Volusianus known as Volusian, was a Roman Emperor from November 251 to August 253. His father, Trebonianus Gallus, became Roman Emperor after being elected in the field by the legion, following the deaths of the previous co-emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus. Trebonianus Gallus raised Hostilian, the son of Decius, to augustus, making him his co-emperor in June 251. Volusianus was elevated to caesar in the same month. After the death, or murder, of Hostilian in November 251, Volusianus was raised to augustus, co-ruling with his father; the short reign of Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus was notable for the outbreak of a plague, said by some to be the reason for Hostilian's death, the invasion of the Sasanian Empire, the raids of the Goths. Volusianus was killed alongside his father in August 253 by their own soldiers, who were terrified of the forces of the usurper Aemilian which were marching towards Rome. Gaius Vibius Afinius Gallus Vendumnianus Volusianus was born in about 230 AD to future Roman Emperor Trebonianus Gallus.
Trebonianus Gallus had become emperor after the previous emperors and Herennius Etruscus, were both killed in July 251 by the Goths, led by Cniva, at the Battle of Abritus. The troops in the field elected Trebonianus Gallus as emperor. Trebonianus Gallus was forced to sign a treaty, which contemporary historians decried as "shameful", with the Goths, promising them tribute if the Goths abstained from raiding them. After Trebonianus Gallus became emperor, he made Hostilian, the son of Decius, augustus with him, in order to improve the opinion of the people, he elevated Volusianus to caesar in about July 251. Volusianus was wed of an unknown name. Hostilian died in November 251. Aurelius Victor and the author of the Epitome de Caesaribus both say that Hostilian died of a plague, however Zosimus claims that he was killed off by Trebonianus Gallus, so that Volusianus could become augustus. Trebonianus Gallus elevated Volusianus to augustus in November 251, he was made consul in 252, alongside Trebonianus Gallus, in 253, alongside Valerius Maximus.
The same plague that killed Hostilian devastated the rest of Rome, although Trebonianus Gallus gained much popularity by ensuring that all of the plague victims were given proper burials, regardless of their social status. During the reign of Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus, the persecution of Christians was not as extreme as it was under Decius, although Pope Cornelius was exiled in 252 AD. Novatian was forced to flee Rome during this period of persecution. Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus issued only two imperial rescripts during their reign. During the shared reign of Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus, the Roman Empire was invaded by both the Goths and the Sassanids. Both co-emperors chose to stay in Rome rather than confront the invasions themselves; the Sassanids attacked in 252 overrunning Mesopotamia, defeated the Romans at the Battle of Barbalissos, near Barbalissos in the province of Euphratensis. They advanced into Roman territory as far as Antioch, captured in 253 after a prolonged siege.
In 253, the Goths invaded Moesia Inferior, as the new governor, had refused to pay the tribute to them. The Goths split into two bands, with one raiding the cities of Moesia Inferior and Thracia, the other crossing into Asia Minor as far as Ephesus. Aemilian succeed in repelling the Goths, slaughtering many and forcing the rest back across the Danube; the prestige of this victory was so great that Aemilian's soldiers spontaneously declared him emperor, in opposition to Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus. Upon hearing this news, they sent word to Valerian, the future emperor, strengthening Rome's defences on the Rhine, to send reinforcements. Aemilian marched to Italy at a rapid pace, such that Valerian did not reach Rome in time to provide assistance; the co-emperors mustered what troops they could and prepared to defend, but made it less than two days before being killed by their own troops in August 253, at Interamna, in Umbria, because they feared fighting the much stronger forces of Aemilian.
The Chronography of 354 says they ruled for a total of two years, four months, nine days. The aurei of Volusianus fell into two types. There were 5 styles of coins which featured his bust on the obverse, with the reverse showing: Aequitas sitting, Aeternitas standing, Apollo standing, Juno sitting inside a rounded temple, or Victoria standing. There were a further six styles of coins which featured his bust with a Radiate on the obverse, with the reverse displaying: Concordia sitting, Felicitas standing, Libertas standing, Providence standing, Salus standing, or a helmeted Virtus standing; the coins of Volusianus bore the inscription Saeculum nouum, alongside the traditional inscriptions Romae aeternae and Pax aeternae. Adkins, Lesley. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195123326. Ando, Clifford. Imperial Rome AD 193 to 284 The Critical Century. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748629206. Bird, H. W.. The Breviarum Ab Urbe Condita of Eutropius.
Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 9780853232087. Brent, Allen. Cyprian and Roman Carthage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521515474. Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. New York: Facts On File. ISBN 9781438110271. Conway, George Edward. De Bono Patientiae. Catholic University of America. OCLC 3301214. Cooley, Alison E.. The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
Balbinus, was Roman Emperor with Pupienus for three months in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Not much is known about Balbinus before his elevation to emperor, it has been conjectured that he descended from Publius Coelius Balbinus Vibullius Pius, the consul ordinarius of 137, wife Aquilia. If this were true, he was related to the family of Q. Pompeius Falco, which supplied many politicians of consular rank throughout the 3rd century, to the 1st-century politician and author Julius Frontinus, he was born around 178. He was a patrician from birth, was the son of Caelius Calvinus, legate of Cappadocia in 184, he was one of the Salii priests of Mars. According to Herodian he had governed provinces, but the list of seven provinces given in the Historia Augusta, as well as the statement that Balbinus had been both Proconsul of Asia and of Africa, are to be mere invention, he had been twice consul. According to Edward Gibbon: Balbinus was an admired orator, a poet of distinguished fame, a wise magistrate, who had exercised with innocence and applause the civil jurisdiction in all the interior provinces of the empire.
His birth was noble, his fortune affluent, his manners liberal and affable. In him, the love of pleasure was corrected by a sense of dignity, nor had the habits of ease deprived him of a capacity for business; the two colleagues had both been consul, both had been named among the twenty lieutenants of the senate. When the Gordians were proclaimed Emperors in Africa, the Senate appointed a committee of twenty men, including Balbinus, to co-ordinate operations against Maximinus Thrax. On the news of the Gordians' defeat, the Senate voted Pupienus and Balbinus as co-emperors on 22 April 238, though they were soon forced to co-opt the child Gordian III as a colleague. Unlike the situation in 161, both emperors were elected as pontifices maximi, chief priests of the official cults; this would be unthinkable in Republican times. Balbinus was in his early seventies: his qualifications for rule are unknown, except that he was a senior senator and well-connected. While Pupienus marched to Ravenna, where he oversaw the campaign against Maximinus, Balbinus remained in Rome, but failed to keep public order.
The sources suggest that after Pupienus's victorious return following Maximinus' death, Balbinus suspected Pupienus of wanting to supplant him, they were soon living in different parts of the Imperial palace, where they were assassinated by disaffected elements of the Praetorian Guard, with Balbinus' death occurring on 29 July 238. The'sarcophagus of Balbinus' has earned this Emperor a niche in the history of Roman Imperial art. While holding the title of Emperor, Balbinus had a marble sarcophagus made for himself and his wife. Discovered in fragments near the Via Appia and restored, this is the only example of a Roman Imperial sarcophagus of this type to have survived. On the lid are reclining figures of Balbinus and his wife, the figure of the Emperor being a fine portrait of him; the sarcophagus is held in collection at the Museo di Pretastato in the Park of the Caffarella near the Appian Way at Rome. Although in accounts of their joint reign Balbinus is emphasized as the civilian as against Pupienus the military man, on the side of the sarcophagus he is portrayed in full military dress.
Media related to Balbinus at Wikimedia Commons good portrait bust portrait head from the sarcophagus as an example of Roman'pathetic' style Livius.org: Balbinus
Battle of Beroe
The Battle of Beroe was a conflict near Stara Zagora, ancient Ulpia Augusta Traiana, between the Romans and Goths in 250 which resulted in a Gothic Victory. After the Battle of Nicopolis ad Istrum where the Goths were defeated, emperor Decius reached Beroe but his army was exhausted and he had to rest his men and horses but Cniva and his Goths attacked him and the Roman army was defeated
The Carpi or Carpiani were an ancient people that resided in the eastern parts of modern Romania in the historical region of Moldavia from no than c. AD 140 and until at least AD 318; the ethnic affiliation of the Carpi remains disputed, as there is no direct evidence in the surviving ancient literary sources. A strong body of modern scholarly opinion considers that the Carpi were a tribe of the Dacian nation. Other scholars have linked the Carpi to a variety of ethnic groups, including Sarmatians, Slavs and Celts. About a century after their earliest mention by Ptolemy, during which time their relations with Rome appear to have been peaceful, the Carpi emerged in c. 238 as among Rome's most persistent enemies. In the period AD 250-270, the Carpi were an important component of a loose coalition of transdanubian barbarian tribes that included Germanic and Sarmatian elements; these were responsible for a series of large and devastating invasions of the Balkan regions of the empire which nearly caused its disintegration in the "Crisis of the Third Century".
In the period 270-318, the Roman "military emperors" acted to remove the Carpi threat to the empire's borders. Multiple crushing defeats were inflicted on the Carpi in 273, 297, 298-308 and in 317. After each, massive numbers of Carpi were forcibly transferred by the Roman military to the Roman province of Pannonia as part of the emperors' policy of repopulating the devastated Danubian provinces with surrendered barbarian tribes. Since the Carpi are no longer mentioned in known documents after 318, it is possible that the Carpi were removed from the Carpathian region by c. 318 or, if any remained, it is possible that they mingled with other peoples resident or immigrating into Moldavia, such as the Sarmatians or Goths. The Greco-Romans called this people the Carpiani; the earliest mention of them, under the name Καρπιανοί is in the Geographia of the 2nd-century Greek geographer Ptolemy, composed c. AD 140; the name Carpi or Carpiani may derive from the same root as the name of the Carpathian mountain range that they occupied first mentioned by Ptolemy under the name Καρπάτης - Karpátes.
The root may be the putative Proto-Indo-European word *ker/sker, meaning "peak" or "cliff". Scholars who support this derivation are divided between those who believe the Carpi gave their name to the mountain range and those who claim the reverse. In the latter case, Carpiani could mean "people of the Carpathians", but the similarity between the two names may be coincidence, they may derive from different roots. For example, it has been suggested that the name may derive from the Slavic root-word krepu meaning "strong" or "brave", it had been suggested that Carpathian Mountains may derive from the Sanskrit root "kar"'cut' that would give the meaning of'rugged mountains'. Some scholars consider that the following peoples recorded in ancient sources correspond to Ptolemy's Karpiani: the Kallipidai mentioned in the Histories of Herodotus as residing in the region of the river Borysthenes the Karpídai around the mouth of the river Tyras recorded in a fragment of Pseudo-Scymnus the Harpii, located near the Danube delta, mentioned by Ptolemy himself.
If so, their locations could imply that the Carpi had gradually migrated westwards in the period 400 BC - AD 140, a view championed by Kahrstedt. These names' common element carp- appears in Dacian and Thracian placenames and personal names, but there is no consensus. Bichir suggests. According to Ptolemy's Geographia, the Carpi occupied a region between the river Hierasus and the river Porata; this was as defined by Ptolemy, whose eastern border was the Hierasus. East of this river lay what Ptolemy termed Sarmatia Europaea, a vast region stretching as far as the Crimea, but by no means populated by Sarmatian tribes. According to Ptolemy, the Carpi's neighbours were: to the North, the Costoboci to the South, in the Wallachian plain, the Roxolani Sarmatians to the East of the Prut, the Bastarnae which had migrated into the region between the rivers Prut and Dniester around 200 BC)To the West, the Eastern Carpathian mountains between the Siret and the border of the Roman province were populated by the "Free Dacians" i.e. ethnic Dacians residing outside Roman Dacia.
However, it is not possible to reliably define the territories of these groups due to the imprecision of the ancient geographical sources. It is that in many areas, ethnic groups overlapped and the ethnic map was a patchwork of dispersed sub-groups; the Sarmatians and Bastarnae are attested, in both literature and archaeology, all over Wallachia and Bessarabia. It is that, when Greco-Roman sources refer to conflicts with the Costoboci, Carpi or Goths, they are referring to coalitions of different groups under the hegemonic tribe. Given the Carpi's repeated raids South of the Danube and clashes with the Romans during the 3rd century, it is by ca. 230, the Carpi had extended their hegemony over eastern Wallachia dominated by the Roxolani. There is no dispute among scholars that some Decebalic-era Dacian settlements in Moldavia (mostly west of the Siret, with a few on the east bank, were abandoned b
Gordian I was Roman Emperor for 21 days with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Caught up in a rebellion against the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he was defeated by forces loyal to Maximinus, he committed suicide after the death of his son. Little is known about the early life and family background of Gordian I. There is no reliable evidence on his family origins, his family were of Equestrian rank, who were modest but wealthy. Gordian I was said to be related to prominent Senators of his time, his praenomen and nomen Marcus Antonius suggested that his paternal ancestors received Roman citizenship under the Triumvir Mark Antony, or one of his daughters, during the late Roman Republic. Gordian’s cognomen ‘Gordianus’ indicates that his family origins were from Anatolia, more Galatia or Cappadocia. According to the Augustan History, his mother was a Roman woman called Ulpia Gordiana and his father, the Senator Maecius Marullus. While modern historians have dismissed his father's name as false, there may be some truth behind the identity of his mother.
Gordian's family history can be guessed through inscriptions. The name Sempronianus in his name, for instance, may indicate a connection to his mother or grandmother. In Ankara, Turkey, a funeral inscription has been found that names a Sempronia Romana, daughter of a named Sempronius Aquila. Romana erected this undated funeral inscription to her husband. Gordian might have been related to the gens Sempronia. French historian Christian Settipani identified Gordian I's parents as Marcus Antonius, tr. pl. praet. Des. and wife Sempronia Romana, daughter of Titus Flavius Sempronius Aquila, Secretarius ab epistulis Graecis, wife Claudia, daughter of an unknown father and his wife Claudia Tisamenis, sister of Herodes Atticus. It appears in this family tree that the person, related to Herodes Atticus was Gordian I's mother or grandmother and not his wife. According to the Augustan History, the wife of Gordian I was a Roman woman called Fabia Orestilla, born circa 165, whom the Augustan History claims was a descendant of the Emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius through her father Fulvus Antoninus.
Modern historians have dismissed her information as false. With his wife, Gordian I had at least two children: a son of the same name and a daughter, Antonia Gordiana, his wife died before 238 AD. Christian Settipani identified her parents as Marcus Annius Severus, a Suffect Consul, his wife Silvana, born circa 140 AD, the daughter of Lucius Plautius Lamia Silvanus and his wife Aurelia Fadilla, the daughter of Antoninus Pius and wife Annia Galeria Faustina or Faustina the Elder. Gordian climbed the Roman imperial hierarchy when he became part of the Roman Senate, his political career started late in his life and his early years were spent in rhetoric and literary studies. As a military man, Gordian commanded the Legio IV Scythica, he served as governor of Roman Britain in 216 AD and was a Suffect Consul sometime during the reign of Elagabalus. Inscriptions in Roman Britain bearing his name were erased suggesting some form of imperial displeasure during this role. While he gained unbounded popularity on account of the magnificent games and shows he produced as aedile, his prudent and retired life did not excite the suspicion of Caracalla, in whose honor he wrote a long epic poem called Antoninias.
Gordian retained his wealth and political clout during the chaotic times of the Severan dynasty which suggests a personal dislike for intrigue. Philostratus dedicated his work Lives of the Sophists to either him or his son, Gordian II. Fabia Orestilla was the great-granddaughter of Antoninus Pius and the wife of Gordian I, she married him in 192 and had two sons and a daughter. Orestilla is only mentioned in the Augustan History. In part because the Augustan History names the father-in-law of the oldest Gordian as "Annius Severus", modern historians do not believe that this is the name of his wife, dismiss this name and her information as false. An alternative theory many believe is that his wife was the granddaughter of Greek Sophist and tutor Herodes Atticus. During the reign of Alexander Severus, Gordian I, after serving his Suffect Consulship prior to 223, drew lots for the proconsular governorship of the province of Africa Proconsularis which he assumed in 237. However, prior to the commencement of his promagistrature, Maximinus Thrax killed Alexander Severus at Moguntiacum in Germania Inferior and assumed the throne.
Maximinus was not a popular emperor and universal discontent increased due to his oppressive rule. It culminated in a revolt in Africa in 238 AD; this was triggered by the actions of Maximinus’s procurator in Africa, who sought to extract the exorbitant taxes and fines to the extent of falsifying charges against the local aristocracy. A riot saw the death of the procurator, after which the people turned to Gordian and demanded that he accept the dangerous honor of the imperial throne. Gordian, after protesting that he was too old for the position yielded to the popular clamour and assumed both the purple and the cognomen Africanus on 22 March. According to Edward Gibbon: An iniquitous sentence had been pronounced against some opulent youths of, the execution of which would have stripped them of far the greater part of their patrimony. A respite of three days, obtained wit
Niš is the third largest city in Serbia and the administrative center of the Nišava District. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 187,544, while its administrative area has a population of 260,237 inhabitants. Niš has long been a crossroads between West. Founded by the Celtic Scordisci in 279 BC, the city would serve as the birthplace of three Roman emperors: Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor and the founder of Constantinople. Playing a prominent role in the history of the Byzantine Empire, the city's past would earn it the nickname The Emperor's City. After about 400 years of Ottoman rule, the city was liberated in 1878 and became part of the Principality of Serbia, though not without great bloodshed—remnants of which can be found throughout the city. Today, Niš is one of the most important economic centers in Serbia in the electronics, mechanical engineering and tobacco industries. Constantine the Great Airport is Niš's international airport. In 2013, the city was host to the celebration of 1700 years of Constantine's Edict of Milan.
The town was named after the Nišava River. It was first named Navissos by Celtic tribes in the 3rd century BC rom this term comes the Latin Naissus, the Greek Nysos and the Slavic Niš. Legend has it that Niš was founded by a certain Prince Nisa, who built it using the nearby Humska Čuka stone; the name is rendered as Nish or Nissa in English. Archaeological evidence shows Neolithic settlements in the city and its surroundings dating from 5,000 to 2,000 BC. A notable archaeological site is Humska Čuka, in the nearby settlement of Hum. In the Iron Age, theThracians dominated the region, with one of their chief settlements being the nearby Aiadava. In 279 BC, during the Gallic invasion of the Balkans, the Celtic Scordisci defeated the Triballi and founded the city as Navissos. During the Roman conquest of the Balkans between 168 and 75 BC, the city, known as Naissus in Latin, was used as a base of operations. Naissus was first mentioned in Roman documents near the beginning of the 2nd century CE, was considered a place worthy of note in the Geography of Ptolemy of Alexandria.
The Romans occupied the town during the Dardanian campaign, set up a legionary camp in the city. The city, called refugia and vici in pre-Roman relation, as a result of its strategic position developed as an important garrison and market town in the province of Moesia Superior. In 272 AD, the future Emperor Constantine. Constantine created the Dacia Mediterranea province, of which Naissus was the capital, which included Remesiana on the Via Militaris and the towns of Pautalia and Germania, he lived in Naissus from 316-322. In 364 AD, the imperial Villa Mediana 3 km was the site where emperors Valentinian and Valens met and divided the Roman Empire into halves which they would rule as co-emperors It was besieged by the Huns in 441 and devastated in 448, again in 480 when the partially-rebuilt town was demolished by the Barbarians. Byzantine Emperor Justinian I restored the town but it was destroyed by the Avars once again; the Slavs, in their campaign against Byzantium, conquered Niš and settled here in 540.
In 805, the town and its surroundings were taken by Bulgarian Emperor Krum. In the 11th century Byzantium reclaimed control over the surrounding area. During the People's Crusade, on July 3, 1096, Peter the Hermit clashed with Byzantine forces at Niš. Manuel I fortified the town, but under his successor Andronikos I it was seized by the Hungarian king Béla III. Byzantine control was reestablished, but in 1185 it fell under Serbian control. By 1188, Niš became the capital of Serbian king Stefan Nemanja. On July 27, 1189, Nemanja received German emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his 100,000 crusaders at Niš. Niš is mentioned in descriptions of Serbia under Vukan in 1202. In 1203, Kaloyan of Bulgaria annexed Niš. Stefan Nemanjić regained the region; the fall of the Serbian Empire, conquered by Ottoman Sultan Murad I in 1385, decided the fate of Niš as well. After a 25-day-long siege the city fell to the Turks, it was returned to Serbian rule in 1443. Niš again fell under Ottoman rule in 1448, remained thusly for 241 years.
During Ottoman rule Niš was a seat of civil administration. A Silesian traveler stated in 1596 that the route from Sofia to Niš was littered with corpses and described the gates of Niš as bedecked with the freshly-severed heads of poor Bulgarian peasants. In 1689 Niš was seized by the Austrian army during the Great Turkish War, but the Turks regained it in 1690. In 1737, Niš was again seized by the Austrians, who attempted to rebuild the fortifications around the city. In that same year, the Turks would reclaim the city without resistance. During the First Serbian Uprising in 1809, Serbian revolutionaries attempted to liberate Niš in the famous Battle of Čegar. After the defeat of the Serbian forces, the Ottoman commander of Niš ordered the heads of the slain Serbs mounted on a tower to serve as a warning; the tower is known as the Skull Tower. In 1821, the Ottomans arrested the Bishop of Niš, Milentija, as well as 200 Serbian patriots, on charges of preparing an uprising in the Niš area in support of the Greek War of Independence.
On June 13 of that year, Bishop Milentija and other Serbian