Spanish Netherlands, Pays-Bas espagnols) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown from 1581 to 1714. This region comprised most of modern Belgium and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, the Imperial fiefs of the former Burgundian Netherlands had been inherited by the Austrian House of Habsburg from the extinct House of Valois-Burgundy upon the death of Mary of Burgundy in 1482. The Seventeen Provinces formed the core of the Habsburg Netherlands which passed to the Spanish Habsburgs upon the abdication of Emperor Charles V in 1556. When part of the Netherlands separated to form the autonomous Dutch Republic in 1581 and his granddaughter Mary had confirmed a number of privileges to the States by the Great Privilege signed in 1477. After the government takeover by her husband Archduke Maximilian I of Austria, Maximilian prevailed with the support of Duke Albert III of Saxony and his son Philip the Handsome could assume the rule over the Habsburg Netherlands in 1493.
The Habsburgs often used the term Burgundy to refer to their lands, actually until 1795. In 1522 Emperor Charles V concluded a treaty with his younger brother Archduke Ferdinand I of Habsburg, whereby the House of Habsburg split into an Austrian. By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, Charles declared the Seventeen Provinces a united, the Seventeen Provinces, de jure still fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, from that time on de facto were ruled by the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs as part of the Burgundian heritage. Philips despotism and his stern Counter-Reformation measures sparked the Dutch Revolt in the mainly Calvinist Netherlandish provinces, the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs could only retain the rule over the partly Catholic Southern Netherlands, completed after the Fall of Antwerp in 1585. Better times came, when in 1598 the Spanish Netherlands passed to Philips daughter Isabella Clara Eugenia, in the early 17th century, there was a flourishing court at Brussels. Among the artists who emerged from the court of the Archdukes, by the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659 the French annexed Artois and Cambrai, and Dunkirk was ceded to the English.
By the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and Nijmegen, further territory up to the current Franco-Belgian border was ceded, including Walloon Flanders, later, in the War of the Reunions and the Nine Years War, France annexed other parts of the region. During the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1706 the Habsburg Netherlands became an Anglo-Dutch condominium for the remainder of the conflict. By the peace treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt in 1713/14 ending the war, the Southern Netherlands fell back to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy forming the Austrian Netherlands
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Siege of Haarlem
The siege of Haarlem was an episode of the Eighty Years War. From 11 December 1572 to 13 July 1573 an army of Philip II of Spain laid bloody siege to the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands, after the naval battle of Haarlemmermeer and the defeat of a land relief force, the starving city surrendered and the garrison was massacred. The resistance nonetheless was taken as an example by the Orangists at the sieges of Alkmaar. The city of Haarlem initially held a view in the religious war that was going on in the Netherlands. It managed to escape from the Reformed iconoclasm in 1566 that affected other cities in the Netherlands, when the city of Brielle was conquered by the Geuzen revolutionary army on 1 April, Haarlem did not initially support the Geuzen. The ruler of Spain was not pleased, and sent an army north under command of Don Fadrique, on 17 November 1572 all citizens of the city of Zutphen were murdered by the Spanish army, and on 1 December the city of Naarden suffered the same fate. The city administration of Haarlem sent a deputation of 4 people to Amsterdam to attempt to negotiate with Don Fadrique, the cities defenses were commanded by city-governor Wigbolt Ripperda, a commander put in charge by William the Silent, the Prince of Orange.
He strongly disapproved of negotiating with the Spanish army, called the city guard together, the citys administration was replaced with pro-Orange citizens. When the deputation came back from Amsterdam, they were convicted as traitors, the Sint-Bavokerk was cleared of Roman Catholic symbols the same day. On 11 December 1572 the Spanish army laid siege to Haarlem, the city was not very strong, militarily speaking. Although the city was surrounded by walls, they were not in good shape. The area around the city could not be inundated, and offered the enemy many places to set up camp, the existence of the Haarlemmermeer nearby made it difficult for the enemy to cut off the transportation of food into the city completely. In the Middle Ages it was unusual to fight in the winter, during the first two months of the siege, the situation was in balance. The Spanish army dug two tunnels to reach the city walls and collapse them, the defenders made tunnels to blow up the Spanish tunnels. The situation became worse for Haarlem on 29 March 1573, the Amsterdam army, faithful to the Spanish king, occupied the Haarlemmermeer and effectively blocked Haarlem from the outside world.
The hunger in the city grew, and the situation became so tense that on 27 May many prisoners were taken from the prison, on 19 December no less than 625 shots were fired at the defensive wall between the Janspoort to the Catherijnebridge. This forced the defenders to put up a new wall. Two city gates, the Kruispoort and the Janspoort collapsed from the fighting, kenau Simonsdochter Hasselaer, a very strong woman, helped defending the city
Battle of Borgerhout
Taking advantage of the Dutch rebel armys indiscipline, Farnese decided at the beginning of 1579 to besiege Maastricht. The assault was divided into three columns, each one provided with a bridge to pass over the camps moat. After one of the attacks, undertaken by Walloon troops, succeeded in securing a bridge, William of Orange, leader of the Dutch revolt, and archduke Matthias of Habsburg, Governor-General of the Netherlands appointed by the States General, witnessed the fight from Antwerps walls. The battle meant the destruction of the villages of Borgerhout and Deurne, Farnese proceeded to besiege Maastricht, which the Spanish Army invested less than a week after the battle and was taken by assault on 29 June of the same year. Farneses successful campaign opened the way to a period of Spanish reconquest of much of the Netherlands. Orange invaded the Netherlands twice, in 1568 and 1572, the second time, the revolt spread into the provinces of Holland and Zealand, and Alba was unable of quelling it.
In reaction, the loyal and rebel provinces united to expel the foreign troops under the Pacification of Ghent, johns striking victory at the Battle of Gembloux in January 1578, was followed by a tactical defeat at Rijmenam in July, and John himself died of plague in October. The States General called for help Francis, Duke of Anjou and heir of the King of France, who entered Mons in July 1578, the Catholic provinces of Namur and Limburg were already controlled by the Spanish. The Union of Arras opened talks in February with Alexander Farnese, in the south, Farnese was planning the capture of Maastricht to use the city with its stone bridge over the Meuse as a base to conquer Brussels and Antwerp in the following campaigns. In November 1578, the Spanish Army left Namur and crossed the Ardennes, Farnese deemed too risky starting the siege of Maastrich at midwinter and with the John Casimirs numerous cavalry on the countryside. For the 1579 campaign, Farnese planned two different movements, the first part of the plan was accomplished when Mondragón took the towns of Kerpen and Straelen between 7 and 15 January.
On 24 January, Farnese moved to attack the States General army, which was at Weert, east of Antwerp. They asked the city council to allow them to enter the city, but it was refused, in the meantime, Farnese entrusted to Count Hannibal dAltemps the capture of Weert and continued his advance upon the Dutch Army. DAltemps encircled Weert with 6,000 men and breached its walls with a two-cannon battery. The defenders of the castle surrendered at discretion but, on Farnese orders, were hanged on the windows, instead of following the Dutch Army to its quarters, lodged in Turnhout with his troops and his court to forage. Before moving to Antwerp he dealt with John Casimirs German Army, Spanish troops attacked and defeated part of the German reiters near Eindhoven on 10 February. Once this matter was finished, Farnese advanced upon Borgerhout, the Dutch States troops quartered in the village of Borgerhout numbered 25 or 40 infantry companies which comprised from 3,000 to 4,000 soldiers, plus 100 additional mounted troops.
They were the backbone of the army and William of Orange referred to them as his braves
Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces, under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance. They eventually were able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, after a 12-year truce, hostilities broke out again around 1619 which can be said to coincide with the Thirty Years War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, in the decades preceding the war, the Dutch became increasingly discontented with Habsburg rule. A major cause of discontent was heavy taxation imposed on the population, while support. At that time, the Seventeen Provinces were known in the empire as De landen van herwaarts over, the presence of Spanish troops, under the command of the Duke of Alba, brought in to oversee order, further amplified this unrest.
Spain attempted a policy of religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains. The Reformation meanwhile produced a number of Protestant denominations, which gained followers in the Seventeen Provinces and these included the Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, and the Reformed teachings of John Calvin. This growth lead to the 1566 Beeldenstorm, the Iconoclastic Fury which saw many churches in northern Europe stripped of their Catholic statuary, in October 1555, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire began the gradual abdication of his several crowns. The balance of power was heavily weighted toward the local and regional governments, Philip did not govern in person but appointed Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy as governor-general to lead the central government. When Philip left for Spain in 1559 political tension was increased by religious policies, not having the liberal-mindedness of his father Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the Anabaptists.
Towards the end of Charles reign enforcement had become lax. Philip, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest, the new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbeys. Granvelle became the focus of the opposition against the new governmental structures, after the recall of Granvelle, Orange persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy. Philip delayed his response, and in this interval the opposition to his religious policies gained more widespread support, Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October 1565. This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about 400 nobles, both Catholic and Protestant, and was presented to Margaret on 5 April 1566, impressed by the massive support for the compromise, she suspended the placards, awaiting Philips final ruling.
The first half of the Eighty Years War between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic was fought between 1566 and 1609, when the Twelve Years Truce was signed in 1609, ending this first phase of war, the northern Netherlands had achieved de facto independence
Battle of Oosterweel
The Battle of Oosterweel took place on 13 March 1567 and is traditionally seen as the beginning of the Eighty Years War. The battle was fought near the village of Oosterweel, north of Antwerp, a Spanish professional army under General Beauvoir defeated an army of radical Calvinists rebels under Jan de Marnix. The prisoners were considered rebels and all were killed, william the Silent, the Burggraaf of Antwerp, did not allow the Protestants of the city to come to their aid, because he was, as lord of the city, bound by oath to support the Spanish King. ^ The Dutch people typically view Louis of Nassaus surprise victory at Heiligerlee in 1568 as the first true battle of the Eighty Years War
Siege of Alkmaar
The Siege of Alkmaar was a turning point in the Eighty Years War. The burghers of the Dutch city of Alkmaar held off the Spanish between August 21 and October 8,1573, with boiling tar and burning branches from their city walls. This forced the Spanish commander, Don Fadrique, the son of the hated Alva himself, to retreat, the end of the siege is considered a turning point in the Eighty Years War as Alkmaar was the first city to overcome a siege by the Spanish army. The garrison included a detachment of Scots soldiers who had tried to defend Haarlem. A first hand account of the siege exists in the diary of Nanning van Foreest, several archaeological examinations have uncovered remains of the battle. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650, An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare, the Routledge Handbook of the Bioarchaeology of Human Conflict
Battle of Empel
In Spain the battle is still remembered as it is believed that the army was saved due to intervention of Mary of the Immaculate Conception. After the campaign of 1585, the Governor of Spanish Netherlands and commander of the Spanish troops Alexander Farnese, the troops of Karl von Mansfeld occupied the area around s-Hertogenbosch. But all farmers had left the island, taking their livestock with them, to make the situation of the hungry Spanish troops even worse, Dutch commander Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein arrived with a strong land force and 100 ships. The Dutch leader offered a surrender to the Spaniards but the response was resolute. Ya hablaremos de capitulación después de muertos. », Philip of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein breached the dikes of Bommelwaard, forcing the Spanish back over the Rhine to Empel. There they were unable to reach s-Hertogenbosch, because the terrain was flooded and guarded by the fleet of Hohenlohe, the island was attacked as well by artillery fire coming from a fort, at the other side of the river.
The situation for the Spanish looked desperate, a Spanish soldier who was digging a trench around the church commented this is more likely to be my grave than a trench. As he dug, he found a painting representing Mary of the Immaculate Conception, bobadilla interpreted the discovery as a sign from God, and had the painting put on the Spanish flag for worship. That night, an unusual and completely intensely cold wind that chilled the waters of the River Meuse broke, the Dutch ships had to be withdrawn to prevent them being stuck in the ice. This made it possible for the remaining Spanish troops to escape to the safety of s-Hertogenbosch, admiral Hohenlohe-Neuenstein went on to say, It seems that God is Spanish to work for me so great miracle. That same day, Mary of the Immaculate Conception was proclaimed patroness of the Spanish Tercios of Flanders, article on the site of the Army Museum of The Netherlands
Siege of Zutphen (1591)
The Siege of Zutphen was an eleven-day siege of the city of Zutphen by Dutch and English troops led by Maurice of Nassau, during the Eighty Years War and the Anglo–Spanish War. The siege began on 19 May 1591 after a clever ruse by the besiegers, Zutphen was a Hanseatic city on the east bank of the River IJssel. In 1572, with the resurgence of the Dutch rebellion against Philip II of Spain, the city was recaptured by the Spaniards led by Don Frederick, and the population was punished and slaughtered for the surrender earlier that year. York subsequently died there of smallpox a year although he may have been poisoned by the Spanish to keep him from betraying again. As a consequence the town of Deventer soon followed, handed over to the Spaniards by William Stanley. In 1590 Maurice had taken Breda by hiding soldiers within a peat barge and was able to use Breda as a base for further operations. The Dutch army could launch an offensive at three points, to the South, to the East and to the North, Maurice chose the East with the towns along the River Ijssel heading towards Nijmegen.
By the beginning of 1591 Maurices first goal was to take back Zutphen, with the parallel waterways he could move the troops and artillery as quickly as possible and keep the Spanish from reinforcing the besieged towns. The garrison of Zutphen itself consisted of nearly 1,000 Spaniards and Walloons, Maurices army consisted of 9000 soldiers and 1600 horsemen which marched to Zutphen, along with 100 ships. In order to take Zutphen, the sconce on the west bank of the river had to be taken, once this had been taken the town could be besieged proper once all the heavy guns from the barges had disembarked. Maurice hoped to use another ruse similar to the one he had used at Breda with the peat barge, Francis Vere, in charge of the English troops, wanted the dirt removed from the 1587 treachery and thus wanted to lead the assault. Vere got his wish and Maurice ordered him to take the sconce on the Veluwe opposite Zutphen by sending no more than a dozen men and disguise them as farmers, some even dressed as women.
It was hoped that the Spanish would think they were escaping from the Dutch army. Once the sconce was captured Zutphen would have no hope of holding out, Vere led the English troops to Doesburg and set the plan in motion. The disguised soldiers ran towards the fort, pursued by a cavalry charge. The garrison opened the gates and let the soldiers in. When the order was given the English cut down the guard quickly enough to allow the Dutch cavalry to rush in, soon the Dutch/English force overpowered the Spanish and turned the guns on Zutphen. After this successful strategy Marice began the siege proper after easily crossing the now secured bridge and were reinforced by Count William Louis Frisian companies