White Rose of York
The White Rose of York, a white heraldic rose, is the symbol of the House of York and has since been adopted as a symbol of Yorkshire as a whole. The origins of the emblem are said to go back to the fourteenth century, to Edmund of Langley, the first Duke of York and the founder of the House of York as a cadet branch of the ruling House of Plantagenet The actual symbolism behind the rose has religious connotations as it represents the Virgin Mary, called the Mystical Rose of Heaven; the Yorkist rose is white in colour, because in Christian liturgical symbolism, white is the symbol of light, typifying innocence and purity and glory. During the civil wars of the fifteenth century, the White Rose was the symbol of Yorkist forces opposed to the rival House of Lancaster; the red rose of Lancaster would be a invention used to represent the House of Lancaster, but was not in use during the actual conflict. The opposition of the two roses gave the wars their name: the Wars of the Roses The conflict was ended by King Henry VII of England, who symbolically united the White and Red Roses to create the Tudor Rose, symbol of the Tudor dynasty.
In the late Seventeenth Century the Jacobites took up the White Rose of York as their emblem, celebrating "White Rose Day" on 10 June, the anniversary of the birth of James III and VIII in 1688. At the Battle of Minden in Prussia on 1 August 1759, Yorkshiremen of the King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry's predecessor the 51st Regiment picked white roses from bushes near to the battlefields as a tribute to their fallen comrades who had died, they stuck the plucked white roses in their coats as a tribute. Yorkshire Day is held on this date each year; the Yorkist Rose was engraved on the coffin holding the remains of King Richard III, the last Yorkist king of England and the last to die leading his troops in battle, interred at Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015. The coffin was made by Michael Ibsen, a distant relative of the king, whose DNA helped to prove his identity; the flag of Yorkshire is a White Rose of York on a blue background. The flags of the three ridings prominently include it. More than 20 civic entities in Yorkshire have a coat of arms.
When depicted at small size it is rendered more more as a graphic image. In heraldry The Rose of York is seeded proper. According to the College of Heralds, the heraldic rose may be used with ether a petal at the top or with a sepal at the top. Traditionally, the rose is displayed with a petal at the top in the North Riding and West Riding but with a sepal at the top in the East Riding of Yorkshire, However this custom is disregarded; the Yorkist rose is used in the seal of the City of York, known as White Rose City. The town's minor league baseball team, which played in different leagues for several decades, was called the York White Roses; the white rose is featured on one of the hats for York's current minor league baseball team, the York Revolution. The hats are worn during War of the Roses games vs. the Lancaster Barnstormers. The York Rose features on the shield of Canada's York University; the York Rose features in the emblem of Lenana School, a tier-one High School in Nairobi, Kenya. Lenana School was known as Duke of York School, after the Duke of York.
Queens County, New York uses the red rose on the county flag. Queens County was named after Queen consort Catherine of Braganza, spouse of Charles II who sent a fleet to New York in 1664 to recapture New Amsterdam from the Dutch and renamed New York for the Duke of York, James brother of Charles II. White rose is the coat of arms of Lithuanian town Alytus - the regional capital, it is one of two coat of arms in the country that features roses. The largest pedestrian bridge built in 2013 - 2015 is named "The bridge of White Rose"; the name was chosen by the citizen of the town. Royal Badges of England Wars of the Roses Red Rose of Lancaster Tudor Rose White boar The White Rose on History of York
House of York
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet. Three of its members became kings of England in the late 15th century; the House of York was descended in the male line from Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, but represented Edward's senior line, being cognatic descendants of Lionel, Duke of Clarence, Edward III's second surviving son. It is based on these descents. Compared with the House of Lancaster, it had a senior claim to the throne of England according to cognatic primogeniture but junior claim according to the agnatic primogeniture; the reign of this dynasty ended with the death of Richard III of England at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485. It became extinct in the male line with the death of Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, in 1499. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge, KG was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of their five sons who lived to adulthood.
He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard to Anne Mortimer that the Yorkist faction in the Wars of the Roses made its claim on the throne. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the Lancasters, were descendants of Edmund's elder brother, John of Gaunt whose son Henry usurped the throne of Richard II in 1399. Edmund had two sons and Richard of Conisburgh. Edward succeeded to the dukedom in 1402, but was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415, with no issue. Richard married Anne Mortimer, a great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, the second surviving son of Edward III. Furthermore, Anne's son Richard became heir general to the earldom of March, after her only brother, Edmund, 5th Earl, died without issue in 1425, their father Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March had been named heir presumptive of Richard II before Henry IV's accession. Richard of Conisburgh was executed following his involvement in the Southampton Plot to depose Henry V of England in favour of the Earl of March.
The dukedom of York therefore passed to Richard Plantagenet. Through his mother, Richard Plantagenet inherited the lands of the earldom of March, as well as the Mortimer claim to the throne. Despite his elevated status, Richard Plantagenet was denied a position in government by the advisers of the weak Henry VI John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, the queen consort, Margaret of Anjou. Although he served as Protector of the Realm during Henry VI's period of incapacity in 1453–54, his reforms were reversed by Somerset's party once the king had recovered; the Wars of the Roses began the following year, with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard aimed only to purge his Lancastrian political opponents from positions of influence over the king, it was not until October 1460. In that year the Yorkists had captured the king at the battle of Northampton, but victory was short-lived. Richard and his second son Edmund were killed at the battle of Wakefield on 30 December. Richard's claim to the throne was inherited by his son Edward.
With the support of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, Edward showing great promise as a leader of men, defeated the Lancastrians in a succession of battles. While Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou were campaigning in the north, Warwick gained control of the capital and had Edward declared king in London in 1461. Edward strengthened his claim with a decisive victory at the Battle of Towton in the same year, in the course of which the Lancastrian army was wiped out; the early reign of Edward IV was marred by Lancastrian plotting and uprisings in favour of Henry VI. Warwick himself changed sides, supported Margaret of Anjou and the king's jealous brother George, Duke of Clarence, in restoring Henry in 1470–71. However, Edward regained his throne, the House of Lancaster was wiped out with the death of Henry VI himself, in the Tower of London in 1471. In 1478, the continued trouble caused by Clarence led to his execution in the Tower of London. On Edward's death in 1483, the crown passed to his twelve-year-old son Edward.
Edward IV's younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was appointed Protector, escorted the young king, his brother Richard, to the Tower of London. The famous Princes in the Tower were never seen again; however it is unknown who might have killed them. Parliament declared, in the document Titulus Regius, that the two boys were illegitimate, on the grounds that Edward IV's marriage was invalid, as such Richard was heir to the throne, he was crowned Richard III in July 1483. Richard III had many enemies. Though the House of Lancaster had been extinguished, the Lancastrian sympathisers survived, who now rallied behind Henry Tudor, a descendant of the Beauforts, a legitimized branch of the House of Lancaster. Moreover, the family of Edward IV, the Edwardian loyalists, were opposed to him dividing his Yorkist power base. A coup attempt failed in late 1483, but in 1485 Richard met Henry Tudor at the battle of Bosworth Field. During the battle, some of Richard's important supporters switched sides or withheld their retainers from the field.
Richard himself was killed. He was the last of the Plantagenet kings, as well as the last English king. Henry Tudor declared himself king, took Elizabeth of York, eldest child of Edward IV, as his wife, symbolically uniting the surviving houses of York and Lancaster, acceded t
Tickencote is a small village in the county of Rutland in the East Midlands of England. It is noted with its Norman chancel arch; the population at the 2001 census was 67. At the 2011 census the population remained less than 100 and is included in the civil parish of Great Casterton; the parish stretches along the A1 from the Bloody Oaks junction to the Casterton junction. At the far north of the parish, the Warren Plantation is on the north-east side of the A1. To the north-west is Empingham. On the southern edge of Exeter Gorse, it borders Great Casterton; the boundary with Great Casterton to the B1081 junction is one field's width north-east of the A1, running parallel to the carriageways, passing the eastern edge of Tickencote Warren farm. It crosses the A1 at the B1081 junction 200 metres west of the A1 bridge where it crosses the Rutland Round, following the hedge to the west side of Ingthorpe where it meets the River Gwash and Tinwell. At Wild's Lodge it meets Empingham, it passes northwards along the eastern edge of Chapel Field Spinney again crossing the Rutland Round.
It passes east of Cross Roads Farm follows the road to Bloody Oaks. On the northbound A1, sandwiched against the B1081 access road, is the Bloody Oaks Service Station with an OK Diner and a JET petrol station. Bloody Oaks is at the next junction northwards; the service station allows access to the B1081 for northbound traffic. Southbound traffic on the A1 cannot be accessed; the Rutland Round footpath passes west–east through the parish, straight through the village, following the B1081 under the A1. National Cycle Route 63 passes through the village, from Cross Roads Farm along the B1081, onwards to Stamford. Bloody Oaks Quarry is a 1.3 hectare nature reserve and SSSI at the former quarry at OS ref SK 970108, south of Bloody Oaks on the south side of the road from Empingham to Bloody Oaks. The area is known as Roundstone Hill, is situated in the former quarry of Upper Lincolnshire oolitic limestone, it is thought to be the furthest north in England. Other species found include Horseshoe Vetch, yellow-wort, Autumn Gentian, common thyme.
There are Pyramidal and Bee Orchids. Tickencote Marsh is a 3-hectare biological SSSI; the site in the valley of the River Gwash is a base-rich grazing marsh, a habitat, becoming rare as a result of drainage and a decline in grazing. Common flora include marsh horsetail and jointed rush; the village is famous for St Peter's Church, which possesses a superb Norman chancel arch and an unusual chancel roof vault. In the arch, five orders of shafts support seven orders of moulded arches with zig zag, beak heads, grotesques and all manner of leaves and motifs; the arch has sunk in the last 900 years to give a rather depressed appearance. The church was rebuilt in neo-Norman style by Samuel Pepys Cockerell in 1792. From 1909-12 the vicar was the Venerable Lonsdale Ragg the Archdeacon of Gibraltar from 1934-45. John Clare, when working as a lime burner, used to drink at the Flowerpot Inn, now the private house, Flower Pot Cottage. In 1903, William Le Queux wrote The Tickencote Treasure; the village was the location of Tickencote Hall, built 1705 and demolished 1950.
This was the seat of the Wingfield family. Maurice Edward Wingfield CMG, son of John Wingfield became acting Colonial Secretary of the Colony of the Gambia, his brother Major John Maurice Wingfield became High Sheriff of Rutland in 1911; when the Stamford Bypass was first built in October 1960, the bypass terminated with a roundabout at Tickencote, with the B1081, the dual-carriageway continued a half-mile north near Tickencote Park. The roundabout had goods vehicles overturning and shedding their load. On 11 August 1971 the section of dual carriageway north of Tickencote to The Fox at South Witham, was opened by Earl Gainsborough, Chairman of Rutland County Council, at the B1081 junction; the section was 8.5 miles long, took two years to build by Turriff Construction, cost £2.3 million. Another historical feature of the village is a watermill. Records show that the original mill was in use in the 4th century AD on the south side of the river, whereas the present mill is on the north side of the river and bears an inscription reading'Tickencote Mill erected 1731 by John Wingfield'.
Village website Photos of St Peter's and some text from a Leicester University website More information on the church and village from the Wingfield Society Parish council Bloody Oaks Quarry
Battle of Bosworth Field
The Battle of Bosworth Field was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that extended across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians, their leader Henry Tudor, by his victory became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty. His opponent, Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it a defining moment of English and Welsh history. Richard's reign began in 1483. At the request of his brother Edward IV, Richard was acting as Lord Protector for his twelve-year-old son Edward V. Richard had Parliament declare Edward V illegitimate and ineligible for the throne, took it for himself. Richard lost popularity when the boy and his younger brother disappeared after he incarcerated them in the Tower of London, his support was further eroded by the popular belief that he was implicated in the death of his wife.
Across the English Channel in Brittany, Henry Tudor, a descendant of the diminished House of Lancaster, seized on Richard's difficulties so that he could challenge his claim to the throne. Henry's first attempt to invade England was frustrated by a storm in 1483, but on his second attempt he arrived unopposed on 7 August 1485 on the southwest coast of Wales. Marching inland, Henry gathered support. Richard intercepted Henry's army south of Market Bosworth in Leicestershire. Thomas, Lord Stanley, Sir William Stanley brought a force to the battlefield, but held back while they decided which side it would be more advantageous to support. Richard divided his army. One was assigned to the Duke of another to the Earl of Northumberland. Henry kept most of his force together and placed it under the command of the experienced Earl of Oxford. Richard's vanguard, commanded by Norfolk, attacked but struggled against Oxford's men, some of Norfolk's troops fled the field. Northumberland took no action when signalled to assist his king, so Richard gambled everything on a charge across the battlefield to kill Henry and end the fight.
Seeing the King's knights separated from his army, the Stanleys intervened. After the battle Henry was crowned king below an oak tree in nearby Stoke Golding, now a residential garden. Henry hired chroniclers to portray his reign favourably. From the 15th to the 18th centuries the battle was glamorised as a victory of good over evil; the climax of William Shakespeare's play Richard III provides a focal point for critics in film adaptations. The exact site of the battle is disputed because of the lack of conclusive data, memorials have been erected at different locations. In 1974 the Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre was built on a site that has since been challenged by several scholars and historians. In October 2009 a team of researchers, who had performed geological surveys and archaeological digs in the area from 2003, suggested a location two miles southwest of Ambion Hill. During the 15th century civil war raged across England as the Houses of York and Lancaster fought each other for the English throne.
In 1471 the Yorkists defeated their rivals in the battles of Tewkesbury. The Lancastrian King Henry VI and his only son, Edward of Lancaster, died in the aftermath of the Battle of Tewkesbury, their deaths left the House of Lancaster with no direct claimants to the throne. The Yorkist king, Edward IV, was in complete control of England, he attainted those who refused to submit to his rule, such as Jasper Tudor and his nephew Henry, naming them traitors and confiscating their lands. The Tudors tried to flee to France but strong winds forced them to land in Brittany, a semi-independent duchy, where they were taken into the custody of Duke Francis II. Henry's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, uncle of King Richard II and father of King Henry IV; the Beauforts were bastards, but Henry IV legitimised them on the condition that their descendants were not eligible to inherit the throne. Henry Tudor, the only remaining Lancastrian noble with a trace of the royal bloodline, had a weak claim to the throne, Edward regarded him as "a nobody".
The Duke of Brittany, viewed Henry as a valuable tool to bargain for England's aid in conflicts with France and kept the Tudors under his protection. Edward IV died 12 years after Tewkesbury on 9 April 1483, his 12-year-old elder son succeeded him as King Edward V. Edward V was too young to rule and a Royal Council was established to rule the country until the king's coming of age; some among the council were worried when it became apparent that the Woodvilles, relatives of Edward IV's widow Elizabeth, were plotting to use their control of the young king to dominate the council. Having offended many in their quest for wealth and power, the Woodville family was not popular. To frustrate the Woodvilles' ambitions, Lord Hastings and other members of the council turned to the new king's uncle—Richard, Duke of Gloucester, brother of Edward IV; the courtiers urged Gloucester to assume the role of Protector as had been requested by his now dead brother. On 29 April Gloucester, accompanied by a contingent of guards and Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, took Edward V into custody and arrested several prominent members of the Woodville family.
Battle of Edgecote Moor
The Battle of Edgecote Moor took place 6 miles north east of Banbury, Oxfordshire, in what is now the civil parish of Chipping Warden and Edgcote, England on 26 July 1469 during the Wars of the Roses. The site of the battle was Danes Moor in Northamptonshire, at a crossing of a tributary of the River Cherwell; the battle saw supporters of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, defeat the forces of King Edward IV, leading to the king's capitulation soon afterwards. The Earl of Warwick came to be in open rebellion against Edward by 1469. Eight years after the great Yorkists' victory in battle of Towton in which The Kingmaker took crucial part, he and Edward IV fell out. In 1464 Warwick was in the middle of negotiations with pro-Lancastrian France, he knew that a royal marriage with a French princess could solve their problems. Warwick told Louis XI that Edward would be delighted to marry the French princess, but soon afterwards was informed of the humiliating truth: Edward had secretly been married to Elizabeth Woodville, a commoner, for the past six months.
On, Elizabeth's brothers and sisters were married off to ladies and nobles of importance, throughout the land. Most of these marriages offended Warwick in some way, at least one was a direct insult to his family. Warwick was angered by Edward's constant refusal to let George, Duke of Clarence, marry Warwick's eldest daughter. Edward claimed hypocritically that Clarence would serve for none other. Warwick no longer exercised any control or influence over his cousin, the King, in political matters. Thoughts turned to rebellion in Warwick's mind, a rebellion in which he had an ally: the Duke of Clarence, heir to the English throne while the king had no male offspring. Small rebellions in the North sent the King on a slow march in that direction. With the King's back turned, Warwick's agents spread rumours stating that the King was bastard-born and that Clarence was York's true heir. In the North, one of Warwick's captains, calling himself Robin of Redesdale, started a new rebellion; when Edward heard of this, he believed the rebellion would be put down and mustered only a few of his men.
He soon learned that the rebels in fact outnumbered his own small force, he started a retreat towards Nottingham to gather more recruits. The King lacked the popularity he once had, reinforcements were few. Edward decided to wait in Nottingham for the Earls of Pembroke and Devon to arrive with an army from the south. On 12 July and Clarence declared their support for the rebels. On the 18th, Warwick left London at the head of a large army to reinforce the rebels; the rebels hurried south to meet with Warwick, bypassing the King but nearly colliding with Pembroke and Devon at Edgecote Moor. The two armies became aware of each other on 25 July and joined in battle early in the morning of the 26th, on the same site as the Battle of Danes Moor; the beginning was a rather one-sided affair as the Earl of Devon and his Welsh archers were some miles away, having stayed the night in a neighbouring village. The rebels attacked across the river forcing Pembroke to retreat and pull his men back some distance.
Pembroke was attacked again in his new position. At 1 o'clock the Earl received the news he had been waiting for: Devon was advancing with all his men. However, at the same time the advance guard of Warwick's army arrived upon the field. Rebel morale was boosted. Seeing Warwick's livery amongst the enemy, Pembroke's men presumed his whole force of expert soldiers was upon them; the royal army broke and fled the field before Devon could reinforce them. The Earl of Pembroke and his brother Sir Richard Herbert were captured and executed the following day; the Earl of Devon suffered a similar fate a few days later. The rebel dead included Henry Neville, the eldest son and heir of George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer, Sir John Conyers, the son of their general and Sir Oliver Dudley, the youngest son of John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley. Following the battle, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, father of the Yorkist Queen Elizabeth Woodville, his second son John were taken prisoners at Chepstow. Following a hasty show trial, they were beheaded at Kenilworth on 12 August 1469 On 12 and 13 September 2009 there was a re-creation of the battle on the actual battlefield, staged by the Medieval Siege Society and the English Tournament Society to commemorate the 540th anniversary.
Following the success of the 2009 commemoration and re-enactment, a second recreation was staged on 11 and 12 September 2010 for the 541st anniversary. Since 2009, an annual walk of the battlefield and the key sites has taken place on the Sunday closest to the anniversary; the walk pauses at the Trafford Bridge site to lay a wreath remembering all those that lost their lives from both sides. This is organised by the Medieval Siege Society. Haigh, Philip; the Military Campaigns of the Wars of the Roses. Brambley Books, 1995. Chapter 13. Weir, Alison; the Wars of the Roses. New York, Ballantine Books, 1995. Pp. 351–353. 2009 Re-enactment of the Battle of Edgecote The Medieval Siege Society The English Tournament Society
Battle of Wakefield
The Battle of Wakefield took place in Sandal Magna near Wakefield in northern England, on 30 December 1460. It was a major battle of the Wars of the Roses; the opposing forces were an army led by nobles loyal to the captive King Henry VI of the House of Lancaster and his Queen Margaret of Anjou on one side, the army of Richard, Duke of York, the rival claimant to the throne, on the other. For several years before the battle, the Duke of York had become opposed to the weak King Henry's court. After Henry became his prisoner, he lacked sufficient support. Instead, in an agreement known as the Act of Accord, he was made Henry's heir to the throne, displacing from the succession Henry's and Margaret's 7-year-old son Edward, Prince of Wales. Margaret of Anjou and several prominent nobles were irreconcilably opposed to this accord, massed their armies in the north. Richard of York found he was outnumbered. Although he occupied Sandal Castle, York sortied from the castle on 30 December, his reasons for doing so have been variously ascribed to deception by the Lancastrian armies, or treachery by some nobles and Lancastrian officers who York thought were his allies, or simple rashness or miscalculation by York.
The Duke of York was killed and his army was destroyed, many of the prominent Yorkist leaders and their family members died in the battle or were captured and executed. King Henry VI ascended the throne in 1422, he grew up to be an ineffective king, prone to spells of mental illness. There were bitter divisions among the officials and councillors who governed in Henry's name over the conduct of the Hundred Years' War with France. By the early 1450s, the most important rivalry was that between Richard, Duke of York, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. York argued for a more vigorous prosecution of the war, to recover territories lost to the French, while Somerset belonged to the party which tried to secure peace by making concessions. York had been Lieutenant in France for several years and resented being supplanted in that office by Somerset, who had failed to defend Normandy against French armies. York was not only the wealthiest magnate in the land, but was descended through both his parents from King Edward III, leading to calls that he be recognised as successor to the childless King Henry.
His rival, belonged to the Beaufort family, who were distant cousins of King Henry. Illegitimate, the Beauforts had been made legitimate by an Act of Parliament but were barred from the line of succession to the throne. However, there was always the possibility that this could be circumvented and the Beaufort line produced King Henry VII and the Tudor dynasty. York was appointed Lieutenant of Ireland exiling him from court, while Somerset increased his influence over the King. In 1452, York marched on London in an attempt to force Henry to dismiss Somerset from the government, but at this stage he lacked support and was forced to swear not to take arms against the King at Old St Paul's Cathedral. In 1453, Henry VI suffered a complete mental breakdown; the Great Council of peers appointed York Lord Protector and he governed the country responsibly, but Henry recovered his sanity after eighteen months and restored Somerset to favour. During Henry's madness his Queen, Margaret of Anjou, had given birth to a son, which dashed York's hopes of becoming king if Henry died.
Fearing arrest for treason and his most prominent allies, the Nevilles resorted to armed force in 1455. At the First Battle of St Albans, many of York's and Salisbury's rivals and enemies were killed, including Somerset, the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Clifford. After the battle, York reaffirmed his loyalty to King Henry, found abandoned in a shop in the town, he was reappointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Margaret of Anjou suspected York of wishing to supplant her infant son, Edward, as Henry's successor, the heirs of the Lancastrian nobles who were killed at St Albans remained at deadly feud with York. After an uneasy peace during which attempts at reconciliation failed, hostilities broke out again in 1459. Richard of York once again feared indictment for rebellion by a Great Council dominated by his opponents, he and the Nevilles concentrated their forces near York's stronghold at Ludlow Castle in the Welsh Marches but at the confrontation with the royal army which became known as the Battle of Ludford, some of Warwick's contingent from the garrison of Calais, led by experienced captain Andrew Trollope, defected overnight.
York and the Nevilles fled. The next day, the outnumbered and leaderless Yorkist army surrendered. York went to Ireland, where he had unchallenged support, while Salisbury and York's eldest son Edward, Earl of March made their way to Calais, where Warwick was Constable, they narrowly forestalled the new Duke of Somerset. Lancastrian attempts to reassert their authority over Ireland and Calais failed, but York and his supporters were declared traitors and attainted; the victorious Lancastrians became reviled for the manner in which their army had looted the town of Ludlow after the Yorkist surrender at Ludford Bridge, the repressive acts of a compliant Parliament of Devils which caused many uncommitted peers to fear for their own property and titles. The country remained in disorder. In 1460, the Nevilles invaded England through a foothold the
Battle of Barnet
The Battle of Barnet was a decisive engagement in the Wars of the Roses, a dynastic conflict of 15th-century England. The military action, along with the subsequent Battle of Tewkesbury, secured the throne for Edward IV. On 14 April 1471 near Barnet a small Hertfordshire town north of London, Edward led the House of York in a fight against the House of Lancaster, which backed Henry VI for the throne. Leading the Lancastrian army was Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, who played a crucial role in the fate of each king. Historians regard the battle as one of the most important clashes in the Wars of the Roses, since it brought about a decisive turn in the fortunes of the two houses. Edward's victory was followed by 14 years of Yorkist rule over England. A key figure in the Yorkist cause, Warwick defected to the Lancastrians over disagreements about Edward's nepotism, secret marriage and foreign policy. Leading a Lancastrian army, the earl defeated his former allies, forcing Edward to flee to Burgundy in October 1470.
The Yorkist king persuaded his host, Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, to help him regain the English throne. Leading an army raised with Burgundian money, Edward launched his invasion of England, which culminated at the fields north of Barnet. Under cover of darkness, the Yorkists moved close to the Lancastrians and clashed in a thick fog at dawn; as both armies fought, the Earl of Oxford on the Lancastrian right routed the Yorkists opposite under Lord Hastings, chasing them back to Barnet. On their return to the battlefield, Oxford's men were erroneously shot at by the Lancastrian centre commanded by Lord Montagu; as cries of treason spread through their line, Lancastrian morale was disrupted and many abandoned the fight. While retreating, Warwick was killed by Yorkist soldiers. Warwick had been such an influential figure in 15th-century English politics that, on his death, no one matched him in terms of power and popularity. Deprived of Warwick's support, the Lancastrians suffered their final defeat at the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May, which marked the end of the reign of Henry VI and the readeption of the House of York.
Three centuries after the Battle of Barnet, a stone obelisk was raised on the spot where Warwick purportedly died. The Wars of the Roses were a series of conflicts between various English lords and nobles in support of two different royal families descended from Edward III. In 1461 the conflict reached a milestone when the House of York supplanted its rival, the House of Lancaster, as the ruling royal house in England. Edward IV, leader of the Yorkists, seized the throne from the Lancastrian king, Henry VI, captured in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London; the Lancastrian queen, Margaret of Anjou, her son, Edward of Lancaster, fled to Scotland and organised resistance. Edward IV pressured the Scottish government to force Margaret out; as the Yorkists tightened their hold over England, Edward rewarded his supporters, including his chief adviser, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, elevating them to higher titles and awarding them land confiscated from their defeated foes. The Earl grew to disapprove of the King's rule and their relationship became strained.
Warwick had planned for Edward to marry a French princess—Bona of Savoy, sister-in-law to Louis XI of France—to create an alliance between the two countries. The young king, favoured ties with Burgundy and, in 1464, further angered the Earl by secretly marrying Elizabeth Woodville. Edward bestowed gifts of land and titles on her relations and arranged their marriages to rich and powerful families. Eligible bachelors were paired with the Woodville females, narrowing the marriage prospects for Warwick's daughters. Furthermore, the Earl was offended by two; the first was the marriage of his aunt, Lady Katherine Neville, over 60 years old, to Elizabeth's 20-year-old brother, John Woodville, a pairing considered outside of normal wedlock by many people. The other was his nephew's fiancée, the daughter of Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter, taken as a bride by the Queen's son, Thomas Grey, with Edward's approval. Exasperated by these acts, Warwick decided, he felt marginalized: his influence over the young king was failing, he decided to take drastic action to force Edward's compliance.
Warwick's alternative plan was to replace the King with his fellow conspirator, the Duke of Clarence, Edward's younger brother. Instigating several rebellions in the north, Warwick lured the King away from his main bastion of support in the south. Edward found. After winning the Battle of Edgecote Moor on 26 July 1469, the Earl found the Yorkist king deserted by his followers, brought him to Warwick Castle for "protection". Lancastrian supporters took advantage of Edward's imprisonment to stage uprisings; because most Yorkist-aligned warlords refused to rally to Warwick's call, the Earl was pressured to release the King. Back in power, Edward did not pursue Warwick's transgressions against him, but the Earl suspected that the King held a grudge. Warwick engineered this time to replace Edward with Clarence; the two conspirators, had to flee to France when Edward crushed the uprising—the Battle of Losecoat Field—on 12 March 1470. Through letters in the rebels' possession and confessions from the leaders, the King uncovered the Earl's betrayal.
In a deal brokered by the French king, Louis XI, the Earl agreed