Legio XII Fulminata
The Legio duodecima Fulminata, known as Paterna, Antiqua, Certa Constans, and Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and which accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC, the unit was still guarding the Euphrates River crossing near Melitene at the beginning of the 5th century. The legions emblem was a thunderbolt, in centuries it came to be called commonly, but incorrectly, the Legio Fulminatrix, the Thundering Legion. The Twelfth legion, as it is better known, fought in the Battle against the Nervians. The Twelfth fought at the Battle of Pharsalus, when Caesar defeated Pompey, after Caesar won the civil war, the legion was named Victrix, and enlisted in 43 BC by Lepidus and Mark Anthony. Mark Anthony led the Twelfth, renamed XII Antiqua during his campaign against the Parthian Empire, during the latest part of Augustus principality, XII Fulminata served in Syria, camping at Raphana. In the East, King Vologeses I had invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome, the legions were shamed and removed from the war theatre.
On its way back, XII Fulminata was ambushed and defeated by Eleazar ben Simon at Beit-Horon, however, XII Fulminata fought well in the last part of the war, and supported its commander T. Flavius Vespasian in his successful bid for the imperial throne. At the end of the war, XII Fulminata and XVI Flavia Firma were sent to guard the Euphrates border, in 75 AD, XII Fulminata was in Caucasus, where Emperor Vespasian had sent the legion to support the allied kingdoms of Iberia and Albania. The legion was probably in Armenia during Trajans campaign of 114 AD, in 134, the threat of the Alans was subdued by the governor of Cappadocia, who defeated the invaders with the aid of XII Fulminata and XV Apollinaris. The Twelfth probably fought in the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus, in 162-166, if a unit of XII. At this time, most of the Twelfth was composed chiefly of Christians, there was a belief that this had led to the emperor issuing a decree forbidding the persecution of the Christians, but this seems to have been based on a forgery.
In 175, the legion was in Melitene, when Avidius Cassius revolted, after the death of Emperor Pertinax,193, XII Fulminata supported the governor of Syria, Pescennius Niger, who was in the end defeated by Emperor Septimius Severus. When the Eastern frontier of the Empire was moved from the Euphrates to the Tigris, the region around Melitene was one of the first in which Christian faith spread. Polyeuctes is a martyr under Valerian who was a soldier of the Twelfth, the Sassanid Empire was a major threat to the Roman power in the East. King Shapur II conquered the base of the XV Apollinaris, Emperor Valerian moved against Shapur, but was defeated and captured. The defeat caused the collapse of the Empire, with the secessionistic Gallic Empire in the West. It is known that the XII Fulminata was under the command of Odaenathus, ruler of the Palmyrene Empire, after these episodes, the records of the Fulminata are scarce
Ambiorixs revolt was an episode during the Gallic Wars between 54 and 53 BC in which the Eburones tribe, under its leader, rebelled against the Roman Republic. Fifteen Roman cohorts were wiped out at Atuatuca Tungrorum and a garrison commanded by Quintus Tullius Cicero narrowly survived after being relieved by Caesar in the nick of time. The rest of 53 BC was occupied with a campaign against the Eburones and their allies. In 57 BC Julius Caesar conquered Gaul and Belgica In the battle of the Sabis Caesar defeated the Nervii, after this he turned against the Atuatuci, captured their stronghold, and sold the tribe into slavery. The Eburones, who until Caesars destruction of the Atuatuci were vassals of that Belgic tribe, were ruled by Ambiorix and Catuvolcus. In 54 BC there was a poor harvest, and Caesar, to the Eburones he sent Quintus Titurius Sabinus and Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta with the command of a recently levied legion from north of the Po and a detachment of five cohorts. Ambiorix and his tribesmen attacked and killed several Roman soldiers who were foraging for wood in the nearby vicinity, the survivors fled back to their camp, followed by Ambiorix and his men.
The Roman representatives, Quintus Junius, a Spaniard and Gaius Arpineius, a council of war, attended by the leading officers and NCOs, was formed. During this council, two opposing opinions took form, speaking first, Cotta argued that they should not move without an order from Caesar. Moreover, he said it would be better to make for a nearby legion, the officers told their commanders that whichever view prevailed was not as important as coming to a unanimous decision. Cotta was finally forced to give way and Sabinus prevailed, the Romans spent the night in disarray, putting together their belongings and preparing to march out of the Fort once morning came. The enemy heard the hubbub in the Fort and prepared an ambush, when dawn broke, the Romans, in marching order, more heavily burdened than usual left the Fort. When the greater part of the column had entered a ravine, Caesar notes that Sabinus lost his mind, running from cohort to cohort and issuing ineffectual orders. Cotta, by contrast, kept his cool and did his duty as a commander, due to the length of the column, the commanders could not issue orders efficiently so they passed word along the line to the units to form into a square.
The troops fought bravely though with fear and in clashes were successful, Ambiorix ordered his men to discharge their spears into the troops, to fall back if bested and chase back the Romans when they tried to fall into rank. During the engagement, Cotta was hit full in the face by a sling-shot, Sabinus sent word to Ambiorix to treat for surrender. Cotta refused to come to terms and remained steadfast in his refusal to surrender, however, followed through with his plan to surrender. However, after promising Sabinus his life and the safety of his troops, had him surrounded, the Gauls charged down en masse onto the waiting Romans where they killed Cotta, still fighting, and the great majority of the troops
Battle of the Sabis
Julius Caesar, commanding the Roman forces, was surprised and nearly defeated. According to Caesars report, a combination of determined defence, skilled generalship, during the winter of 58-57 BC rumours came to Caesars ears that the Belgic tribes were forming a union because they feared possible Roman interference in their affairs. These reports provided Caesar with a pretext for conquering more than Gaul itself. In response, the other Belgic and Celtic tribes had attacked Bibrax, Caesar countered by defending the oppidum and winning an action at the Aisne. Caesar continued his advance and tribes surrendered one by one, four tribes, the Nervii, the Atrebates, the Aduatuci and the Viromandui refused to submit. The Ambiani told Caesar that the Nervii were the most hostile of the Belgae to Roman rule, a fierce and brave tribe, they did not allow the import of luxury items as they believed these had a corrupting effect and probably feared Roman influence. They had no intention of entering negotiations with the Romans.
Caesar would move on them next, as with all ancient battles, estimates of the forces available to both sides will always be a matter of some speculation. A Roman legion at this period had an establishment of some 4,800 fighting men with additional auxiliary forces. Eight Roman legions took part in the battle and it is not known if they were at full strength, but a reasonable estimate might be in the region of 42,000 men. Caesar claims he had received intelligence from the Remi that the various tribes of the Belgae had promised to contribute a total of 300,000 fighting men. According to Caesar the Remi estimates of the men promised by the four tribes now left to oppose Caesar were,50,000 Nervii,15,000 Atrebates,10,000 Veromandui and 19,000 Aduatuci. If these figures were reliable it would mean that Caesar was immediately faced with a maximum of 75,000 men, promises are not always kept so it is probable the actual number was smaller than this, though still high enough to outnumber the legionaries.
Caesars legions had been marching in Nervian territory for three days, following an ancient road and he learnt from prisoners that the Belgae were massing on the far side of the River Sabis, which was about 10 miles ahead. The Nervii had persuaded the Atrebates and the Veromandui to support them, the Aduatuci were marching to join them, but they did not arrive in time to take part in the battle. Their non-combatants had moved to an area screened by marshes. The Belgae had made their preparations and were now waiting for the Romans, Caesar sent forward experienced scouts to choose the next campsite. He learnt from prisoners taken that sympathisers in the ragtag of surrendered Belgae and other Gauls travelling with the army had gone to the Nervii and it was believed this would intimidate the Romans into withdrawing
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine,30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea. There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city, examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864, a number of closely associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, on the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple.
Small statues of the dea Sequana Seine goddess and other ex voti found at the place are now exhibited in the Dijon archeological museum. The Seine is dredged and oceangoing vessels can dock at Rouen,120 kilometres from the sea, commercial riverboats can use the river from Bar-sur-Seine,560 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges, the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable. The Seine Maritime,105.7 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft. The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Multiple locks at Bougival / Chatou and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne, from the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine.
From there on, the river is only by small craft. All navigation ends abruptly at Marcilly-sur-Seine, where the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes and this canal has been abandoned for many years. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres. Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second
The pilum was a javelin commonly used by the Roman army in ancient times. It was generally about 2 metres long overall, consisting of an iron shank about 7 millimetres in diameter and 60 centimetres long with pyramidal head. The shank was joined to the shaft by either a socket or a flat tang. The purpose was so the enemy could not throw the pilum back at the Roman army. The total weight of a pilum was between 2 and 5 kilograms, with the versions produced during the earlier Republican era being slightly heavier than those produced in the Empire era, the iron shank was the key to the function of the pilum. The weapon had a hard pyramidal tip but the shank was made of softer iron and this softness would cause the shank to bend after impact, thus rendering the weapon useless to the enemy who might throw it back. Even if the shank did not bend, the pyramidal tip still made it difficult to pull out, although the bending of the pilums shank is commonly seen to be an integral part of the weapons design and as an intentional feature, there is little evidence to suggest this.
The combination of the weight and the aforementioned pyramidal tip. That the pilum needed to pierce layers of armour necessitated a lengthy shank, the momentum of the pilum caused the shank to bend upon impact, although unintended, proved to be a useful characteristic of the weapon. Most other javelins of the time were unable to penetrate a shield, the length of the shank and its depth of penetration made it hard to pull out of a shield even if it failed to bend. If the bearer of the shield was charging and a Pilum penetrated the shield, on some pila there was a spike on the end of the shaft which made it easier to dig into the ground. Pila were divided into two models and light, pictorial evidence suggests that some versions of the weapon were weighted by a lead ball to increase penetrative power but archeological specimens of this design variant are not so far known. Recent experiments have shown pila to have a range of approximately 33 metres, the origin of the pilums design is a matter of contention.
Considering that there are two versions of the pilum, it may be possible that the Roman pilum had as ancestors two different weapons, perhaps from different cultural groups respectively. The two weapon designs may have coalesced into the form of the typical Roman pilum, as is known today, legionaries of the Late Republic and Early Empire often carried two pila, with one sometimes being lighter than the other. The effect of the throw was to disrupt the enemy formation by attrition. Pila could be used in combat, one documented instance of this occurred at the Siege of Alesia. Additionally, pila could be employed as a thrusting implement and a barrier against cavalry charges, some pila had small hand-guards, to protect the wielder if he intended to use it as a melee weapon, but it does not appear that this was common. When once fixed in the shield it was impossible to them out
Grenelle is a neighbourhood in southwestern Paris, France. It is a part of the 15th arrondissement of the city, there is currently a Boulevard de Grenelle which runs along the North delimitation of the quartier, and a Rue de Grenelle, a few kilometers North-East in the 7th arrondissement. In 52 BC, Garanella plain was the site of the Battle of Lutetia between the troops of the Gaulish chief Camulogène and the Roman legion under General Labienus, despite their courageous resistance, the Gauls were defeated. Towards the middle of the 13th century, Grenelle became a fiefdom of the Abbey of St Genevieve, on May 15,1824, two city councillors from Vaugirard, Jean-Léonard Violet and Alphonse Letellier and divided up Grenelle plain. They did this quickly, and the new quartier Beaugrenelle was founded on June 27,1824. Thenceforth, under the encouragement of a group of entrepreneurs, the continued to develop. Thus, on May 13,1829, following the refusal of the city to install oil lamps, the residents of Beaugrenelle demanded to break off from Vaugirard, however, it was to be short-lived.
On 1 January 1860, despite the objections of the residents of Grenelle, Baron Haussmann decided to annex Grenelle, the 1804 explosion of the Grenelle powder magazine shook Paris and caused many pregnant women to miscarry
Legio VII Claudia
Legio septima Claudia was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. Its emblem, like that of all Caesars legions, was the bull, the Seventh, the Sixth, the Eighth and the Ninth were all founded by Pompey in Spain in 65 BC. With the Eighth and Tenth legions, the Seventh was among the oldest units in the imperial Roman army and they were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul around 58 BC by Julius Caesar, and marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars. The Roman commander mentions the Seventh in his account of the battle against the Nervians, in 56, the Seventh was present during the Venetic campaign. During the crisis caused by Vercingetorix, it fought in the neighborhood of Lutetia, it must have been active at Alesia, tiberius Claudius Maximus, the Roman soldier who brought the head of Decebalus to the emperor Trajan, was serving in Legio VII Claudia. An inscription in Pompeii revealed that Floronius served in the seventh legion, the inscription says, “Floronius, privileged soldier of the 7th legion, was here.
The women did not know of his presence, only six women came to know, too few for such a stallion. ”List of Roman legions livius. org account
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Siege of Uxellodunum
The Siege of Uxellodunum was one of the last battles of the Gallic Wars. It took place in 51 BC at Uxellodunum and it was the last major military confrontation of the Gallic Wars and marked the pacification of Gaul under Roman rule. The battle resulted in a decisive Roman victory, the group had apparently planned to begin a new rebellion against their Roman conquerors. Uxellodunum was heavily fortified both by its position and by its impressive fortifications built by the Carduci tribe. Additionally, one side of the fort was protected by a mountainside which prevented any approach from that direction, for these reasons, it was impossible to besiege it in the same manner the Romans had used at the Battle of Alesia a year before. By this manner, he planned to seal off the city. The Gauls trapped inside the oppidum, having learned the lessons of starvation from the disaster at the Siege of Alesia, made plans to leave the settlement by night to forage for food and provisions. Climbing over the ramparts and Drapes left a garrison of around 2,000 men inside Uxellodunum, some of the local Carduci Gauls in the surrounding areas freely gave the rebels supplies, but much of the provisions were taken by force.
The Gauls tried to sneak past the Roman sentries set by Caninius Rebilus. Caninius Rebilus, upon learning of the Gauls plans, concentrated the bulk of his legions, who was in charge of the convoy, immediately took flight with his warbands without informing Drapes. The rest of the Gauls were massacred almost to a man, Caninius Rebilus left one of his legions behind to defend his three camps and gathered the rest of his soldiers to pursue Drapes. He destroyed the remaining Gaulish forces in the area under Drapes, capturing Drapes and these reinforcements put the Roman forces at four and a half legions, enough to construct competent siege works and completely encircle the fort. While these actions had been ongoing, Gaius Julius Caesar was in the territory of the Belgae in Gaul, there he was informed by courier of the revolt of the Carduci and Senones. Indeed, Caesar made his way so quickly to Uxellodunum that he surprised his two legates, Caesar decided that the city could not be carried by force.
This was a problem for the Romans because they had told by deserters that the city had an abundant food supply, despite the previous blunders of Luciterius. Caesar decided therefore to target the citys water supply, however, noticed the difficulty the Gauls had collecting the water, having to come down a very steep slope to reach the riverbank. Exploiting this potential flaw in the defenses, Caesar stationed archers, more troublesome for Caesar however, a secondary water source flowed down from the mountain directly underneath the walls of the fort. It seemed to be almost impossible to access to this second source
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. The wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the ruler of the Roman Republic. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, as a result of the financial burdens of his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar incurred significant debt. When the Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, Caesars governorships were extended to a five-year period, a new idea at the time. Caesar had initially four veteran legions under his command, Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana. As he had been Governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned successfully with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.
His ambition was to conquer and plunder some territories to get out of debt. It is more likely that he was planning a campaign against the Kingdom of Dacia, the countries of Gaul were civilized and wealthy. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by such as the Aedui. The Romans respected and feared the Gallic tribes, only fifty years before, in 109 BC, Italy had been invaded from the north and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius. Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine, to attack the Aedui, the Sequani and Arverni sought Ariovistus’ aid and defeated the Aedui in 63 BC at the Battle of Magetobriga. The Sequani rewarded Ariovistus with land following his victory, Ariovistus settled the land with 120,000 of his people. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him land to accommodate the Harudes people.
This demand concerned Rome because if the Sequani conceded, Ariovistus would be in a position to all of the Sequani land. They did not appear to be concerned about a conflict between non-client and allied states, by the end of the campaign, the non-client Suebi under the leadership of the belligerent Ariovistus, stood triumphant over both the Aedui and their coconspirators. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, the Helvetii was a confederation of about five related Gallic tribes that lived on the Swiss plateau, hemmed in by the mountains, and the Rhine and Rhone rivers. They began to come under increased pressure from German tribes to the north, by 58 BC, the Helvetii were well on their way in the planning and provisioning for a mass migration under the leadership of Orgetorix