Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia and Poland's Lemkovyna. Before World War I most of this region was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. In the interwar period, it was part of the Second Czechoslovak Republic. During World War II, the region was annexed by the Kingdom of Hungary once again. After the war, it became part of Soviet Ukraine, it is an ethnically diverse region, inhabited by Ukrainian, Lemko, Slovak, Romanian and Russian populations. It has small Hutsul, Romani, Székely and Csango minorities; the name Carpathian Ruthenia is sometimes used for a contiguous cross-border area of Ukraine and Poland occupied by Ruthenians. Local Ruthenian population has a problem with self-identification and portion of them consider to be part of bigger Ukrainian family, while the other – a separate and unique Slavic group of Rusyns.
Some Carpathian Rusyns consider themselves part of bigger Russian nation. In regards to its region most Rusyns, use the term Zakarpattia; this is contrasted implicitly with Prykarpattia, an unofficial region in Ukraine, to the immediate north-east of the central area of the Carpathian Range, including its foothills, the Subcarpathian basin and part of the surrounding plains. From a Hungarian and Czech perspective the region is described as Subcarpathia, although technically this name refers only to a long, narrow basin that flanks the northern side of the mountains. During the period in which the region was administered by the Hungarian states it was referred to in Hungarian as Kárpátalja or the north-eastern regions of medieval Upper Hungary, which in the 16th century was contested between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire; the Romanian name of the region is Maramureș which geographically located in eastern and south-eastern portion of the region. During the period of Czechoslovak administration in the first half of the 20th century, the region was referred to for a while as Rusinsko or Karpatske Rusinsko, as Subcarpathian Rus or Subcarpathian Ukraine, from 1928 as the Subcarpathoruthenian Land..
Alternative, unofficial names used in Czechoslovakia before World War II included Subcarpathia, Transcarpathian Ukraine, Carpathian Rus/Ruthenia and Hungarian Rus/Ruthenia. The region declared its independence as Carpatho-Ukraine on March 15, 1939, but was occupied and annexed by Hungary in March 15–18, 1939 and remained under Hungarian control until the end of the World War II. During this period the region continued to possess a special administration and the term Kárpátalja became more common. In 1944-1946, the region was occupied by the Soviet Army and was a separate political formation known as Transcarpathian Ukraine or Subcarpathian Ruthenia. During its period the region possessed some form of quasi-autonomy with its own legislation but under the government of the Communist Party of Transcarpathian Ukraine. After signing of a treaty between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union as well as the decision of the regional council, Transcarpathia joined the Ukrainian SSR as part of the Ukrainian region.
The region has subsequently been referred to as Zakarpattia or Transcarpathia, on occasions as Carpathian Rus’, Transcarpathian Rus’, Subcarpathian Rus’. Carpathian Ruthenia rests on the southern slopes of the eastern Carpathian Mountains, bordered to the east and south by the Tisza River, to the west by the Hornád and Poprad Rivers, which borders Poland, Slovakia and Romania, makes up part of the Pannonian Plain; the region predominantly rural and infrastructurally underdeveloped being dominated by mountainous relief and geographically separated from Ukraine and Romania by mountain range and Hungary by Tisza river. Major cities include Uzhhorod and Mukachevo and have population around 100,000, population of other five cities varies between 10,000-30,000. Other urban and rural populated places have population less than 10,000. Slavic tribes began to migrate from their Transcarpathia homeland in the 4th century, During the 440s, the Huns crossed through the territory and burst into east-central Europe, bringing with them Slavic peoples, some of whom settled in Carpathian Ruthenia.
A century one of the tribes living in the original Slavic homeland known as White Croats had begun to settle in the valleys of the northern as well as southern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains. Whereas some White Croats remained behind in Carpathian Ruthenia, most moved southward into the Balkan peninsula. In 896 the Hungarians crossed the Carpathian Range and m
Bukovina is a historical region, variously described as in Central or Eastern Europe. The region is located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains, today divided between Romania and Ukraine. A region of Moldavia during the Middle Ages, the territory of what became known as Bukovina was, from 1774 to 1918, an administrative division of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, Austria-Hungary. After World War I, Romania established its control over Bukovina. In 1940, the northern half of Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union in violation of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, is part of Ukraine; the name Bukovina came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the Principality of Moldavia to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became the Austrian Empire in 1804, Austria-Hungary in 1867. The official German name of the province under Austrian rule, die Bukowina, was derived from the Polish form Bukowina, which in turn was derived from the common Slavic form of buk, meaning beech tree.
Another German name for the region, das Buchenland, is used in poetry, means "beech land", or "the land of beech trees". In Romanian, in literary or poetic contexts, the name Țara Fagilor is sometimes used. In English, an alternative form is The Bukovina an archaism, however, is found in older literature. In modern Ukraine, the name "Bukovina" is unofficial, but is common when referring to the Chernivtsi Oblast, as over two thirds of the oblast is the northern part of Bukovina. In Romania the term Northern Bukovina is sometimes synonymous with the entire Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine, while Bukovina refers to the Suceava County of Romania; the territory of Bukovina had been part of Moldavia since the 14th century. It was first delineated as a separate district in 1775, was made a nominal duchy within the Austrian Empire in 1849; the Moldavian state had appeared by the mid-14th century expanding its territory all the way to the Black Sea. Bukovina and neighboring regions were the nucleus of the Moldavian Principality, with the city of Suceava as its capital from 1388.
The name of Moldavia is derived from a river flowing in Bukovina. In the 15th century, the region to the north, became the subject of disputes between the Principality of Moldavia and the Polish Kingdom. Pokuttya was inhabited by Hutsuls. In 1497 a battle took place at the Cosmin Forest, at which Stephen III of Moldavia, managed to defeat the much-stronger but demoralized army of King John I Albert of Poland; the battle is known in Polish popular culture as "the battle when the Knights have perished". In this period, the patronage of Stephen the Great and his successors on the throne of Moldavia saw the construction of the famous painted monasteries of Moldoviţa, Suceviţa, Humor, Voroneţ, Dragomirna and others. With their renowned exterior frescoes, these monasteries remain some of the greatest cultural treasures of Romania. Stephen settled the first Ruthenians in Bukovina with the hope of having a loyal and more numerous population that would contribute with taxes. In Suceava, in the 16th century, two percent of the population was Ruthenian.
In 1513, Moldavia started to pay annual tribute to the Ottoman Empire, but remained autonomous and was governed as before by a native Voivod / Prince. In May, 1600 Mihai Viteazul, united the two Romanian principalities and Transylvania under his leadership. For short periods of time, the Polish Kingdom occupied parts of northern Moldavia. However, the old border was re-established each time, as for example on 14 October 1703 the Polish delegate Martin Chometowski acknowledged "Between us and Wallachia God himself set Dniester as the border". In the course of the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, the Ottoman armies were defeated by the Russian Empire, which occupied the region during 15 December 1769 – September 1774, during 14 September–October 1769. Bukovina was the reward. Prince Grigore III Ghica of Moldavia protested and was prepared to take action to recover the territory, but was assassinated, a Greek-Phanariot foreigner was put on the throne of Moldavia by the Ottomans; the Austrian Empire occupied Bukovina in October 1774.
Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the Austrians claimed that they needed it for a road between Galicia and Transylvania. Bukovina was formally annexed in January 1775. On 2 July 1776, at Palamutka and Ottomans signed a border convention, Austria giving back 59 of the occupied villages, retaining 278 villages. Bukovina was a closed military district the largest district, Kreis Czernowitz of the Austrian constituent Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. On 4 March 1849, Bukovina became a separate Austrian Kronland'crown land' under a Landespräsident and was declared the Herzogtum Bukowina (a
Lwów Eaglets is a term of affection applied to the Polish teenagers who defended the city of Lwów in Eastern Galicia, during the Polish-Ukrainian War. The city now known as the Ukrainian Lviv was before the breakdown of the Austro-Hungarian empire known as Lemberg, the capital of one of the Habsburg dominions, namely the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Poles were the prevailing ethnic group in the province overall, but in the eastern Galician territories Ukrainians were a majority, Poles a significant minority dominating the cities along with Jews. In Lemberg, according to the Austrian census of 1910, 51% of the city's population were Roman Catholics, 28% Jews, 19% Ukrainian Greek Catholics. 86 % of the city's population spoke 11 % Ukrainian. In the final days of the collapsing Habsburg empire, on November 1, 1918, Ukrainian soldiers from Austrian army units occupied Lemberg's public buildings and military depots, raised Ukrainian flags throughout the city and proclaimed the birth of a new Ukrainian state.
While the Ukrainian residents enthusiastically supported the proclamation, the city's significant Jewish minority remained neutral towards it and the Polish residents, the majority of the city's inhabitants, were shocked to find themselves in a Ukrainian state. Reacting to this military revolution, Poles rose up throughout the city. Polish forces numbering only about 200, organized a small pocket of resistance in a school at the western outskirts, where a group of veterans of the Polish Military Organization put up a fight armed with 64 outdated rifles. After initial clashes, the defenders were joined by hundreds of volunteers boy scouts and youngsters. More than 1000 people joined the Polish ranks in the first day of the fighting. Among these were many young volunteers, who became known as the Lwów Eaglets; this term was confined to those who had participated in the fights within the city between November 1 and November 22, 1918, the following siege by the Ukrainian army between November 23, 1918 and May 22, 1919.
With time, the term's application was broadened, it is now used for all the young soldiers who fought in the area of Eastern Galicia for the Polish cause in the Polish-Ukrainian War and the Polish-Bolshevik War. In addition to the young Polish nationals of Lviv, those fighting in the Polish-Ukrainian battle for Przemyśl are frequently referred to as Przemyskie Orlęta. After the Polish-Ukrainian conflict, the Lwów Eaglets were interred at the Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów, part of the Lychakiv Cemetery; the Cemetery of the Defenders held the remains of both teenaged and adult soldiers, including foreign volunteers from France and the United States. The Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów was designed by Rudolf Indruch, a student at the Lviv Institute of Architecture, himself an Eaglet. Among the most notable Eaglets to be buried there was 14-year-old Jerzy Bitschan, the youngest of the city's defenders, whose name became an icon of the Polish interbellum. Resting in the Eaglet's pantheon is six-year-old Oswald Anissimo, executed together with his father Michał by the Ukrainian soldiers.
After the annexation of Eastern Galicia with the city of Lwów by the Soviet Union in World War II and the following expulsion of the Polish population from the city, the graves were destroyed in 1971, the Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów was turned into a municipal waste dump and into truck depot. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the formation of an independent Ukraine, work began on the restoration of the "Eaglets' Cemetery", although slowed by opposition of local nationalists. Following Polish support for Ukraine's Orange Revolution, the opposition declined and the Cemetery was reopened in a Polish-Ukrainian ceremony on June 24, 2005; the last surviving Lwów Eaglet, Major Aleksander Sałacki, died in Tychy, on April 5, 2008. Battle of Lwów Battle of Zadwórze Leopold Lis-Kula Official website Defenders of Lwow website With the Lwów Eaglets dear to their hearts, Orlęta, Polish Folk Song and Dance Group recreate an evening cafe scene in Lwów from the 1920s
The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army, the Imperial Austrian Landwehr, the Royal Hungarian Honvéd. In the wake of fighting between the Austrian Empire and the Hungarian Kingdom and the two decades of uneasy co-existence following, Hungarian soldiers served either in mixed units or were stationed away from Hungarian areas. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the new tripartite army was brought into being, it existed until the disestablishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I in 1918. The joint "Imperial and Royal Army" units were poorly trained and had limited access to new equipment because the governments of the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire preferred to generously fund their own units instead of outfitting all three army branches equally. All of the Honvédség and the Landwehr regiments were composed of three battalions, while the joint army k.u.k.
Regiments had four. The long-standing white infantry uniforms were replaced in the half of the 19th century with dark blue tunics, which in turn were replaced by a pike grey uniform used in the initial stages of World War I. In September 1915, field gray was adopted as the new official uniform colour; the last known surviving member of the Austro-Hungarian Army was World War I veteran Franz Künstler, who died in May 2008 at the age of 107. The major decisions 1867-1895 were made by Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen, the nephew of the Emperor Franz Joseph and his leading advisor in military affairs. According to historians John Keegan and Andrew Wheatcroft: He was a firm conservative in all matters and civil, took to writing pamphlets lamenting the state of the Army’s morale as well as fighting a fierce rearguard action against all forms of innovation…. Much of the Austrian failure in the First World War can be traced back to his long period of power…, his power was that of the bureaucrat, not the fighting soldier, his thirty years of command over the peacetime Habsburg Army made it a flabby instrument of war.
Austria-Hungary avoided major wars in the era between 1867 and 1914 but engaged in a number of minor military actions. The general staff maintained plans for major wars against neighboring powers Italy and Russia. By contrast, the main enemies Russia and Serbia had engaged in large scale warfare in the decade before the First World War. In the late 19th century the army was used to suppress unrest in urban areas of the empire: in 1882 and 1887 in Vienna and notably against German nationalists at Graz and Czech nationalists in Prague in November 1897. Soldiers under the command of Conrad von Hotzendorf were used against Italian rioters in Trieste in 1902; the most significant action by soldiers of the Dual Monarchy in this period was the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the summer of 1878. When troops under the command of Josip Filipović and Stjepan Jovanović entered the provinces expecting little or no resistance, they were met with ferocious opposition from elements of both Muslim and Orthodox populations there.
Despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October. Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the unexpected violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders. In 1868, the number of active-duty troops in the army was 355,000, the total could be expanded to 800,000 upon mobilization. However, this was less than the European powers of France, the North German Confederation and Russia, each of which could field more than one million men. Though the population of the empire had risen to nearly 50 million by 1900, the size of the army was tied to ceilings established in 1889. Thus, at the start of the 20th century, Austria-Hungary conscripted only 0.29% of its population, compared to 0.47% in Germany, 0.35% in Russia and 0.75% in France. The 1889 army law was not revised until 1912; the ethnic make-up of the enlisted ranks reflected the diversity of the empire. From a religious standpoint, the Austro-Hungarian army officer corps was dominated by Roman Catholics.
In 1896, out of 1000 officers, 791 were Roman Catholics, 86 Protestants, 84 Jews, 39 Greek-Orthodox, one Uniate. Of the pre–World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command. While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy 4.4% including Bosnia-Herzegovna), Jews made up nearly 18% of the reserve officer corps. There were no official barriers to military service for Jews, but in years this tolerance eroded to some extent, as important figures such as Conrad von Hötzendorf and Archduke Franz Ferdinand sometimes expressed anti-Jewish sentiments. Franz Ferdinand was accused of discriminating against Protestant officers. Following the 1867 constitutional arrangements, the Reichsrat was dominated by German Liberals, who regarded the army as a relic of feudalism. In Budapest, legislators were reluctant to authorize funds for the joint army but were generous with the Hungarian branch of the army, the Honvédség.
In 1867 the military budget accounte
Galicia (Eastern Europe)
Galicia is a historical and geographic region between Central and Eastern Europe. It was once the small Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and a crown land of Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which straddled the modern-day border between Poland and Ukraine; the area, named after the medieval city of Halych, was first mentioned in Hungarian historical chronicles in the year 1206 as Galiciæ. In 1253 Prince Daniel of Galicia was crowned the King of Rus or King of Ruthenia following the Mongol invasion in Ruthenia. In 1352 the Kingdom of Poland annexed the Kingdom of Galicia and Volhynia as the Ruthenian Voivodeship; the nucleus of historic Galicia lies within the modern regions of western Ukraine: the Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk oblasts near Halych. In the 18th century, territories that became part of the modern Polish regions of the Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Subcarpathian Voivodeship and Silesian Voivodeship were added to Galicia, it covers much of such historic regions as Lesser Poland.
Galicia became contested ground between Poland and Ruthenia from medieval times, in the 20th century between Poland and Ukraine. In the 10th century, several cities were founded in Galicia, such as Volodymyr and Jaroslaw, whose names mark their connections with Grand Princes of Kiev. There is considerable overlap between Galicia and Podolia as well as between Galicia and south-west Ruthenia in a cross-border region inhabited by various nationalities. Andrew II, King of Hungary from 1205 to 1235, claimed the title Rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae – a Latinised version of the Slavic names Halych and Volodymyr, the major cities of the principality of Halych-Volhynia, which the Hungarians ruled from 1214 to 1221. Halych-Volhynia had cut a swathe as a mighty principality under the rule of Prince Roman the Great in 1170–1205. After the expulsion of the Hungarians in 1221, Ruthenians took back rule of the area. Roman's son Daniel of Galicia was crowned king of Halych-Volhynia in 1253. About 1247 Daniel of Galicia founded Lviv, named in honour of his son Leo I, who moved the capital northwestwards from Halych to Lviv in 1272.
The Ukrainian name Halych comes from the Khwalis or Kaliz who occupied the area from the time of the Magyars. They were called Khalisioi in Greek, Khvalis in Ukrainian; some historians speculated that the name had to do with a group of people of Thracian origin who during the Iron Age moved into the area after Roman conquest of Dacia in 106 CE and may have formed the Lypytsia culture with the Venedi people who moved in the region at the end of Le Tène period. The Lypytsia culture replaced the existing Thracian Hallstatt and Vysotske cultures. Connection with Celtic peoples explains the relation of the name "Galicia" to many similar place names found across Europe and Asia Minor, such as ancient Gallia or Gaul, the Iberian Peninsula's Galicia, Romanian Galați; some other scholars assert that the name Halych has Slavic origins – from halytsa, meaning "a naked hill", or from halka which means "jackdaw". Although Ruthenians drove out the Hungarians from Halych-Volhynia by 1221, Hungarian kings continued to add Galicia et Lodomeria to their official titles.
In 1349, in the course of the Galicia–Volhynia Wars, King Casimir III the Great of Poland conquered the major part of Galicia and put an end to the independence of this territory. Upon the conquest Casimir adopted the following title: Casimir by the grace of God king of Poland and Rus and heir of the land of Kraków, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Pomerania. [In Latin: Kazimirus, Dei gratia rex Polonie et Rusie, nec non Cracovie, Siradie, Cuiavie, et Pomeranieque Terrarum et Ducatuum Dominus et Heres. Following the death of Casimir in 1370, Poland entered into a personal union with Hungary and Ruthenia came under the rule of a Ruthenian lord, Vladislaus II of Opole, appointed by the King of Hungary. Galicia was ruled for short time by various Hungarian voivodes of Ruthenia. Under the Jagiellonian dynasty (Kings of Poland from 1386 to 1572, the Kingdom of Poland revived and reconstituted its territories. In place of historic Galicia there appeared the Ruthenian Voivodeship. In 1526, after the death of Louis II of Hungary, the Habsburgs inherited the Hungarian claims to the titles of the Kingship of Galicia and Lodomeria, together with the Hungarian crown.
In 1772 the Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, used those historical claims to justify her participation in the first partition of Poland. In fact, the territories acquired by Austria did not correspond to those of former Halych-Volhynia - the Russian Empire took control of Volhynia to the north-east, including the city of Volodymyr-Volynskyi – after which Lodomeria was named. On the other hand, much of Lesser Poland – Nowy S
Kraków spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre; the city has a population of about 770,000, with 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau became the capital of Germany's General Government.
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years; that year, UNESCO approved the first sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013 Kraków was approved as a UNESCO City of Literature; the city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and means "Krak's". Krakus's name may derive from "krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most associated with the concept of genealogy; the first mention of Prince Krakus dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków". In English, a person born or living in Kraków is a Cracovian. While in the 1990s the English version of the name was written Cracow, the most widespread modern English version is Krakow.
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a Stone Age settlement on the present site of the Wawel Hill. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski; the first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, a basilica; the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.
In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz; the defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died in 1370 and the campus was never completed; the city continued to grow under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city attracted many craftsmen and guilds as science and the arts began to flourish; the royal chancery and the University ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the city.
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's Złoty Golden Age. Many works of Pol
Wojciech Kossak was a noted Polish painter and member of the celebrated Kossak family of artists and writers. He was the son of painter Juliusz Kossak, twin brother of freedom fighter Tadeusz Kossak, the father of two talented literary daughters, Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska and Magdalena Samozwaniec and of a painter son, Jerzy Kossak. Wojciech Horacy Kossak was born on New Year's Eve of 1856 just before midnight, while his twin brother, Tadeusz Kossak, just after, on 1 January 1857, in Paris; the family left France. His middle name was in honour of French painter Horace Vernet. Kossak began his education upon his family's return to Poland, he went to middle school at Three Crosses Square in Warsaw and attended high school, the Gimnazjum św. Anny, in Kraków, he studied painting with his father Juliusz. Between 1871-1873, Wojciech studied at the School of Drawing and Painting - the School of Fine Arts - under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz, followed by a stint until 1875, at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts, with professors Aleksander Strähuber and Alexander Wagner.
Wojciech Kossak's historical painting was different in style from that of his predecessor Jan Matejko. He belonged to a new generation of Polish battle-scene artists influenced by the work of his father Juliusz. However, like Matejko, he is known for depicting the history of Polish armed struggle and notable Polish battles of Central and Eastern Europe against foreign oppressors. Among his most famous paintings is The Racławice Panorama. Juliusz Kossak, Wojciech's father, Jerzy Kossak, Wojciech's son, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka, daughter of Wojciech's twin brother, Tadeusz Kossak Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska, Wojciech's daughter Magdalena Samozwaniec, Wojciech's daughter List of Poles