgs metropolitan area had a population of 773,347 in 2013, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est regions inhabitants. The transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014, Strasbourg is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union. The city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, Strasbourgs historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. The largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque, was inaugurated by French Interior Minister Manuel Valls on 27 September 2012.
Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Duisburg, Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, after the 5h century, the city became known by a completely different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means Town of roads, Strasbourg is situated on the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the River Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city. The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the River Ill, which flows parallel to, and roughly 4 kilometres from. The natural courses of the two eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city. This section of the Rhine valley is an axis of north-south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself.
The city is some 400 kilometres east of Paris, in spite of its position far inland, Strasbourgs climate is classified as Oceanic, with warm, relatively sunny summers and cold, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, on average, snow falls 30 days per year. The highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003. The lowest temperature recorded was −23.4 °C in December 1938. Nonetheless, the disappearance of heavy industry on both banks of the Rhine, as well as effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have reduced air pollution
Military mobilisation during the Hundred Days
During the Hundred Days of 1815, both the Coalition nations and the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte mobilised for war. This article describes the deployment of forces in early June 1815 just before the start of the Waterloo Campaign and the minor campaigns of 1815. Upon assumption of the throne, Napoleon found that he was left with little by the Bourbons, by the end of May, the total armed forces available to Napoleon had reached 198,000 with 66,000 more in depots training up but not yet ready for deployment. By the end of May, Napoleon had deployed his forces as follows, II Corps cantoned between Valenciennes and Avesnes. The preceding corps were to be formed into LArmée du Nord, for the defence of France, Bonaparte deployed his remaining forces within France observing Frances enemies and domestic, intending to delay the former and suppress the latter. By June, they were organised as follows, V Corps – Armée du Rhin, 15th Infantry Division, 16th Infantry Division, 17th Infantry Division, 7th Cavalry Division, National Guard Division,46 guns, Total 20, 000–23,000 men.
VII Corps – Armée des Alpes, based at Lyons, this army was charged with the defence of Lyons and to observe the Austro-Sardinian army of Frimont. Its composition in June was, 18th Infantry Division 8th Cavalry Division 3rd National Guard Division 4th National Guard Division 38 guns Total 5, 392–8,400 men II Corps of Observation – Armée du Var. Based at Toulon and commanded by Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune and its composition in June was, 24th Infantry Division, 25th Infantry Division, 14th Chasseurs à Cheval Cavalry Regiment,22 guns, Total 5, 500–6,116 men. III Corps of Observation – Army of the Pyrenees orientales, based at Toulouse and commanded by General Charles Mathieu Isidore Decaen, this army observed the eastern Spanish frontier. Its composition in June was, 26th Infantry Division, 5th Chasseurs à Cheval Cavalry Regiment,24 guns, Total 3, IV Corps of Observation – Army of the Pyrenees occidentales. Based at Bordeaux and commanded by General Bertrand Clauzel, this army observed the western Spanish frontier and its composition in June was, 27th Infantry Division 15th Chasseurs à Cheval Cavalry Regiment 24 guns Total 3, 516–6,800 men Army of the West - Armée de lOuest.
The army contained a Young Guard Infantry brigade consisting of the 2nd Tirailleur and 2nd Voltigeur regiments and some line units detached from the armies as well as gendarmes. Its composition in June was, One Un-numbered Infantry Division under General Brayer, One Un-numbered Infantry Division under General Travot,24 guns, Total 10, 000–27,000 men. The Seventh Coalition armies formed to invade France were, The forces at the disposal of the Seventh Coalition for an invasion of France amounted to the part of a million men. In June 1815 Wellingtons army of 93,000 with headquarters at Brussels was cantoned, I Corps,30,200, headquarters Braine-le-Comte, II Corps,27,300, headquarters Ath, distributed in the area Ath-Oudenarde–Ghent. Reserve Cavalry 9,900, in the valley of the Dendre river, Wellington had very much hoped to obtain a Portuguese contingent of 12-14,000 men that might be boarded on ships and sent to this army. However, this contingent never materialised, as the Portuguese government were extremely uncooperative and they explained that they did not have the authority to send the Prince Regent of Portugals forces to war without his consent
Reduction of the French fortresses in 1815
The last of the French fortresses did not capitulate until September of that year. It was most essential that some of the principal fortresses should be secured, the general arrangements for the besieging of the fortresses, and the planning of the further operations, formed the subject of the conference at Catillon held on 23 June 1815. As with the advance of the commanded by Wellington and Blücher. One notable exception was Huningue and its governor General Barbanègre who commanded a garrison of only 500 men against 25,000 Austrians. At its surrender to the Austrians on 26 August 1815, the city was a ruin, under Article IV Convention on the Military Lines this included 26 fortified places including fortresses and fortified towns. The occupation army was about 150,000 strong and was commanded by the Duke of Wellington, in the end the occupation lasted three years and Coalition forces pulled out in 1818. EM staff, France 1814–1914, The European Magazine, and London Review, Philological Society, 159–161 Jaques, Dictionary of Battles and Sieges, F-O, Greenwood Publishing Group, p.
Battle of Wavre
The Battle of Wavre was the final major military action of the Hundred Days campaign and the Napoleonic Wars. It was fought on 18–19 June 1815 between the Prussian rearguard under the command of General Johann von Thielmann and three corps of the French army under the command of Marshal Grouchy, a blocking action, this battle kept 33,000 French soldiers from reaching the battle at Waterloo. This battle helped the Anglo-allied army defeat the French army there, Marshal Grouchy was in Gembloux with III Corps commanded by General Vandamme and IV Corps commanded by General Gerard. The 4th Cavalry Division, commanded by Pajol, and the 21st infantry division, under Teste, reconnaissance by Pajols horsemen during the 17 June found that the Prussians had left Namur. At around 06,00 of 18 June 1815 Grouchy reported to Napoleon that the Prussians had left Tourinnes by marching all night and he further reported that he was moving on Wavre with all haste. His despatch included a Prussian requisition form by way of proof and he noted that by attacking and standing at Wavre, he could block the Prussians from intervening against the rest of the French army.
At 11,30, Grouchy and his corps commanders heard in the distance the noise from the Grand Battery as the Battle of Waterloo started, Grouchy therefore declined to follow his subordinates suggestion, pointing out that Napoleon had more than enough force to deal with Wellington. Minutes after this conversation, Exelmans reported strong Prussian positions 5 km from Wavre, at 13,00, elements of Exelmans cavalry were in contact with the Prussian 14th Brigade’s rear guard. Further argument was ended by the arrival at 16,00 of another order from Napoleon, all the brigades of the Prussian III Corps, had, at that time, received the order to commence the general movement to the right. A detachment of two battalions, under Colonel Zepelin, from the 9th Brigade, which had not yet crossed the river Dyle, was to be left in occupation of Wavre. The 12th Brigade was already in line of march. In the mean time, French Tirailleurs were observed extending along the opposite heights and it soon became manifest to the Prussians that they contemplated forcing the passage of the river.
Higher up the stream, at the Mill of Bierges, at Limale, the river Dyle is not deep, but because of the very heavy rain over the previous 24 hours it was swollen. The low range of heights on either side of the valley was covered in places with wood. The heights on the bank are generally more elevated, but those on the left have steeper declivities. The shortest road from Namur to Brussels passed through the town, the great number of hollow ways forms a prominent feature in the vicinity, and these, being in a miry state from the rain, were unfavourable to the progress of troops passing through them. The position was occupied, the 12th Brigade, with the Horse Battery No. 20, was posted on the height in rear of Bierge, the bridge in front of this village was barricaded, and the Mill occupied for the defence of the bridge
Battle of Ligny
The Battle of Ligny was the last victory of the military career of Napoleon Bonaparte. In this battle, French troops of the Armée du Nord under Napoleons command, defeated part of a Prussian army under Field Marshal Prince Blücher, near Ligny in present-day Belgium. However, had the French army succeeded in keeping the Prussian army from joining the Anglo-allied Army under Wellington at Waterloo, Napoleon might have won the Waterloo Campaign. If he could destroy the existing Coalition forces south of Brussels before they were reinforced, he might be able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. The Duke of Wellington expected Napoleon to try to envelop the Coalition armies, the roads to Mons were paved, which would have enabled a rapid flank march. This would have cut Wellingtons communications with his base at Ostend, in fact, Napoleon planned instead to divide the two Coalition armies and defeat them separately, and he encouraged Wellingtons misapprehension with false intelligence.
Only very late on the night of 15 June was Wellington certain that the Charleroi attack was the main French thrust, neys orders were to secure the crossroads of Quatre Bras, so that if necessary, he could swing east and reinforce Napoleon. As Napoleon considered the concentrated Prussian army the greater threat, he moved against them first, the centre and left wing together would make a night-march to Brussels. The Coalition forces would thus be irremediably sundered, and all that remained would be to them in detail. Ney spent the morning in massing his I and II corps, and in reconnoitring the enemy at Quatre Bras, but up till noon he took no serious step to capture the cross-roads, which lay at his mercy. Grouchy meantime reported from Fleurus that Prussians were coming up from Namur and he was still at Charleroi when, between 09,00 and 10,00, further news reached him from the left that considerable hostile forces were visible at Quatre Bras. Then, keeping Lobau provisionally at Charleroi, Napoleon hastened to Fleurus and it was a position that had been previously and found to be one of most suitable, in the event of Napoleons adoption of a line of operations across the Sambre at Charleroi.
Apart from the tactical considerations, there were favourable strategic reasons for Blücher choosing the location. At the last named point, another stream falls into the Ligny on leaving a ravine, which commences northward of the village of Bothey. The extreme-right, resting upon the Namur road, in the direction of Quatre Bras, was completely open, above Mont-Potriaux, the bed of the valley was soft, and occasionally swampy, below that Mont-Potriaux the ground was still softer. The buildings in the villages were generally of stone, with thatched roofs, Saint-Amand and Boignée were the most salient points of the position, the central portion of which retired considerably, particularly near Mont-Potriaux. In the morning of the 16th, the I Corps occupied that portion of the position which was circumscribed by the villages of Brye, Saint-Amand-la-Haye, Saint-Amand, and Ligny. The main body of the I Corps was drawn up on the height between Brye and Ligny, and upon which stands the farm and windmill of Bussy, the highest point of the whole position
Souffelweyersheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France, and is part of metropolitan Strasbourg. Souffelweyersheim means, the village on the pond of Souffel, Souffel + Weyer + S + Heim Locally the name is shortened and the village is called Souffel. The village covers an area of 451 hectares, and is located 6 km north of Strasbourg at an altitude of 140 metres. Located in the plain of Alsace, between the massifs of the Vosges and the Black Forest, the plain is bisected by the Souffel river from which the village takes its name. This river rises in Kuttolsheim and joins the Ill river, a tributary of the Rhine, in 1790, the formerly common pasture meadows were subdivided, and sections were given to Souffelweyersheim, Bischheim and Schiltigheim. In 1792, Austria and Prussia began hostilities against France, after his disastrous Russian campaign, Napoleon Bonaparte managed with difficulty to return to France, but enemy forces in the Sixth Coalition followed.
In January 1814, the French troops lost Strasbourg to Cossacks who cantoned in Hoenheim and Schiltigheim, Napoleon abdicated in favour of Louis XVIII, and was banished to the isle of Elba. Napoleon escaped from Elba and returned to France on 26 February 1815, in a campaign that lasted a Hundred Days he attempted to remain on the throne of France. The day after the battle, the Crown Prince of Württemberg ordered the burning of the village of Souffelweyersheim and it took all of the nineteenth century to rebuild the village. On 19 July 1870, the Franco-Prussian War began, on 7 August, shortly after the battle of Froeschwiller-Wœrth, German troops arrived at Souffelweyersheim. The troops settled in Reichstett and began a siege of Strasbourg on 12 August, on September 27, burnt by the continuous bombing, surrendered. The Treaty of Frankfurt, signed 10 May 1871, put an end to the war, in 1906, newly expanded rail yards at Hausbergen were completed. This facility serves several communes in the Souffelweyersheim area, on 2 September 1939, the inhabitants of the communes in front of the Maginot line were evacuated to the valley of the Bruche River.
On 3 September 1939, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, on 9 September, the evacuated inhabitants embarked on a second journey to the South of France. They did not return to Alsace, which was occupied by the Germans from August 1940 until liberation on 23 November 1944 by the French 2nd Armoured Division of General Leclerc. In January 1945, a German offensive called Operation Nordwind forced a redeployment of the Allied troops in the north of Alsace, General Charles de Gaulle refused the American order to evacuate Strasbourg and the French troops pushed the Germans back but not before they reached Offendorf. Souffelweyersheim and its environs remained under the fire of the German batteries until April 1945, a law of 1966 created the Urban Community of Strasbourg and Souffelweyersheim was integrated into it. 1970 saw the completion of the construction of the motorway A34 Metz – Strasbourg, absorbed by the A4 motorway connecting Paris to Strasbourg,1815, Georges Schaeffer 1925–1941, Alfred Vix 1941–1944, Philippe Heim St.
Georges church was built in 1781 in the neo-classical style
The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe.
Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power.
However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province