Capture of Le Quesnoy (1918)
The Capture of Le Quesnoy was an engagement of the First World War that took place on 4 November 1918 as part of the Battle of the Sambre. By late morning, the linkup had been achieved and other elements of the New Zealand Division moved further west into the Mormal Forest, after mopping up outlying outposts, the New Zealanders moved up to the ramparts of the town, but were held back by machine-gun fire. Late in the afternoon, a scouting party located an unguarded section of the walls, the capture of Le Quesnoy was the last major engagement of the war for the New Zealanders. By mid-1918, the German Army had been fought to a standstill after its Spring Offensive, the Hundred Days Offensive began on 8 August, with an attack on Amiens which marked the beginning of a series of advances by the Allies that ultimately ended the war. By late October, the New Zealand Division, commanded by Major General Andrew Russell, the Battle of the Sambre, which was planned to begin on 4 November, was the next phase of the Allied advance.
IV Corps, with the New Zealand Division and the 37th Division, was to surround Le Quesnoy and its garrison of over 1,500 soldiers. The 37th Division was on the flank of the New Zealand Division while to its north, 62nd Division, of VI Corps. The New Zealand Division was to extend the front line to and around Le Quesnoy, positioned on high ground between the Ecaillon and Rhonelle Rivers, Le Quesnoy was a medieval town that had been fought over several times in previous centuries. It guarded a natural approach across plains to the north-east and had walls with ramparts designed by Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban. A moat surrounded the town and was in two distinct ditches, with 20–30-foot high fortifications, effectively an outer rampart, separating them. The town could be entered by three roads, guarded by gates, Le Quesnoy had a population of 5,000 and had been in German hands since August 1914. On 3 November, the New Zealand Division section of the front line was around 2,500 yards in length and it was 400 yards from the Cambrai railway, with the ramparts of Le Quesnoy a further 400 yards to the east.
The front line was manned by the four battalions of the New Zealand Rifle Brigade, the ramparts of Le Quesnoy clearly made a frontal attack undesirable and artillery could not be used on the town, due to the presence of the civilian population. Instead, it was intended that under the cover of a smokescreen, the divisions flanks were held by the 62nd Division and the 37th Division, on the left and right respectively and these formations were to make corresponding movements forward. The capture of Le Quesnoy was to be achieved through a series of advances, covered by artillery, the 1st Battalion of the 1st Infantry Brigade would push north-east around the town, while the 3rd Rifle Battalion went to the south-east. The advance westwards would culminate in the establishment of a new front line, designated the Green Line to the east of Le Quesnoy, which would be manned by the battalions of 1st Brigade. Once the Green Line had been formed, the Rifle Brigade was to move into the town and this was captured by 7,29 am. A reserve company moved to the line to hold it
Sack of Antwerp
The Sack of Antwerp, often known as the Spanish Fury at Antwerp, was an episode of the Eighty Years War. The savagery of the led the provinces of the Low Countries to unite against the Spanish crown. The devastation caused Antwerps decline as the city in the region. The principal cause of the sack was the delay in payment due to the soldiers by Philip II and it was common procedure with the soldiery at that time, and their procedure was invariable. Without breaking their celebrated discipline, they would choose a new leader, or Eletto, from their number, in this instance the Spanish soldiers decided to find for themselves their belated pay, by looting Antwerp. The idea to sack Antwerp came from the Spanish commander of the Citadel of Antwerp and he tried to convince the commander of the German troops in the city, Count Otto IV van Eberstein, son of William IV of Eberstein, to deliver the city to the Spanish. But Eberstein warned Governor Compagny of Antwerp, and together they improvised defenses against the Spanish, on 3 November, Governor Compagny let a force of 6,000 Walloon troops under the Marquis of Havré into the city.
This was a risk, because these troops were not very trustworthy, some 10,000 civilians helped to raise improvised defenses against the Citadel. DAvila had prepared his attack and contacted other Spanish mutinous troops in Aalst, Lier and Maastricht, on November 4 at 11,00, the Spanish attacked. The civilian defenses were useless against the battle-hardened Spaniards, who swarmed into the city, as had been feared, the Walloons did not fight, but fled, or even participated in the looting. The Germans and civilians tried to resist, but were no match for the Spaniards, Eberstein drowned in the Schelde when he tried to escape. Some 7,000 lives and a deal of property were lost. The cruelty and destruction of three days of pillage became known as the Spanish Fury. This shocking event stiffened many in the Netherlands, even many Catholics, against the Spanish Habsburg monarchy and this effectively destroyed every accomplishment the Spanish had made in the past 10 years, since the start of the Dutch Revolt.
Furthermore, it brought about the ruin of the Antwerp Cloth Market, English traders, not wishing to risk visiting a town that now resembled a war zone, sought out new commercial links. By 1582, all English trade to Antwerp had ceased, the sack led to Antwerps decline from the economic and cultural center of the Netherlands and paved the way for Amsterdams rise. This event added to Spains Black Legend, list of massacres in Belgium French Fury Sack of Rome, the unpaid Imperial troops loot Rome. Spanish Fury was the nickname of the Spanish football team in the 20th century, the Baldwin Project University of Leiden
Battle of Dahlen
The Battle of Dahlen was fought on April 23,1568, between a Dutch rebel army led by Jean de Montigny, Lord of Villers, and a Spanish army commanded by Sancho Dávila y Daza. As a part of William of Oranges planned invasion, the Dutch rebels were trying to conquer the town of Roermond when the arrival of the Spanish force compelled them to withdraw, Dávila pursued the retreating force and inflicted a defeat upon Villers near the small town of Dahlen. The survivors of this encounter sought refuge under the walls of Dahlen and this battle is sometimes considered the official start of the Eighty Years War. William, based in Dillenburg, designed a triple attack upon the Netherlands by his rebel followers, Villers was expected to raise the country and to take an important city to serve as a base for a large offensive. The city selected was Roermond, a town of considerable size situated at the confluence of the Meuse. As soon as he received news of the invasion, Alba organized an army to secure Maastricht.
He ordered the maestre de campo don Sancho de Londoño to move his tercio from the village of Lier up to Maastricht, in all the small Spanish army numbered about 1,600 men. While being searched by the Spanish and his army passed through Eijsden, they tried to enter the town pretending to be soldiers of the King of Spain, but the towns inhabitants were not fooled. Then the rebels resorted to their weapons and attempted to seize the towns gates, fearing that they would be caught by the Spanish, Villers decided to withdraw, taking the road to the Guelders exclave of Erkelenz. There were some doubts on the Spanish side about what to do then, Londoño advised caution, but Dávila decided to pursue the rebels, seeking to gain a victory that would serve as a warning for them. Sancho Dávila went ahead with his cavalry and was informed by his scouts that the rebels were close to the village of Erkelenz, there Villers found his path cut off because a nearby bridge over the Rur river had been demolished.
He decided to take the road to Dahlen, a walled town in the Bishopric of Liège, while Dávila followed him. To distract the Spanish general, he sent some of his cavalry against him, Villers lost most of his cavalry and two flags. He and some 1,300 men retreated in order with part of the baggage and managed to reach Dahlen. Villers covered his men behind a ravelin of the wall, which had a moat, Sancho Dávila was unable to reach such positions with his cavalry due to the rough groves, so he called Sancho de Londoño to come rapidly with the infantry. The fight lasted half an hour, after which the Spaniards took the ravelin, just a few rebels succeeded in escaping and sought refuge in Dahlen, climbing through scales, the others were butchered. Villers was amongst those who escaped inside Dahlen, but was handed to the Spanish. The Lord of Lumey, on the hand, evaded capture
Nord-Pas-de-Calais (French pronunciation, is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France and it consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel, the North Sea, the majority of the region was once part of the historical Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and these provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants. Its administrative centre and largest city is Lille, other major towns include Valenciennes, Douai, Béthune, Maubeuge, Arras and Saint-Omer. Nord-Pas-de-Calais combines the names of the constituent departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais, the regional council, spells the name Nord-Pas de Calais. The northern part of the region was historically a part of the County of Flanders and those who wish to evidence the historical links the region has with Belgium and the Netherlands prefer to call this region the French Low Countries, which means French Netherlands in French.
Other alternative names are Région Flandre-Artois, Hauts-de-France, and Picardie-du-Nord, see also, History of Nord-Pas-de-Calais Inhabited since prehistoric times, the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region has always been a strategic regions in Europe. French President Charles de Gaulle, who was born in Lille, over the centuries, it was conquered in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks, the Spanish and Austrian Netherlands, and the Dutch Republic. After the final French annexation in the early 18th century, much of the region was occupied by Germany during the First. By the 9th century, most inhabitants north of Lille spoke a dialect of Middle Dutch and this linguistic border is still evident today in the place names of the region. Beginning in the 9th century, the border began a steady move to north. By the end of the 13th century, the border had shifted to the river Lys in the south. Boulogne and Flanders were fiefs of the French crown, while Hainaut, Calais was an English possession from 1347 to 1558, when it was recovered by the French throne.
With the death of the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold in 1477, most of the territories of what is now Nord-Pas-de-Calais were reunited to the Burgundian inheritance, which had passed through Maries marriage to the House of Habsburg. During the Italian Wars much of the conflict between France and Spain occurred in the region and it was a base for Spanish support of French Catholics in the French Wars of Religion. Beginning with the annexation of Artois in 1659, most of the current Nord department territory had been acquired by the time of the Treaty of Nijmegen in 1678, the current borders were mostly established by the time of the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697. The area, previously divided among the French provinces of Flanders, under Napoleon, the French boundary was extended to include all of Flanders and present-day Belgium until the Congress of Vienna in 1815 restored the original French boundary
The southern provinces initially joined in the revolt, but submitted to Spain. The religious clash of cultures built up gradually but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, the first leader was William of Orange, followed by several of his descendants and relations. This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, King Philip was initially successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged, the northern provinces became independent, first in 1581 de facto, and in 1648 de jure. The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule, the continuous heavy-handed rule by the Habsburgs in the south caused many of its financial and cultural elite to flee north, contributing to the success of the Dutch Republic. The Dutch imposed a blockade on the southern provinces which prevented Baltic grain relieving famine in the southern towns.
The first phase of the conflict can be considered to be the Dutch War of Independence, the focus of the latter phase was to gain official recognition of the already de facto independence of the United Provinces. This phase coincided with the rise of the Dutch Republic as a major power, in a series of marriages and conquests, a succession of Dukes of Burgundy expanded their original territory by adding to it a series of fiefdoms, including the Seventeen Provinces. Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500 and he was raised in the Netherlands and spoke fluent Dutch, French and some German. In 1506, he became lord of the Burgundian states, among which were the Netherlands, subsequently, in 1516, he inherited several titles, including the combined kingdoms of Aragon, and Castile and León which had become a worldwide empire with the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In 1519, he became ruler of the Habsburg empire, although Friesland and Guelders offered prolonged resistance, virtually all of the Netherlands had been incorporated into the Habsburg domains by the early 1540s.
Flanders had long been a wealthy region, and had been coveted by the French kings for a long time. The other Netherlands had grown into wealthy and entrepreneurial regions within the empire, Charles Vs empire became a worldwide empire with large American and European territories. The latter were, distributed throughout Europe and defense of these were hampered by the disparity of the territories and huge length of the empires borders. This large realm was almost continuously at war with its neighbors in its European heartlands, most notably against France in the Italian Wars, further wars were fought against Protestant princes in Germany. The Netherlands paid heavy taxes to fund these wars, but perceived them as unnecessary and sometimes downright harmful, during the 16th century, Protestantism rapidly gained ground in northern Europe. Dutch Protestants, after initial repression, were tolerated by local authorities, by the 1560s, the Protestant community had become a significant influence in the Netherlands, although it clearly formed a minority then
Siege of Haarlem
The siege of Haarlem was an episode of the Eighty Years War. From 11 December 1572 to 13 July 1573 an army of Philip II of Spain laid bloody siege to the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands, after the naval battle of Haarlemmermeer and the defeat of a land relief force, the starving city surrendered and the garrison was massacred. The resistance nonetheless was taken as an example by the Orangists at the sieges of Alkmaar. The city of Haarlem initially held a view in the religious war that was going on in the Netherlands. It managed to escape from the Reformed iconoclasm in 1566 that affected other cities in the Netherlands, when the city of Brielle was conquered by the Geuzen revolutionary army on 1 April, Haarlem did not initially support the Geuzen. The ruler of Spain was not pleased, and sent an army north under command of Don Fadrique, on 17 November 1572 all citizens of the city of Zutphen were murdered by the Spanish army, and on 1 December the city of Naarden suffered the same fate. The city administration of Haarlem sent a deputation of 4 people to Amsterdam to attempt to negotiate with Don Fadrique, the cities defenses were commanded by city-governor Wigbolt Ripperda, a commander put in charge by William the Silent, the Prince of Orange.
He strongly disapproved of negotiating with the Spanish army, called the city guard together, the citys administration was replaced with pro-Orange citizens. When the deputation came back from Amsterdam, they were convicted as traitors, the Sint-Bavokerk was cleared of Roman Catholic symbols the same day. On 11 December 1572 the Spanish army laid siege to Haarlem, the city was not very strong, militarily speaking. Although the city was surrounded by walls, they were not in good shape. The area around the city could not be inundated, and offered the enemy many places to set up camp, the existence of the Haarlemmermeer nearby made it difficult for the enemy to cut off the transportation of food into the city completely. In the Middle Ages it was unusual to fight in the winter, during the first two months of the siege, the situation was in balance. The Spanish army dug two tunnels to reach the city walls and collapse them, the defenders made tunnels to blow up the Spanish tunnels. The situation became worse for Haarlem on 29 March 1573, the Amsterdam army, faithful to the Spanish king, occupied the Haarlemmermeer and effectively blocked Haarlem from the outside world.
The hunger in the city grew, and the situation became so tense that on 27 May many prisoners were taken from the prison, on 19 December no less than 625 shots were fired at the defensive wall between the Janspoort to the Catherijnebridge. This forced the defenders to put up a new wall. Two city gates, the Kruispoort and the Janspoort collapsed from the fighting, kenau Simonsdochter Hasselaer, a very strong woman, helped defending the city
Battle of Empel
In Spain the battle is still remembered as it is believed that the army was saved due to intervention of Mary of the Immaculate Conception. After the campaign of 1585, the Governor of Spanish Netherlands and commander of the Spanish troops Alexander Farnese, the troops of Karl von Mansfeld occupied the area around s-Hertogenbosch. But all farmers had left the island, taking their livestock with them, to make the situation of the hungry Spanish troops even worse, Dutch commander Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein arrived with a strong land force and 100 ships. The Dutch leader offered a surrender to the Spaniards but the response was resolute. Ya hablaremos de capitulación después de muertos. », Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein breached the dikes of Bommelwaard, forcing the Spanish back over the Rhine to Empel. There they were unable to reach s-Hertogenbosch, because the terrain was flooded and guarded by the fleet of Hohenlohe, the island was attacked as well by artillery fire coming from a fort, at the other side of the river.
The situation for the Spanish looked desperate, a Spanish soldier who was digging a trench around the church commented this is more likely to be my grave than a trench. As he dug, he found a painting representing Mary of the Immaculate Conception, bobadilla interpreted the discovery as a sign from God, and had the painting put on the Spanish flag for worship. That night, an unusual and completely intensely cold wind that chilled the waters of the River Meuse broke, the Dutch ships had to be withdrawn to prevent them being stuck in the ice. This made it possible for the remaining Spanish troops to escape to the safety of s-Hertogenbosch, admiral Hohenlohe-Neuenstein went on to say, It seems that God is Spanish to work for me so great miracle. That same day, Mary of the Immaculate Conception was proclaimed patroness of the Spanish Tercios of Flanders, article on the site of the Army Museum of The Netherlands
Siege of Zutphen (1591)
The Siege of Zutphen was an eleven-day siege of the city of Zutphen by Dutch and English troops led by Maurice of Nassau, during the Eighty Years War and the Anglo–Spanish War. The siege began on 19 May 1591 after a clever ruse by the besiegers, Zutphen was a Hanseatic city on the east bank of the River IJssel. In 1572, with the resurgence of the Dutch rebellion against Philip II of Spain, the city was recaptured by the Spaniards led by Don Frederick, and the population was punished and slaughtered for the surrender earlier that year. York subsequently died there of smallpox a year although he may have been poisoned by the Spanish to keep him from betraying again. As a consequence the town of Deventer soon followed, handed over to the Spaniards by William Stanley. In 1590 Maurice had taken Breda by hiding soldiers within a peat barge and was able to use Breda as a base for further operations. The Dutch army could launch an offensive at three points, to the South, to the East and to the North, Maurice chose the East with the towns along the River Ijssel heading towards Nijmegen.
By the beginning of 1591 Maurices first goal was to take back Zutphen, with the parallel waterways he could move the troops and artillery as quickly as possible and keep the Spanish from reinforcing the besieged towns. The garrison of Zutphen itself consisted of nearly 1,000 Spaniards and Walloons, Maurices army consisted of 9000 soldiers and 1600 horsemen which marched to Zutphen, along with 100 ships. In order to take Zutphen, the sconce on the west bank of the river had to be taken, once this had been taken the town could be besieged proper once all the heavy guns from the barges had disembarked. Maurice hoped to use another ruse similar to the one he had used at Breda with the peat barge, Francis Vere, in charge of the English troops, wanted the dirt removed from the 1587 treachery and thus wanted to lead the assault. Vere got his wish and Maurice ordered him to take the sconce on the Veluwe opposite Zutphen by sending no more than a dozen men and disguise them as farmers, some even dressed as women.
It was hoped that the Spanish would think they were escaping from the Dutch army. Once the sconce was captured Zutphen would have no hope of holding out, Vere led the English troops to Doesburg and set the plan in motion. The disguised soldiers ran towards the fort, pursued by a cavalry charge. The garrison opened the gates and let the soldiers in. When the order was given the English cut down the guard quickly enough to allow the Dutch cavalry to rush in, soon the Dutch/English force overpowered the Spanish and turned the guns on Zutphen. After this successful strategy Marice began the siege proper after easily crossing the now secured bridge and were reinforced by Count William Louis Frisian companies
Destruction of Neuss
The Destruction of Neuss occurred in July 1586, during the Cologne War. Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parmas troops surrounded the city of Neuss, in total, approximately 3000 civilians died, out of a population of approximately 4500, and the entire garrison was killed. Neuss had been seized by supporters of the Protestant Prince-Elector Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg in February 1586. Adolf, Count of Moers and Neuenahr and supplied the city and took most of his troops north, to Moers and Venlo, Cloedt had a garrison of 1600 men, mostly Germans and Dutch soldiers, some had military experience, but many were recent recruits. In June, the Duke of Parma approached the city and surrounded its landed fortifications, he was supported by Karl von Mansfeld, Francisco Verdugo, the next day, being the feast of St. Once the cannonade began, Parmas 45 artillery pounded at the walls for 30 hours with iron cannonballs weighing 30 to 50 pounds, the Spanish made several attacks, each repelled. With the ninth assault, the wall was breached, and soldiers poured into the city, the Italians from one end.
They met in the marketplace in the middle, gravely injured, had been carried into the town. The Spanish and Italian forces entered the town from opposing ends, Parma was reportedly inclined to honor the garrison commander, Ernst demanded his blood. Soldiers found Cloedt and the man was hanged from the window. Italian and Spanish soldiers, on their rampage through the city, slaughtered the rest of the garrison, who had taken refuge in some of the churches, were initially spared, but when the fire started, they were forced into the street. Parma wrote to the king that over 4000 lay dead in the ditches, english observers confirmed this report, and elaborated that only 8 buildings remained standing. Although Parma had taken the city, his Protestant opponents took some comfort in the fact that the city had been destroyed in the process and was of no use as a garrison. Parma had nearly unfettered access to the Electorates northern regions, called the Niederstift, Gebhard renounced of the Electorate in 1588.
Despite Ernst of Bavarias unchallenged possession, Parma continued to acquire, the history of Holland and the Dutch nation, vol. Der Kampf um das Erzstift Köln zur Zeit der Kurfürsten, Hajo, A History of Modern Germany, The Reformation. Princeton NJ, Princeton University Press,1959
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Relief of Goes
In August 1572, during the course of the Eighty Years War, the city of Goes, in the Spanish Netherlands, was besieged by Dutch forces with the support of English troops sent by Queen Elizabeth I. This was a menace to the safety of the city of Middelburg. The surprise arrival of the Tercios forced the withdrawal of the Anglo-Dutch troops from Goes, allowing the Spanish to maintain control of Middelburg, in 1567 the hostilities increased, leading to the Eighty Years War. In April 1572, the Sea Beggars, Dutch rebels opposed to Spain, took Brielle, the first city conquered during the war. On 26 August 1572, in command of 7,000 soldiers among which were 1,500 English under Thomas Morgan and Humphrey Gilbert, the Spanish garrison of Goes, much inferior in number, would not withstand the siege for long without reinforcements. The presence in the area of the fleet of the Sea Beggars under Ewout Pietersz Worst prevented it, the river Scheldt was divided into two branches flowing in different directions before it disembogued into the North Sea, the Oosterschelde flowed to the north, the Westerschelde to the west.
Between these two there were the islands of Walcheren and Zuid-Beveland, in the northern part of which laid Goes. The area between Brabant and Zuid-Beveland was largely a flat floodplain exposed to the tides of the North Sea and the river currents of the Scheldt, channels of which intersected the mudflats. When the tide went down the channels had between 1 and 1.5 meters of depth, and when it rose the depth in the main channel reached three meters. Plomaert’s plan was presented to Sancho Dávila and Cristóbal de Mondragón, for its execution Mondragón assembled a force of 3,000 Spanish and German pikemen of the Tercios at Woensdrecht. Shortly before dawn they reached the riverbank of Zuid-Beveland near Yerseke, at 20 km of Goes, at the end of 1572, Arnemuiden and Rammekens remained under Spanish control. The island of Schouwen, including Zierikzee, was held by the Dutch forces until its recapture in 1576 by Luis de Requesens, English warfare, 1511–1642, Warfare and history. The Rise of the Dutch Republic, Entire 1566–74, history of Holland, from the beginning of the tenth to the end of the eighteenth century.
Madrid, Imp. de D. Leonardo Nuñez de Vargas. de Rustant, historia de don Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, primero del nombre, duque de Alva, Escrita, y extractada de los mas veridicos autores. Madrid, Spain, En la imprenta de don P. J. Alonso y Padilla