Zulia State is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. The state capital is Maracaibo; as of the 2011 census, it has a population of 3,704,404, the largest population among Venezuela's states. It is one of the few states in Venezuela in which voseo is used. Zulia State is in northwestern Venezuela, bordering Lake Maracaibo, the largest body of water of its kind in Latin America, its basin covers one of the largest gas reserves in the Western Hemisphere. Zulia is economically important to the country from its oil and mineral exploitation, but it is one of the major agricultural areas of Venezuela, highlighting the region's contribution in areas such as livestock, fruits and milk; the state is coterminous with the eponymous region of Zulia. The Lake Maracaibo Basin covers the large to the north and west, from the Guajira Peninsula to the Perijá Mountains. Venezuela's Andean states of Táchira, Mérida and Trujillo border Zulia State at the southern end of Lake Maracaibo; the name Venezuela comes from the lake.
When Spanish conquistadors sailed into the area, they found the indigenous peoples living in communities of huts supported by stilts along the shores of the lake. They were named the place "Little Venice" or Venezuela; the lake has a number of islands. Near the mouth of the Catatumbo River, where it empties into Lake Maracaibo, is the famous Catatumbo lightning, represented on the state's flag and coat of arms by lightning bolts. There are several competing theories about the origin of the state's name. One is that Guaimaral, son of the cacique Mara, was on pilgrimage in the Pamplona region, where he fell in love with the beautiful Zulia, but she was killed in a battle against the conquerors. Gaimaral sadly returned to his father's domains, naming rivers and regions for his lost love there is little historical proof, but, the most popular theory. Alternatively, it had been said that the state was named after the Zulia River, known in Colombia as Batatas, which leads into the Catatumbo River. Another story says that both names and state, came from the princess Zulia, daughter of a famous cacique Cinera.
He was an important leader of a tribal federation located in what is now Colombia's Norte de Santander Department, the princess Zulia was well known for her physical and moral qualities, formidable temper, bravery. Zulia was first seen by Europeans in 1499 during an expedition commanded by Alonso de Ojeda. During the Spanish colonial period, its lands were part of the Venezuela Province until 1676, when its lands were added to the Province of Mérida del Espiritu Santo de la Grita, becoming the province Espiritu Santo de Maracaibo, or Maracaibo Province. In 1789, the province covered the territory of the current Venezuelan states of Zulia, Barinas, Táchira, Mérida and Trujillo. In 1810, Mérida and Trujillo were separated as new provinces; the Zulia Province declared independence from Spain on January 28, 1821. During the Gran Colombia period in 1824, it received the name of "Zulia Department", honoring the Zulia River. With the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830, it was named Maracaibo Province and was one of the 11 provinces of Venezuela.
Venezuela's federal constitution, April 22, 1864, changed the denomination of "province" to "state", creating the State of Maracaibo on the same territory as the province. At the end of the same year, the state's legislation determined to change the name to the Sovereign State of Zulia, but that lasted only a few months. In 1874, its name again became Zulia State. Federal government orders in 1881 created the combined Falcón Zulia state, its autonomous state status continued until April 1, 1890, when congress legislated the separation of the Falcon-Zulia State. It suffered further territorial changes towards the end of the 19th century, until the current delimitation in 1899 was drawn. Since that time the name has remained Estado Zulia. In the northern sector a semi-arid climate prevails, with an irregular pluviometric regime; the annual medial precipitation registered in Maracaibo city is between 358 and 665.99 mm, with a median temperature of 28 °C. The precipitation rates increase in the western and eastern regions of Lake Maracaibo, forming a tropical rain forest savanna climate, with annual average temperatures from 27°C to 28°C, rainfall exceeding 1,000 mm registered in Mene Grande.
In the southern lake region, increased rainfall conforms to a tropical rain forest climate with an annual average precipitation of 2,556 mm, surpassing 3,500 mm per year in the heights of Serrania de Perija. Zulia is divided into 21 municipalities: The demonym for the people of the Zulia region is Zulians. According to the 2011 Census, the racial composition of the population was: The state is home to the Gaiteros del Zulia, 4-time Champion of the Liga Profesional de Baloncesto, Venezuela's top professional basketball league; the team plays its home games at the Gimnasio Pedro Elías Belisario Aponte in Maracaibo
Battle of Boyacá
The Battle of Boyacá, was the decisive battle that ensured the success of Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada. The battle of Boyaca is considered the beginning of the independence of the North of South America, is considered important because it led to the victories of the battle of Carabobo in Venezuela, Pichincha in Ecuador, Junín and Ayacucho in Peru. New Granada acquired its definitive independence from the Spanish Monarchy, although fighting with royalist forces would continue for years. Brigadier Generals Francisco de Paula Santander and José Antonio Anzoátegui led a combined republican army of Newgranadians to defeat in two hours a Royalist Newgranadian forces led by Spanish Colonels José María Barreiro and Francisco Jiménez; the battle occurred 150 km from Bogotá in the Andes Mountains, in a place known as Casa de Teja, close to a bridge over the Teatinos River and 3 roads heading to Samaca and Tunja, an area, now part of the Boyacá Department. On August 7, 1819, after Bolívar secured a narrow victory at Vargas Swamp Battle, both armies headed towards Bogotá, defended.
The capture of the capital in the hands of the Patriot Army would cut off the advance of the republican army and give the strategic initiative to its opponents. At 6:00 a.m. the Spanish forces departed from Motavita towards Casa de Teja, a distance of only 25 km which the Spaniards completed in 7 hours 30 minutes, at an average speed of 18 minutes per kilometer. At 10:00 a.m. General Santander's forces departed from Tunja toward the road to Bogota; the Patriot forces completed the 16 km in 4 hours. The Republican forces split in two: the vanguard reached Casa de Teja at 1:30 p.m. while the rearguard stopped a kilometer and a half behind to get some rest. Shortly before 2:00 p.m. Capitan Andres Ibarra and his forces spotted Casa de Teja and the vanguard of the Republican Army; the Spaniards spotted him too, Coronel Sebastian Dias, chief of the vanguard of the Spanish army ordered to follow and engage what he believed was only a small observation force. They returned and General Santander ordered Lieutenant Coronel Paris to attack the Republican forces.
The Spanish vanguard crossed a strategic bridge over the Teatinos River and took attack positions there. Meanwhile, the full force of the Patriot army under Santander had reached Casa de Piedra; the Spanish rearguard was still several kilometers behind, so General Anzoátegui ordered to block the way between the vanguard and the rearguard of the Spanish forces. The rearguard, retreated to a small hill close to Casa de Piedra. Simón Bolívar's forces arrived after the Vargas Swamp battle, he ordered a flank attack on the Spanish rearguard: battalions Barcelona and Bravos de Paez were to attack on the right side while the Legion Britanica and Rifles Battalion attacked on the left. The enemy assumed battle positions: in the center were three artillery pieces surrounded by royal battalions 12 and 22, on the wings, cavalry units. Arthur Sandes commander of Rifles Battalion charges the royalist artillery. Outnumbered, the Spanish rear guard began to retreat without any clear direction. Therefore, Bolívar ordered lancers units to attack the center of the Republican infantry, while a full cavalry squadron ran away from the battle via the road towards Samaca.
Bareiro attempted to break the blockage of the Patriot forces and rendezvous with the Spanish vanguard but heavy enemy fire forced him and his forces to surrender. Meanwhile, one kilometer and a half behind Casa de Piedra, the Patriot vanguard managed to ford the river and was approaching the rear of the Republican vanguard force. Once it reached them, the vanguard forces engaged in battle, while the rearguard attempted to cross the river by force, using bayonets; the Spanish forces fled, leaving on Coronel Juan Taira. As the assembly of enemy prisoners began, the battle was over shortly after 4:00 p.m. At least 1,600 troops and several of the Spanish commanders, including Barreiro himself, were captured at the end of the battle. New Granada's liberation was assured by this victory, which left the road to Bogotá and the city itself undefended, as the survivors headed towards other locations. After the battle and Anzoátegui were promoted to Divisional General. On the orders of Santander, Colonel Barreiro and 38 more were executed in Bogotá on October 11, 1819, because of the Decree of War to the Death.
The bridge in question, el Puente de Boyacá, is no longer in use but it has been maintained as a symbol of the Independence of South America. The final defeat of Royal forces in the New Kingdom of Granada and the weakening of the rest of the forces in all America; the end of Spanish control over the American provinces, with the escape of viceroy Juan de Samano. The creation of Gran Colombia; the start of an autonomous government in the former Spanish provinces. The subsequent independence of Venezuela, Peru and the creation of Bolivia, after a liberation campaign. Viceroy Juan de Samano was informed of the defeat and managed to escape, which brought to an end the reign of the Spanish Empire in northern Latin America. In commemoration of this battle, August 7 is a national holiday in Colombia. On this date every 4 years the elected President of Colombia is proclaimed in the Casa de Nariño. Bogotá starts the usual celebrations one day in advance in commemoration of the foundation of the city, on August 6, 1538.
"Batalla de Boyacá". Archived from the original on 2012-06-25. "Relato de la batalla". Archived from the original on 2009-03-23
Venezuelan War of Independence
The Venezuelan War of Independence was one of the Spanish American wars of independence of the early nineteenth century, when independence movements in Latin America fought against rule by the Spanish Empire, emboldened by Spain's troubles in the Napoleonic Wars. The establishment of the Supreme Caracas Junta following the forced deposition of Vicente Emparan as Captain General of the Captaincy General of Venezuela on April 19, 1810, marked the beginnings of the war. On July 5, 1811, seven of the ten provinces of the Captaincy General of Venezuela declared their independence in the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence; the First Republic of Venezuela was lost in 1812 following the 1812 Caracas earthquake and the Battle of La Victoria. Simón Bolívar led an "Admirable Campaign" to retake Venezuela, establishing the Second Republic of Venezuela in 1813. Only as part of Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada in 1819-20 did Venezuela achieve a lasting independence from Spain. On 17 December 1819, the Congress of Angostura declared Gran Colombia an independent country.
After two more years of war, the country achieved independence from Spain in 1821 under the leadership of its most famous son, Simón Bolívar. Venezuela, along with the present-day countries of Colombia and Ecuador, formed part of the Republic of Gran Colombia until 1830, when Venezuela separated and became a sovereign state; the French invasion of Spain in 1808 led to the collapse of the Spanish Monarchy. Most subjects of Spain did not accept the government of Joseph Bonaparte, placed on the Spanish throne by his brother, Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte of France. At the same time, the process of creating a stable government in Spain, which would be recognized throughout the empire, took two years; this created a power vacuum in the Spanish possessions in America, which created further political uncertainty. On 19 April 1810 the municipal council of Caracas headed a successful movement to depose the Spanish Governor and Captain General, Vicente Emparán. A junta was established in Caracas, soon other Venezuelan provinces followed suit.
The reverberations of this act of independence could be felt throughout Venezuela immediately. Across Venezuela and cities decided to either side with the movement based in Caracas or not, de facto civil war ensued throughout much of Venezuela; the Caracas Junta called for a congress of Venezuelan provinces to establish a government for the region. Both the Junta and Congress upheld the "rights of Ferdinand VII," meaning that they recognized themselves to still be part of the Spanish Monarchy, but had established a separate government due to the French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula; as the Congress deliberated, a faction proposing outright independence won favor. Persons such as Francisco de Miranda, a long-term Venezuelan expatriate, Simón Bolívar, a young, Criollo aristocrat—both influenced by Age of Enlightenment ideas and the example of the French Revolution—led the movement; the Congress declared Venezuela's independence on 5 July 1811, establishing the Republic of Venezuela. Before the Congress began its sessions in November 1810, a civil war started between those who supported the juntas, independence, royalists who wanted to maintain the union with Spain.
Two provinces, Maracaibo Province and Guayana Province, one district, never recognized the Caracas Junta and remained loyal to the governments in Spain. Military expeditions to bring Coro and Guayana under the control of the Republic failed. In 1811 an uprising in Valencia against the Republic was suppressed. By 1812 the situation became aggravated for the young Republic, it was short of funds, Spanish Regency set up a blockade, shortly after, on 26 March 1812, a devastating earthquake affected republican areas. In these desperate moments, Miranda was given dictatorial powers he was unable to stem the royalist advance headed by Captain Domingo de Monteverde. By midyear, after the Battle of San Mateo, the Republic collapsed. Miranda capitulated to Monteverde and signed an armistice on 25 July 1812. Bolívar and other republicans continued the resistance from other parts of the Spanish South America and the Caribbean, or organized guerrilla movements in the interior of the country. In 1813 Bolívar joined the army of United Provinces of New Granada.
After winning a series of battles, Bolívar received the approval of the New Granadan Congress to lead a liberating force into Venezuela in what became known as the Admirable Campaign. At the same time, Santiago Mariño invaded from the northeast in an independently organized campaign. Both forces defeated the royalist troops in various battles, such as Alto de los Godos. Bolívar entered Caracas on 6 August 1813, proclaiming the restoration of the Venezuelan Republic and his supreme leadership of it, something, not recognized by Mariño based in Cumaná, although the two leaders did cooperate militarily. In the viceroyalties of La Plata and New Granada the Creoles displaced the Spanish authorities with relative ease, as Caracas had done at first; the autonomous movement swept through New Granada. Bogotá inherited the role of capital from Spain, but the royalists were entrenched in southern Colombia. Cali was a bastion of the independence movement just north of royalist territory. Cartagena declared independence not only from Spain but from Bogotá.
Bolívar arrived in Cartagena and was well received, as
José Miguel Pey de Andrade
José Miguel Pey y García de Andrade was a Colombian statesman and soldier and a leader of the independence movement from Spain. He is considered the first first president of Colombia, he was a centralist. Pey, a Criollo, was born on March 11, 1763 in Santa Fe de Bogotá, New Granada into a distinguished family, his father, Juan Francisco Pey, was an oidor of the Audiencia of Santa Fe de Bogotá, one of the most important positions at the time. Pey studied at the Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé, graduating as a lawyer in 1787. Under the rule of Viceroy Antonio José Amar y Borbón, Pey was elected alcalde of Bogotá, replacing José Antonio de Ugarte in January 1810. Within a few months, various independence riots broke out around the viceroyalty, the turmoil soon arrived in the capital. Pey was alcalde of Bogotá at the time of the Cry of Independence known as the Florero de Llorente. On that morning, the history of the country changed. Pey, as the alcalde, tried to calm the populace, he proposed protective custody for Llorente, but by doing so he confirmed his culpability in the eyes of the general population and thus fueled the insurgency.
That same day a cabildo abierto was convened to decide the future of the city. The cabildo was formed by members of both revolutionaries and royalists; the Cabildo opted to create a Junta Suprema with Viceroy Amar y Borbón as president and Pey as vice president. Amar was sworn in during the early hours of the next day. However, he refused to preside over the junta, as a consequence, that duty fell to Pey. Pey thus became the first Criollo to exercise executive power in the Viceroyalty of New Granada; this Junta approved the Act of Independence, Pey was one of the signers. On July 25, 1810 Amar y Borbón was removed from the Supreme Junta and Pey became president in his own right; the following day the Junta recognized King Ferdinand VII, but not the Regency in Spain. Pey led the government with prudence, he himself maintaining loyalty to the House of Bourbon but in favor of regional independence, he was in a difficult situation mediating between the moderate and radical factions in the Junta and in the city.
He was pressured to order the arrest of Viceroy Antonio José Amar and his wife the Vicereine María Francisca Villanová on August 13, 1810, but he was not in favor of this action. Shortly thereafter, he had the viceroy moved secretly out of Bogotá to Cartagena de Indias, where he could escape to Havana. A Constitution of Cundinamarca was adopted in March 1811 for the province of Bogotá, a congress of New Granadan provinces was convened. On April 1, with the election of Jorge Tadeo Lozano as resident of the congress, Pey's role as the chief executive in New Granada ended; the congress resulted in the creation of the United Provinces of New Granada in November, which Cundinamarca refused to join. After forces of the United Provinces under the command of Simón Bolívar occupied Cundinamarca, Pey was named governor of the province on December 20, 1814. On March 28, 1815, an Executive Triumvirate for the United Provinces of the New Granada was established. Custodio García Rovira, José Manuel Restrepo, Manuel Rodríguez Torices were chosen as members of the triumvirate, but Restrepo declined and was never sworn in, so Pey was appointed in his place.
He continued in this capacity until July 28 of the same year. On April 30, 1831 after the resignation of the president of Gran Colombia, Rafael Urdaneta, Congress created a three-member Ejecutivo Plural, or Presidium, that delegated the powers of the presidency to Juan García del Río, Jerónimo Gutiérrez de Mendoza and Pey. Pey was vested with the powers of secretary of war; this presidium ended on May 1831 when vice president Domingo Caycedo took power. Pey was married to Juana Hipólita Bastidas, he died on August 17, 1838 at the age of 75 in Bogotá. Antonio José Amar y Borbón
Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas, it has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.
There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993.
A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written; this new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues.
The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak; the recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. However, such populist policies became inadequate, causing the nation's collapse as their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy; the destabilized economy led to a crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan Migrant Crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.
By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word; the official name was Estado de Venezuela, República de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Venezuela, a
Colombian Declaration of Independence
The Colombian Declaration of Independence refers to the events of July 20, 1810, in Santa Fe de Bogota, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada. They resulted in the establishment of a Junta de Santa Fe that day; the experience in self-government led to the creation of the Republic of Gran Colombia. Spain was ruled by a typical enlightened absolutist monarch, promoting culture and Christianity, allowing some expression of the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, in the country and its colonies, while at the same time maintaining strong political control. However, the Spanish colonies in the Americas were forbidden to trade with other countries and their colonies, such as Great Britain and British North America, the French Empire and New France. Spain was their only source of goods and merchandise, although it was unable to fulfill the trade demands of its colonies. Furthermore, Charles III's support for the independence of the United States generated new taxes, causing unrest in Spain's colonies in the Americas, such as the Revolt of the Comuneros and the Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II.
Another major tension was the policy of excluding Criollos, or locally born whites, from public administration. Charles IV was not interested in exercising political power, leaving such duties to his ministers the disliked Manuel Godoy. Charles IV was more interested in pursuing the arts and science and gave little importance to the American colonies; the development that precipitated the events of July 20, 1810, was the crisis of the Spanish monarchy caused by the 1808 abdications of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII forced by Napoleon Bonaparte in favor of his brother Joseph Bonaparte. The ascension of King Joseph had been cheered by Spanish afrancesados elites and important statesmen who believed that collaboration with France would bring modernization and liberty to Spain. An example of Joseph's policies was the abolition of the Spanish Inquisition. However, the general population rejected the new king and opposition, led by the priesthood and patriots, became widespread after the French army's first examples of repression became known.
An emergency government in the form of a Supreme Central Junta was formed in Spain. Most of the authorities in the Americas swore allegiance to the new Supreme Central Junta; the Supreme Central Junta ordered the election of one representative from each of the main cities of the Spanish American viceroyalties by their cabildos. These included primary cities in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, Viceroyalty of Perú, Viceroyalty of New Granada, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the Captaincy General of Cuba, Captaincy General of Puerto Rico, Captaincy General of Guatemala, Captaincy General of Chile, Captaincy General of Venezuela, the Spanish East Indies. In addition the cabildos were to draft instructions for the representative to present to the Supreme Central Junta; the Memorandum of Offences was drafted by Camilo Torres Tenorio in his capacity as legal advisor to the Santa Fe de Bogotá cabildo. In it he criticized the Spanish Monarchy's policy of excluding Criollos from high posts in the Americas and alleging their rights to govern in their homelands as "the offspring of the conquistadores".
Furthermore, he proposed equality between Spanish Americans and Spaniards as the basis for maintaining the unity of the Spanish Monarchy: " other means to consolidate the union between America and Spain the just and competent representation of its people, without any difference among its subjects that they do not have because of their laws, their customs, their origins, their rights. Equality! The sacred right of equality. Justice is founded upon that principle and upon granting everyone that, his, he true fraternal union between European Spaniards and Americans… can never exist except upon the basis of justice and equality. America and Spain are two integral and constituent parts of the Spanish Monarchy… Anyone who believes otherwise does not love his patria… Therefore, to exclude the Americans from such representation, in addition to being the greatest injustice, would arouse distrust and jealousy, would forever alienate their desires for such a union…"And Torres defended the right of the Viceroyalty of New Granada to establish a junta given the political circumstances.
Although the draft expressed many of common sentiments of Criollos at the time and was discussed by prominent members of the capital's society, it was never adopted by the cabildo. It would be published for the first time only in 1832; as the military situation in Spain deteriorated, many Spanish Americans desired to establish their own juntas, despite their formal declarations of loyalty to the Supreme Central Junta. A movement to set up a junta in neighboring Caracas in 1808 was stopped by the Captain-General with arrests of the conspirators. In the Royal Audiencia of Charcas juntas were established in La Paz. More to events in New Granada, in the neighboring Royal Audiencia of Quito—a territory under the auspices of the Viceroy of New Granada— a group of Criollos led by Juan Pío Montúfar, the second Marquis of Selva Alegre, established the autonomous junta Luz de América on August 10, swearing loyalty to Ferdinand VII, but rejecting the viceregal authorities. Viceroy Antonio José Amar y Borbón considered this a rebellious act, fearing for similar developments in New Granada, ordered military action to put down the junta in conjunction with the Viceroy of Peru.
In mid-1810 news arrived that the Supreme Central Junta had dissolved itself in
Royalist (Spanish American independence)
The royalists were the Latin American and European supporters of the various governing bodies of the Spanish Monarchy, during the Spanish American wars of independence, which lasted from 1808 until the king's death in 1833. In the early years of the conflict, when King Ferdinand VII was captive in France, royalists supported the authority in the Americas of the Supreme Central Junta of Spain and the Indies and the Cádiz Cortes that ruled in the King's name during the Peninsular War. After the restoration of Ferdinand VII in 1814, royalists supported his claim to rule Spanish America, but were split between those that supported his insistence to rule under traditional law and liberals, who sought to reinstate the reforms enacted by the Cádiz Cortes; the creation of juntas in Spanish America in 1810 was a direct reaction to developments in Spain during the previous two years. In 1808 Ferdinand VII had been convinced to abdicate by Napoleon in his favor, who granted the throne to his brother, Joseph Bonaparte.
The Supreme Central Junta had led a resistance to Joseph's government and the French occupation of Spain, but suffered a series of reverses resulting in the loss of the northern half of the country. On February 1, 1810, French troops gained control of most of Andalusia; the Supreme Junta retreated to Cadiz and dissolved itself in favor of a Regency Council of Spain and the Indies. As news of this arrived throughout Spanish America during the next three weeks to nine months—depending on time it took goods and people to travel from Spain—political fault lines appeared. Royal officials and Spanish Americans were split between those who supported the idea of maintaining the status quo—that is leaving all the government institutions and officers in place—regardless of the developments in Spain, those who thought that the time had come to establish local rule through the creation of juntas, in order to preserve the independence of Spanish America from the French or from a rump government in Spain that could no longer legitimately claim to rule a vast empire.
It is important to note that, at first, the juntas claimed to carry out their actions in the name of the deposed king and did not formally declare independence. Juntas were established in Venezuela, Río de la Plata and New Granada, there were unsuccessful movements to do so in other regions. A few juntas chose to recognize the Regency the creation of juntas challenged the authority of all sitting royal officials and the right of the government in Spain to rule in the Americas. In the months following the establishment of the Regency, it became clear that Spain was not lost, furthermore the government was reconstituting itself; the Regency convened the Cortes Generales, the traditional parliament of the Spanish Monarchy, which in this case included representatives from the Americas. The Regency and Cortes began issuing orders to, appointing, royal officials throughout the empire; those who supported the new government came to be called "royalists." Those that supported the idea of maintaining independent juntas called themselves "patriots," and a few among them were proponents of declaring full, formal independence from Spain.
As the Cortes instituted liberal reforms and worked on drafting a constitution, a new division appeared among royalists. Conservatives did not want to see any innovations in government; these differences would become more acute after the restoration of Ferdinand VII, because the king opted to support the conservative position. Regional rivalry played an important role in the internecine wars that broke out in Spanish America as a result of the juntas; the disappearance of a central, imperial authority—and in some cases of a local, viceregal authority —initiated a prolonged period of balkanization in many regions of Spanish America. It was not clear which political units which should replace the empire, there were no new national identities to replace the traditional sense of being Spaniards; the original juntas of 1810 appealed first, to sense of being Spanish, juxtaposed against the French threat. More than not, juntas sought to maintain a province's independence from the capital of the former viceroyalty or captaincy general, as much as from the Peninsula itself.
Armed conflicts broke out between the provinces over the question of whether some provinces were to be subordinate to others in the manner that they had been under the crown. This phenomenon was evident in New Granada and Río de la Plata; this rivalry lead some regions to adopt the opposing political cause from their rivals. Peru seems to have remained royalist in large part because of its rivalry with Río de la Plata, to which it had lost control of Upper Peru when the latter was elevated to a viceroyalty in 1776; the creation of juntas in Río de la Plata allowed Peru to regain formal control of Upper Peru for the duration of the wars. The restoration of Ferdinand VII signified an important change, since most of the political and legal changes done on both sides of the Atlantic—the myriad of juntas, the Cortes in Spain and several of the congresses in the Americas that evolved out of the juntas, the many constitutions and new legal codes—had been done in his name. Once in Spain Ferdinand VII realized that he had significant support from conservatives in the general population and the hierarchy of the Spanish Catholic Church, so on May 4, he repudiated the Spanish