The Argentine Navy is the navy of Argentina. It is one of the three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force; the Argentine Navy day is celebrated on May 17, anniversary of the victory in 1814 at the Battle of Montevideo over the Spanish fleet during the war of Independence. The Argentine Navy was created in the aftermath of the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, which started the war for independence from Spain; the navy was first created to support Manuel Belgrano in the Paraguay campaign, but it was sunk by ships from Montevideo, did not take part in that conflict. Renewed conflicts with Montevideo led to the creation of a second fleet, which participated in the capture of the city; as Buenos Aires had little maritime history, most men in the navy were from other nations, such as the Irish-born admiral William Brown, who directed the operation. As the cost of maintaining a navy was too high, most of the Argentine naval forces were composed of privateers.
Brown led the Argentine navy in further naval conflicts at the War with Brazil and the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata. In the 1870s the Argentine Navy began modernizing itself. At the close of the century, the force included: 5 armoured cruisers 4 coastal defence ironclads 3 second-class, high-speed, British-built cruisers 7 modern small cruisers and gunboats 4 destroyers and 22 torpedo boats; the most powerful ships at this time included the Italian-built Garibaldi and her sister ships: General Belgrano, Pueyrredón, San Martín, each at over 6,000 tons. Three older ironclads, Almirante Brown and Libertad dated from the 1880s and early 1890s; the navy's ships were built in Italy, Britain and Spain, were operated by over 600 officers and 7,760 seamen. These were supported by a battalion of an artillery battery. Argentina remained neutral in both world wars. In 1940 Argentina's navy was ranked the eighth most powerful in the world and the largest in Latin America. A ten-year building programme costing $60 million had produced a force of 14,500 sailors and over a thousand officers.
The fleet included two First World War-era American-built Rivadavia-class battleships, three modern cruisers, a dozen British-built destroyers, three submarines, plus minelayers, coastal defence ships, gunboats. A naval air force was in operation. In the postwar period, Naval Aviation and Marine units were put under direct Navy command. With Brazil, Argentina is one of two South American countries to have operated two aircraft carriers: the ARA Independencia and ARA Veinticinco de Mayo; the Argentine Navy has been traditionally involved in fishery protection, helping the Coast Guard: most notably in 1966 a destroyer fired on and holed a Soviet trawler that had refused to be escorted to Mar del Plata, in the 1970s there were four more incidents with Soviet and Bulgarian ships followed by other incidents such as the sinking of the Chian-der 3. The Navy took part in all military coups in Argentina through the 20th century. During the 1976 to 1983 dictatorship, Navy personnel were involved in the Dirty War in which thousands of people were kidnapped and killed by the forces of the military junta.
The Navy School of Mechanics, known as ESMA, was a notorious centre for torture. Among their more well-known victims were the Swedish teenager Dagmar Hagelin, French nuns Alice Domon and Léonie Duquet. During this regime, the Navy was the main supporter of a military solution for the country's two longest-standing disputes: the Beagle Conflict with Chile and the Falkland Islands with the United Kingdom. During the 1982 Falklands conflict the Main Argentine Naval Fleet consisted of modernised World War II era ships, newer vessels: two Type 42 destroyers, three French-built corvettes, one German-built Type 209 submarine; this fleet was supported by several ELMA tankers and transports, as well an ice breaker and a polar transport ship. New German MEKO type destroyers and Thyssen-Nordseewerke submarines were still under construction at the time. Despite leading the invasion of the Falkland Islands, in both strategic and tactical aspects the Argentine fleet played only a small part in the subsequent conflict with the Royal Navy.
After HMS Conqueror sank the ARA General Belgrano, the Argentine surface fleet did not venture from a 12-mile coastal limit imposed by the British because of the threat posed by the Royal Navy nuclear-powered submarines. The Argentine Navy's contributions to the war were principally the initial amphibious assaults on 2 and 3 April. In addition, the Type 42 destroyer ARA Santísima Trinidad, operating off Staten Island, played an important part in the destruction of the British landing ship Sir Galahad on 8 June,. Naval aviation carried out intensive maritime patrols, searching to locate the British fleet for the strike aircraft and British submarines for the anti-submarine Sea King helicopters, while their
Carmen de Patagones
Carmen de Patagones is the southernmost city in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is located 937 km southwest from the city of Buenos Aires, on the north bank of the Río Negro, near the Atlantic Ocean, opposite Viedma, capital of the province of Río Negro; the city is the capital of the Patagones Partido, the only administrative division of Buenos Aires Province that lies within Patagonia. The town was founded in 1779 by Francisco de Viedma, an explorer leading a Spanish expedition commissioned with colonizing Patagonia's shores. In the 19th century, Carmen de Patagones had a fort, after the May Revolution of 1810, it became a prison for royalists. During the Cisplatine War, the town became a naval base, since the main Argentine safe harbour, the estuary of the Río de la Plata, had been blocked by Brazilian ships; the Brazilian troops attempted to take Carmen de Patagones, but they were repelled by armed residents on 7 March 1827. The city maintains two imperial Brazilian flags captured during the battle in the central cathedral on the site of the original fort where the battle took place.
The town and its twin city, became the focus of attention in 1986, when President Raúl Alfonsín announced the Patagonia Project, which envisaged the transfer of the nation's capital to a new federal district encompassing the two towns at the mouth of the Río Negro. Approved by the Congress in 1987, the plan was rescinded when Alfonsín's successor, President Carlos Menem, disbanded Entecap, the commission overseeing the project, in 1989. Carmen de Patagones school shooting Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Carmen de Patagones, la fiesta del 7 de marzo
Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 in an area of 201 square kilometres; the southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata. The city was established in 1724 by a Spanish soldier, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst the Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, it was under brief British rule in 1807. Montevideo is the seat of the administrative headquarters of Mercosur and ALADI, Latin America’s leading trade blocs, a position that entailed comparisons to the role of Brussels in Europe; the 2017 Mercer's report on quality of life, rated Montevideo first in Latin America, a rank the city has held since 2005. As of 2010, Montevideo was the 19th largest city economy in the continent and 9th highest income earner among major cities. In 2019, it has a projected GDP of $47.7 billion, with a per capita of $27,542.
In 2018, it was classified as a beta global city ranking eighth in Latin America and 84th in the world. Montevideo hosted every match during the first FIFA World Cup, in 1930. Described as a "vibrant, eclectic place with a rich cultural life", "a thriving tech center and entrepreneurial culture", Montevideo ranked eighth in Latin America on the 2013 MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. In 2014, it was regarded as the fifth most gay-friendly metropolis in the world, first in Latin America, it is higher education in Uruguay as well as its chief port. The city is the financial and cultural hub of a larger metropolitan area, with a population of around 2 million. There are several explanations about the word Montevideo. All agree that "Monte" refers to the Cerro de Montevideo, the hill situated across the Bay of Montevideo, but there is disagreement about the etymological origin of the "video" part. Monte vide eu is the most widespread belief but is rejected by the majority of experts, who consider it unlikely because it involves a mix of dialects.
The name would come from a Portuguese expression which means "I saw a mount", wrongly pronounced by an anonymous sailor belonging to the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes on catching sight of the Cerro de Montevideo. Monte Vidi: This hypothesis comes from the "Diario de Navegación" of boatswain Francisco de Albo, member of the expedition of Fernando de Magallanes, who wrote, "Tuesday of the said we were on the straits of Cape Santa María, from where the coast runs east to west, the terrain is sandy, at the right of the cape there is a mountain like a hat to which we gave the name "Montevidi"." This is the oldest Spanish document that mentions the promontory with a name similar to the one that designates the city, but it does not contain any mention of the alleged cry "Monte vide eu." Monte-VI-D-E-O: According to Rolando Laguarda Trías, professor of history, the Spaniards annotated the geographic location on a map or Portolan chart, so that the mount/hill is the VI mount observable on the coast, navigating Río de la Plata from east to west.
With the passing of time, these words were unified to "Montevideo". No conclusive evidence has been found to confirm this academic hypothesis nor can it be asserted with certainty which were the other five mounts observable before the Cerro. Monte Ovidio, a less widespread hypothesis of a religious origin, stems from an interpolation in the aforementioned Diario de Navegación of Fernando de Albo, where it is asserted "corruptly now called Santo Vidio" when they refer to the hat-like mount which they named Monte Vidi. Ovidio was the third bishop of the Portuguese city of Braga. Given the relationship that the Portuguese had with the discovery and foundation of Montevideo, despite the fact that this hypothesis, like the previous ones, lacks conclusive documentation, there have been those who linked the name of Santo Ovidio or Vidio with the subsequent derivation of the name "Montevideo" given to the region since the early years of the 16th century. Between 1680 and 1683, Portugal founded the city of Colonia do Sacramento in the region across the bay from Buenos Aires.
This city met with no resistance from the Spanish until 1723, when they began to place fortifications on the elevations around Montevideo Bay. On 22 November 1723, Field Marshal Manuel de Freitas da Fonseca of Portugal built the Montevieu fort. A Spanish expedition was sent from Buenos Aires, organized by the Spanish governor of that city, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala. On 22 January 1724, the Spanish forced the Portuguese to abandon the location and started populating the city with six families moving in from Buenos Aires and soon thereafter by families arriving from the Canary Islands who were known as Guanches or Canarians. There was one significant early Italian resident by the name of Jorge Burgues. A census of the city's inhabitants was performed in 1724 and a plan was drawn delineating the city and designating it as San Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo shortened to Montevideo; the census counted fifty families of Galician and Canary Islands origin, more than 1000 indigenous people Guaraní, as well as Black African slaves of Bantu origin.
A few years after its foundation, Montevideo became the main city of the region north of the Río de la Plata and east of the Uruguay River, competing with Buenos Aires for dominance i
Ensenada, Buenos Aires
Ensenada is a city and port in Buenos Aires Province, located around the Ensenada de Barragán. It has 31,031 inhabitants as per the 2001 census, it is the capital of Ensenada Partido, together with Berisso Partido they are the main suburbs of the Gran La Plata conurbation around the provincial capital of La Plata. The port of Ensenada carries beef exports, as well as industrial shipments; the volume traded has been growing at the expense of the Buenos Aires port, located 60 km to the north-west. As Buenos Aires city authorities are considering repurposing the port of Buenos Aires as a passenger-only facility, the volume at Ensenada is slated to experience further growth. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Ensenada website Todo Ensenada Portal
Quilmes is a city in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, on the coast of the Rio de la Plata on the south east of the Greater Buenos Aires. It is the seat of the eponymous county, has a population of 230,810, it is located 17 km south of the capital of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The Quilmes were a native tribe. In the 17th century, after repeated attempts by the Spanish invaders to control their lands, the Quilmes were defeated and were forced to settle in a restricted colony near Buenos Aires, where the authorities could control them; the settlement was thus established in 1666 as Exaltación de la Santa Cruz de los Kilme. The 1,000 km journey from Tucumán was made on foot, causing hundreds of Quilmes to die in the process; the colony had become a ghost town. The land was divided in parcels and the town of Quilmes was established in 1818. During the first British invasion, lasting 46 days in 1806, the British arrived from Montevideo through Quilmes and went to Buenos Aires from there.
Quilmes was inhabited by British immigrants. Juan Clark, born in Yorkshire, was president of the municipality in 1855; the Clark's were owners of land in Quilmes, were linked to the Irish and Scottish community, established in the area since 1830s. In 1898 was established in the area the St. George's College, a private educational institution run by the Reverend Joseph Thomas Stevenson; the town's development accelerated during the wave of immigration in Argentina during the late 19th century, Quilmes was considered as the location for a new provincial capital during the Federalization of Buenos Aires of 1880. The Argentine Air Force established a 220 ha base in East Quilmes in 1943. In 1944, Impa opened Argentina's first airplane plant at Quilmes. Impa had been blacklisted by the United States government due to its connections to Nazi-occupied Austria and fascist figures within Argentina itself; the airplanes were considered of "antiquated design" according to the New York Times. Quilmes proper consists of two main parts and west, which are divided by the tracks of the Metropolitano passenger train line.
East Quilmes has several wealthy areas and a large shopping district. As one travels east toward the Río de la Plata, neighborhoods become poor, two large villas miseria are found close to the river; these areas experience severe flooding. Quilmes is the home of two football teams: Quilmes Atlético Club and Club Atlético Argentino de Quilmes; the first was founded in the 19th century by Cannon J. T. Stevenson, the second one was founded by Argentines who were not allowed to play for the QAC, they are two of the oldest Argentine football teams. The city has been chosen by FIH to host the 2014 Men's Hockey Champions Trophy; the city gives its name to the Cerveza Quilmes beer company, as this is where it was first brewed in 1888 where the brewery was started by Otto Bemberg. Other significant manufacturers in Quilmes include textile maker La Bernalesa, glass maker Cattorini, construction materials maker Cerámica Quilmes, climate control equipment maker Rheem. Famous Quilmeños include television variety show host Susana Giménez, football forward Sergio Agüero, painter Carlos Morel, sculptor Victor de Pol, boxer Sergio Martínez, the rock band Vox Dei.
Aníbal Fernández, born in Quilmes, served as mayor from 1991 to 1995, from 2003 as Minister of Interior, of Justice, as Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers, Senator. List of twin towns and sister cities in Argentina - New York Times article from 1944 about new airplane factory at Quilmes Municipality of Quilmes - Official Quilmes website UKULA Travel Section - Quilmes Travelogue Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina