Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars. Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor; the Spanish word "guerrilla" is the diminutive form of "guerra". The term became popular during the early-19th century Peninsular War, when the Spanish and Portuguese people rose against the Napoleonic troops and fought against a superior army using the guerrilla strategy. In correct Spanish usage, a person, a member of a "guerrilla" unit is a "guerrillero" if male, or a "guerrillera" if female; the term "guerrilla" was used in English as early as 1809 to refer to the fighters, to denote a group or band of such fighters. However, in most languages guerrilla still denotes the specific style of warfare; the use of the diminutive evokes the differences in number and scope between the guerrilla army and the formal, professional army of the state. Guerrilla warfare is a type of asymmetric warfare: competition between opponents of unequal strength.
It is a type of irregular warfare: that is, it aims not to defeat an enemy, but to win popular support and political influence, to the enemy's cost. Accordingly, guerrilla strategy aims to magnify the impact of a small, mobile force on a larger, more-cumbersome one. If successful, guerrillas weaken their enemy by attrition forcing them to withdraw. Tactically, guerrillas avoid confrontation with large units and formations of enemy troops, but seek and attack small groups of enemy personnel and resources to deplete the opposing force while minimizing their own losses; the guerrilla prizes mobility and surprise, organizing in small units and taking advantage of terrain, difficult for larger units to use. For example, Mao Zedong summarized basic guerrilla tactics at the beginning of the Chinese "Second Revolutionary Civil War" as:"The enemy advances, we retreat. At least one author credits the ancient Chinese work The Art of War with inspiring Mao's tactics. In the 20th century, other communist leaders, including North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh used and developed guerrilla warfare tactics, which provided a model for their use elsewhere, leading to the Cuban "foco" theory and the anti-Soviet Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.
In addition to traditional military methods, guerrilla groups may rely on destroying infrastructure, using improvised explosive devices, for example. They also rely on logistical and political support from the local population and foreign backers, are embedded within it, many guerrilla groups are adept at public persuasion through propaganda. Many guerrilla movements today rely on children as combatants, porters, informants, in other roles, which has drawn international condemnation. There is no accepted definition of "terrorism", the term is used as a political tactic by belligerents to denounce opponents whose status as terrorists is disputed. Contrary to some terrorist groups, guerrillas work in open positions as armed units, try to hold and seize land, do not refrain from fighting enemy military force in battle and apply pressure to control or dominate territory and population. While the primary concern of guerrillas is the enemy's active military units, terrorists are concerned with non-military agents and target civilians.
Guerrilla forces principally fight in accordance with the law of war. In this sense, they respect the rights of innocent civilians by refraining from targeting them. According to the Ankara Center for Crisis and Policy Studies, terrorists do not limit their actions and terrorise civilians by putting fear in people's hearts and kill innocent foreigners in the country. Irregular warfare, based on elements characteristic of modern guerrilla warfare, has existed throughout the battles of many ancient civilizations; the growth of guerrilla warfare in the 20th century was inspired in part by theoretical works on guerrilla warfare, starting with the Manual de Guerra de Guerrillas by Matías Ramón Mella written in the 19th century and, more Mao Zedong's On Guerrilla Warfare, Che Guevara's Guerrilla Warfare, Lenin's text of the same name, all written after the successful revolutions carried by them in China and Russia, respectively. Those texts characterized the tactic of guerrilla warfare as, according to Che Guevara's text, being"used by the side, supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for use in defense against oppression".
The Chinese general and strategist Sun Tzu, in his The Art of War or 600 BC to 501 BC, was the earliest to propose the use of guerrilla warfare. This directly inspired the development of modern guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla tactics were employed by prehistoric tribal warriors against enemy tribes. Evidence of conventional warfare, on the other hand, did not emerge until 3100 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Since the Enlightenment, ideologies such as nationalism, liberalism and religious fundamentalism have played an important role in shaping insurgencies and guerrilla warfare; the Moroccan national hero Mohamed ben Abdelkrim el-Khattabi, along with his father, unified the Moroccan
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Juan Manuel de Rosas, nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was a politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and the Argentine Confederation. Although born into a wealthy family, Rosas independently amassed a personal fortune, acquiring large tracts of land in the process. Rosas enlisted his workers in a private militia, as was common for rural proprietors, took part in the disputes that led to numerous civil wars in his country. Victorious in warfare influential, with vast landholdings and a loyal private army, Rosas became a caudillo, as provincial warlords in the region were known, he reached the rank of brigadier general, the highest in the Argentine Army, became the undisputed leader of the Federalist Party. In December 1829, Rosas became governor of the province of Buenos Aires and established a dictatorship backed by state terrorism. In 1831, he signed the Federal Pact, recognising provincial autonomy and creating the Argentine Confederation; when his term of office ended in 1832, Rosas departed to the frontier to wage war on the indigenous peoples.
After his supporters launched a coup in Buenos Aires, Rosas was asked to return and once again took office as governor. Rosas reestablished his dictatorship and formed the repressive Mazorca, an armed parapolice that killed thousands of citizens. Elections became a farce, the legislature and judiciary became docile instruments of his will. Rosas created a cult of personality and his regime became totalitarian in nature, with all aspects of society rigidly controlled. Rosas faced many threats to his power during early 1840s, he fought a war against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation, endured a blockade by France, faced a revolt in his own province and battled a major rebellion that lasted for years and spread to several Argentine provinces. Rosas persevered and extended his influence in the provinces, exercising effective control over them through direct and indirect means. By 1848, he had extended his power beyond the borders of Buenos Aires and was ruler of all of Argentina. Rosas attempted to annex the neighbouring nations of Uruguay and Paraguay.
France and Great Britain jointly retaliated against Argentine expansionism, blockading Buenos Aires for most of the late 1840s, but were unable to halt Rosas, whose prestige was enhanced by his string of successes. When the Empire of Brazil began aiding Uruguay in its struggle against Argentina, Rosas declared war in August 1851, starting the Platine War; this short conflict ended with Rosas absconding to Britain. His last years were spent in exile living as a tenant farmer until his death in 1877. Rosas garnered an enduring public perception among Argentines as a brutal tyrant. Since the 1930s, an authoritarian, anti-Semitic, racist political movement in Argentina called Revisionism has tried to improve Rosas's reputation and establish a new dictatorship in the model of his regime. In 1989, his remains were repatriated by the government in an attempt to promote national unity, seeking forgiveness for him and for the 1970s military dictatorship. Rosas remains a controversial figure in Argentina in the 21st century.
Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rosas was born on 30 March 1793 at his family's town house in Buenos Aires, the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He was the first child of Agustina López de Osornio. León Ortiz was the son of an immigrant from the Spanish Province of Burgos. A military officer with an undistinguished career, León Ortiz had married into a wealthy Criollo family; the young Juan Manuel de Rosas's character was influenced by his mother Agustina, a strong-willed and domineering woman who derived these character traits from her father Clemente López de Osornio, a landowner who died defending his estate from an Indian attack in 1783. As was common practice at the time, Rosas was schooled at home until the age of 8, enrolled in what was regarded the best private school in Buenos Aires. Though befitting the son of a wealthy landowner, his education was unremarkable. According to historian John Lynch, Rosas' education "was supplemented by his own efforts in the years that followed.
Rosas was not unread, though the time, the place, his own bias limited the choice of authors. He appears to have had a sympathetic, if superficial, acquaintance with minor political thinkers of French absolutism."In 1806, a British expeditionary force invaded Buenos Aires. A 13-year-old Rosas served distributing ammunition to troops in a force organised by Viceroy Santiago Liniers to counter the invasion; the British returned a year later. Rosas was assigned to the Caballería de los Migueletes, although he was barred from active duty during this time due to illness. After the British invasions had been repelled and his family moved from Buenos Aires to their estancia, his work there further shaped his character and outlook as part of the Platine region's social establishment. In the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, owners of large landholdings provided food and protection for families living in areas under their control, their private defense forces consisted of laborers who were drafted as soldiers.
Most of these peons, as such workers were called, were gauchos. The landed aristocracy of Spanish descent considered the illiterate, mixed-race gauchos, who comprised the majority of the population, to be ungovernable and untrustworthy; the gauchos were tolerated because there was no other labor force available, but were treated with contempt by the landowners. Rosas got along well with the gauchos in his service, despite his harsh and authorit
Entre Ríos Province
Entre Ríos is a central province of Argentina, located in the Mesopotamia region. It borders the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, Uruguay in the east, its capital is Paraná, which lies opposite the city of Santa Fe. Together with Córdoba and Santa Fe, since 1999, the province is part of the economic-political association known as the Center Region; the first inhabitants of the area, now Entre Ríos were the Charrúa and Chaná who each occupied separate parts of the region. Spaniards entered in 1520, when Rodríguez Serrano ventured up the Uruguay River searching for the Pacific Ocean; the first permanent Spanish settlement was erected in the current La Paz Department at the end of the 16th century. As governor of Asunción first and of Buenos Aires, Hernandarias conducted expeditions to Entre Ríos unexplored lands. Juan de Garay, after founding Santa Fe, explored this area. However, the region remained indigenous and uninhabited by Europeans until a group of colonists from neighbouring Santa Fe Province settled on the Bajada del Paraná in the late seventeenth century, now the site of the provincial capital.
At the same time towns appear, which we now know as Nogoyá, Gualeguay, Gualeguaychú, Concepción del Uruguay and Concordia. Tomás de Rocamora further explored the area in 1783 under the threat of a Portuguese invasion from Brazil, gave official status to many of the above-mentioned towns, he was the first to refer to the region as Entre Ríos. At this stage, European settlement was minimal, though during the May Revolution, the few colonists in the cities along the Paraná shore supported Manuel Belgrano and his army on his way to Paraguay. On September 29, 1820, the leader Francisco Ramírez declared the territory an autonomous entity, the Republic of Entre Ríos; this lasted until his assassination on July 10 of the next year. In 1853, in a meeting of all the provinces except Buenos Aires, Paraná was elected as the capital of the Argentine Confederation, the Governor of Entre Ríos and leader Urquiza as its first president; the provincial capital was moved to Concepción del Uruguay. Urquiza, who had first won against Buenos Aires at the Battle of Cepeda in 1859, let his troops move back in the Battle of Pavón in 1861, which allowed his rival Bartolomé Mitre from Buenos Aires to become president.
At the time he was fulfilling his third term as governor of the province from 1860 to 1864 and after a voluntary interruption was reelected in 1886, but he was assassinated in 1870 after altogether 16 years of governing before finishing his mandate, ordered by his supportor Ricardo López Jordán, not trusting him anymore. Urquiza encouraged immigration through "colonization contracts", setting up many agricultural colonies with European settlers. According to data of the 1903 census, of the 425,373 inhabitants of the province, 153,067 were immigrants. Entre Rios' economy is the sixth largest in Argentina, its output in 2006 was estimated at US$7.71 billion, or, US$6,710 per capita in 2006. In 2013, its output was estimated at $63.814 billon Pesos or, 48,327 pesos per capita at current market prices. This was 21% below the average GDP per capita of 69,678 pesos for Argentina in 2013 at current market prices, its economy has long been more agricultural than the median in Argentina, comprising about 15% of output.
Entre Rios' agricultural products include rice, wheat and citrus of which it is the second biggest producer, exporting 16% of the production to Europe. Livestock production focuses on cattle, in sheep production in a decreasing proportion, covering 60,000 km²; the dairy industry in expansion, produces 250 thousand tons per year of dairy products. Of the national production of chickens and eggs, Entre Ríos contributes 37% of the first and 25% percent of the second. Another emerging production is honey and its derivatives for export. Manufacturing has a sizable presence in Entre Rios, making up another 15% of output, its industries are linked to agriculture, as in food and drinks industry and flour and rice mills. Other industries include timber-wood, chemical and machinery; as part of the Mesopotamic region, the land is completely flat, with hills some 100 meters in height. There are two main systems of low hills, called lomadas or cuchillas: the Cuchilla de Montiel and the Cuchilla Grande, which are separated by the Gualeguay River.
The name of the province means "between rivers". Entre Ríos is limited and traversed by many rivers and streams: the Paraná River and its delta to the west and south. Two national parks are located within the province: El Palmar National Park and Predelta National Park. There are hot springs in several locations along the basin of the Uruguay River, located in cities like Federación, Villa Elisa, Colón, etc; the province is divided into 2 climatic regions: The first one is a humid, temperate climate that covers most of the central and southern parts of the province. Mean temperatures range from 10 °C in winter to 26 °C in summer while the mean annual precipitation in this region is 1,000 millimetres; the second climatic region is a subtropical climate located in the northern parts of the pr
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón y O'Dogan was an Argentine general and politician of the early 19th century. He was appointed Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata after the Argentine Declaration of Independence. Pueyrredón was born in Buenos Aires, the fifth of eight sons of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón y Labroucherie, his wife, María Rita Damasia O'Doggan y Soria. Pueyrredon's father was a French merchant who established himself in Cádiz with his brother, in Buenos Aires, where he married his wife, of partial Irish descent, he was educated at the Royal College until the death of his father in 1791. María became the head of the family, assisted by Anselmo Sáenz Valiente in business, withdrew Juan Martín from his studies at the age of 14, he moved to live with a relative in Cádiz, Spain to learn about commerce. His first business took him to France, he returned to Buenos Aires to deal with his father's will, married his cousin Dolores Pueyrredón, daughter of Diego de Pueyrredón y Labrucherie and Maman Mairoluo, in Spain in 1803.
They returned to Buenos Aires. Pueyrredón thought of returning to Spain with her, hoping to restore her health by visiting her family, but she miscarried again and her health worsened, until she died in May 1805. Buenos Aires was invaded by British forces in 1806, during the first of two British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Pueyrredón was among the criollos who did not believe that the British would help them to become independent from Spain, he got an interview with governor Pascual Ruiz Huidobro. Huidobro authorized him to organize a resistance, so he returned to Buenos Aires and secretly prepared an army at the Perdriel ranch; the British, discovered it and defeated the half-prepared army. Pueyrredón escaped to Colonia del Sacramento and joined Santiago de Liniers, whose army would defeat the British. In 1807 he was sent as representative of Buenos Aires to Spain again, but returned in 1809 via Brazil to Buenos Aires, where he subsequently participated in the independentist movement. After the May Revolution of 1810, which gave birth to the first local government junta, he was appointed governor of Córdoba, in 1812 he became the leader of the independent forces and a member of the short-lived First Triumvirate.
From 1812 to 1815, he was exiled in San Luis. In 1816, Pueyrredón was elected Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, he supported José de San Martín's military campaign in Chile, founded the first national bank of Argentina and the national mint. After the declaration of a Unitarian constitution, revolts forced him to resign as Supreme Director in 1819 and go into exile in Montevideo, he subsequently played a small role in politics, most notably serving in 1829 as a mediator between Juan Manuel de Rosas and Juan Lavalle. He died in retirement on his ranch in Buenos Aires. During his time in San Luis, Pueyrredón had an illegitimate daughter, with Juana Sánchez. In 1815, at the age of 39, he married his 14-year-old second wife María Calixta Tellechea y Caviedes; the Pueyrredóns' only child Prilidiano was born in Buenos Aires on January 24, 1823. He became a civil engineer and artist, has been called the first Argentine painter. From 1835-49, Pueyrredón and his family lived in Europe.
The Honor Bound series of historical fiction by W. E. B. Griffin gives Pueyrredón Maria Elena Pueyrredón de Frade, she is a maternal ancestor of Argentinian Coronel Jorge Guillermo Frade, of the main protagonist of the series, Cletus Howell Frade, USMCR. Luna, Félix. Grandes protagonistas de la historia argentina: Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. Buenos Aires: Editorial Planeta. ISBN 950-49-0469-6. Biography by José M. Carcione. Short biography at Biografías y Vidas. Juan Martín de Pueyrredón at Find a Grave
José Casimiro Rondeau Pereyra was a general and politician in Argentina and Uruguay in the early 19th century. He was born in Buenos Aires but soon after his birth, the family moved to Montevideo, where he grew up and went to school. At the age of twenty, he joined the armed forces in Buenos Aires, but transferred to a regiment in Montevideo. During the British invasion of 1806, he was sent to England. After the defeat of the British troops, he was released and went to Spain, where he fought in the Napoleonic Wars; when he returned to Montevideo in August 1810, he joined the independentist forces and was nominated military leader of the independentist armies of the Banda Oriental Uruguay. His military successes in the various battles for Montevideo won him the post of the military leader of the campaign in Peru, replacing José de San Martín, who had to resign due to health reasons. In 1815, the Constituting General Assembly of the provinces of La Plata elected Rondeau their Supreme Director, but due to his absence, he never served as director.
Ignacio Álvarez Thomas was named acting Supreme Director in his place. After two defeats against the Spanish royalist troops in Peru at Venta y Media and Sipe-Sipe, he was relieved from his command in 1816, he returned to Buenos Aires, where he became governor for a brief stint from June 5 to July 30, 1818. In 1819 he became Pueyrredón's successor as Supreme Director, but had to resign the following year after the Battle of Cepeda. Subsequently, Rondeau retreated to Montevideo and tried to keep out of the internal wars between competing generals of the independentists, he led several military campaigns against the Indians and in the independence wars against Brazil. In 1828, after the Treaty of Montevideo, he was elected as the governor of the newly founded Eastern Republic of Uruguay. Rondeau occupied this post from December 22, 1828 until April 17, 1830, when he was forced to abdicate by his opponent Juan Antonio Lavalleja, who held the majority in the still young parliament. Lavalleja was named governor ad interim.
Rondeau still served as general in the army, though. In the civil war of Uruguay from 1836 between the Blancos and the Colorados, he fought on the side of the latter and served as their war minister, he was killed in 1844 during the Great Siege of Montevideo. List of heads of state of Argentina List of Presidents of Uruguay Short biography. Longer biography in Spanish
The Iberá Wetlands are a mix of swamps, stagnant lakes, natural slough and courses of water in the center and center-north of the province of Corrientes, Argentina. Iberá is one of the most important fresh water reservoirs in the continent and the second-largest wetland in the world after Pantanal in Brazil, it is of pluvial origin, with a total area of 15,000–20,000 km2. Since 1982, part of the wetland is included within a provincial protected area, the Iberá Provincial Reserve, which comprises about 13,000 km2, the largest of such areas in Argentina. There are ongoing plans to further up its protection status to national park. Iberá Provincial Reserve Media related to Esteros del Iberá at Wikimedia Commons
Juan Esteban Pedernera
Juan Esteban Pedernera was interim President of Argentina during a brief period in 1861. Born in 1796 in San Luis Province, he studied in a Franciscan monastery when young, left his studies to join the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers being summoned by José de San Martín to fight in the War of Independence against Spanish rule. In 1815, he fought in Chile, he was imprisoned by the Spanish during the former campaign in Chiloé Island, but managed to escape and rejoin his army. Lieutenant-general Juan Esteban Pedernera married the former Rosa Juana Heredia in Callao on September 23, 1823. In 1826 engaged again in military activity, this time in the Cisplatine War. In the Argentine Civil War, he joined the Unitarian side, under the command of General José María Paz, fought in La Tablada against federalist forces. After a long time in exile, he returned to the country after the fall of the Rosas' regime, acted as Senator for San Luis Province. In 1856, he was designated commander of the frontier armed forces, in 1859 he was elected Governor of San Luis, fought at the Battle of Cepeda that same year.
He was elected Vice-President to President of the Argentine Confederation Santiago Derqui, served from 1860 until 1861, when Derqui resigned after the Battle of Pavón. Pedernera acted as President until the political situation forced the dissolution of the office. In 1882 he was designated Lieutenant General of the Armies of the Republic. Argentine War of Independence Argentine Confederation Battle of Caseros