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Battle of Nineveh (627)

The Battle of Nineveh was the climactic battle of the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628. In mid-September 627, Heraclius invaded the Sasanian heartland in a surprising, risky winter campaign. Khosrow II appointed Rhahzadh as the commander of an army to confront him. Heraclius' Göktürk allies deserted, while Rhahzadh's reinforcements did not arrive in time. In the ensuing battle, Rhahzadh was slain and the remaining Sasanians retreated; the Byzantine victory resulted in civil war in Persia, for a period of time restored the Roman Empire to its ancient boundaries in the Middle East. The Sasanian civil war weakened the Sasanian Empire, contributing to the Islamic conquest of Persia; when Emperor Maurice was murdered by the usurper Phocas, Khosrau II declared war to avenge his benefactor's death. While the Persians were successful during the first stages of the war, conquering much of the Levant and Anatolia, the ascendancy of Heraclius led to the Persians' downfall. Heraclius' campaigns altered the balance, forcing the Persians on the defensive and allowing for the Byzantines to regain momentum.

Allied with the Avars, the Persians were defeated. While the Siege of Constantinople was taking place, Heraclius allied with what Byzantine sources called the Khazars under Ziebel, who are identified with the Western Turkic Khaganate of the Göktürks led by Tong Yabghu, plying him with wondrous gifts and a promise of the reward of the porphyrogenita Eudoxia Epiphania; the Caucasus-based Turks responded by sending 40,000 of their men to ravage the Persian Empire in 626 to start the Third Perso-Turkic War. Joint Byzantine and Göktürk operations were focused on besieging Tiflis. In mid-September 627, leaving Ziebel to continue the siege of Tiflis, Heraclius invaded the Persian heartland, this time with between 25,000 and 50,000 troops and 40,000 Göktürks; the Göktürks, however deserted him because of the strange winter conditions. Heraclius was tailed by Rhahzadh's army of 12,000, but managed to evade Rhahzadh and invaded the heartland of the Persian Empire, in Mesopotamia. Heraclius acquired food and fodder from the countryside, so Rhahzadh, following through countryside stripped, could not find provisions for his soldiers and animals.

On December 1, Heraclius crossed the Great Zab River and camped near the ruins of the capital of the former Assyrian Empire of Nineveh in Persian ruled Assyria/Assuristan. This was a movement from south to north, contrary to the expectation of a southward advance. However, this can be seen as a way to avoid being trapped by the Persian army in case of a defeat. Rhahzadh approached Nineveh from a different position. News that 3,000 Persian reinforcements were approaching reached Heraclius, he gave the appearance of retreating from Persia by crossing the Tigris. Heraclius had found a plain west of the Great Zab some distance from the ruins of Nineveh; this allowed the Byzantines to take advantage of their strengths in hand-to-hand combat. Furthermore, fog reduced the Persian advantage in missile-shooting soldiers and allowed the Byzantines to charge without great losses from missile barrages. Walter Kaegi believes. On December 12, Rhahzadh attacked. Heraclius feigned retreat to lead the Persians to the plains before reversing his troops to the surprise of the Persians.

After eight hours of fighting, the Persians retreated to nearby foothills, but it was not a rout. 6,000 Persians fell. Nikephoros' Brief History tells. Heraclius killed Rhahzadh in a single thrust; the account of another Byzantine historian, Theophanes the Confessor, supports this. However, doubt has been cast on whether or not this occurred. In any case, Rhahzadh died sometime in the battle; the 3,000 Persian reinforcements arrived too late for the battle. The victory at Nineveh was not total. However, this victory was significant enough to shatter the resistance of the Persians. With no Persian army left to oppose him, Heraclius' victorious army plundered Dastagird, Khosrau's palace, gained tremendous riches while recovering 300 captured Byzantine/Roman standards accumulated over years of warfare. Khosrau had fled to the mountains of Susiana to try to rally support for the defense of Ctesiphon. Heraclius could not attack Ctesiphon itself because the Nahrawan Canal was blocked by the collapse of a bridge.

The Persian army rebelled and overthrew Khosrau II, raising his son Kavadh II known as Siroes, in his stead. Khosrau perished in a dungeon after suffering for five days on bare sustenance—he was shot to death with arrows on the fifth day. Kavadh sent peace offers to Heraclius. Heraclius did not impose harsh terms, knowing that his own empire was near exhaustion. Under the peace treaty, the Byzantines regained all their lost territories, their captured soldiers, a war indemnity, of great spiritual significance, the True Cross and other relics that were lost in Jerusalem in 614; the battle was the last conflict of the Roman-Persian Wars. Kaegi, Walter Emil, Heraclius: emperor of Byzantium, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-81459-1 Norwich, John Julius, A Short History of Byzantium, Vintage Books, ISBN 978-0-679-77269-9 Oman, Europe, 476-918, Macmillan

Modern pentathlon at the 1948 Summer Olympics

At the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, a single modern pentathlon event was contested. The event was held at the Aldershot Lido outdoor pool in Hampshire; the modern pentathlon consisted of five events. The competition used a point-for-place system, with the lowest total across the five events winning. Riding: a show jumping competition. Riders started with 100 points and could lose points either through obstacle faults or going over the 10-minute time limit. Negative scores were possible. Ties were broken by the specific time taken, with the quicker rider winning. Fencing: a round-robin, one-touch épée competition. Score was based on number of bouts won. Shooting: a rapid fire pistol competition, with 20 shots per competitor. Swimming: a 300 m freestyle swimming competition. Running: a 4 km race. A total of 45 athletes from 16 nations competed at the London Games: "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2006-12-05

Jack Steven

Jack Steven is an Australian rules footballer playing for the Geelong Football Club in the Australian Football League. Steven is a four-time Trevor Barker Award winner for the Saints, he received a nomination for the 2011 AFL Rising Star award in round 10 of the 2011 season. From the Lorne Football Club, he attended Northfield Grammar. Steven was recruited from the Geelong Falcons with pick 42 in the 2007 AFL Draft. Steven kicked the final goal of the 2008 NAB Cup quarter final – a competition which St Kilda went on to win, although Steven did not play in the final. Steven made his AFL debut in Round 19 of the 2009 AFL season in the Saints' upset win over Hawthorn at York Park in Launceston, Tasmania when the undefeated Saints were without seven of their best player due to injuries, it was his only AFL game for the year, but he played eight more in 2010. In January 2011, along with three teammates, was suspended for six weeks and fined after breaking team rules involving alcohol, prescription medicine and leaving the team hotel while on a team camp in New Zealand.

In Round 10, 2011, Steven was nominated for the 2011 AFL Rising Star. During 2013 Steven established himself as one of the AFL's most elite emerging young midfielders, his explosive pace and ferociousness at the contest culminated in a career best season in which he won the 2013 Trevor Barker Award for St Kilda's best and fairest player. In March 2015, Steven signed a new contract with the Saints, committing to the club until the end of the 2020 season. Steven played in all 22 games for St Kilda in 2015, kicking 9 goals, he was awarded his second Trevor Barker medal. Steven was inducted into St Kilda's leadership group prior to the 2016 AFL season, he won third overall. In February 2019, Steven took an indefinite leave from football to deal with mental health issues, and returned to the club the following month. He featured in four of the club's first six games of the season, but left the club again in May to continue to deal with the issue, before returning the following month. At the conclusion of the 2019 AFL season, Steven requested a trade to Geelong.

The trade was completed on the last day of the trade period. Statistics are correct to the end of round 6, 2019. Individual 4× Trevor Barker Award: 2013, 2015, 2016, 2018 AFL Rising Star nominee: 2011 Jack Steven's playing statistics from AFL Tables Jack Steven's profile on the official website of the St Kilda Football Club

István Szabó

István Szabó is a Hungarian film director and opera director. Szabó is the most internationally famous Hungarian filmmaker since the late 1960s. Working in the tradition of European auteurism, he has made films that represent many of the political and psychological conflicts of Central Europe's recent history, as well as of his own personal history, he made his first short film in 1959 as a student at the Hungarian Academy of Theatrical and Cinematic Arts, his first feature film in 1964. He achieved his greatest international success with Mephisto, which won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Since most of Szabó's films have been international co-productions filmed in a variety of languages and European locations, he has continued to make some films in Hungarian, in his international co-productions, he films in Hungary and uses Hungarian talent. Szabó became involved in a national controversy in 2006 when the Hungarian newspaper Life and Literature revealed that he had been an informant of the Communist regime's secret police.

Born in Budapest, Szabó is the son of Mária and István Szabó, the latter of whom was a doctor from a long line of doctors. Szabó came from a family of Jews who had converted to Catholicism, but were considered Jews by the Arrow Cross Party, they were forced to separate and hide in Budapest sometime between October 1944, when Nazi Germany occupied Hungary and installed the Arrow Cross in power, February 1945, when the Soviets defeated the German Army in Budapest. Szabó survived by hiding at an orphanage, but his father died of diphtheria shortly after the German defeat. Memories of these events would appear in several of his films. In 2006, the Hungarian newspaper Life and Literature revealed that Szabó had been an informant of the Communist regime's secret police. Between 1957 and 1961, he submitted forty-eight reports on seventy-two people classmates and teachers at the Academy of Theatrical and Cinematic Arts. According to historian Istvan Deak, only in one case did Szabó's informing cause significant damage, when an individual was denied a passport.

After the article was published, over one hundred prominent intellectuals, including some of the people Szabó had denounced, published a letter of support for him. Szabó's initial response to the article was that informing had been an act of bravery intended to save the life of former classmate Pál Gábor; when this claim turned out not to be true, Szabó admitted that his true motive had been to prevent his own expulsion from the Academy. In a 2001 interview, Szabó revealed that he believes in God, but considers the subject personal and does not like to talk about it; as a child, Szabó wanted to be a doctor like his father. By the age of 16, however, he had been inspired by a book by Hungarian film theorist Béla Balázs to become a film director. Upon graduation from high school, he became one of 11 applicants out of 800 who were admitted to the Academy of Theatrical and Cinematic Arts. At the Academy, he studied with the famous director Félix Máriássy, who became something of a father figure to Szabó.

Among his classmates were Judit Elek, Zsolt Kézdi-Kovács, Janos Rozsa, Pál Gábor, Imre Gyöngyössy, Ferenc Kardos, Zoltán Huszárik. While at the Academy, Szabó directed several short films, culminating in his thesis film, which won a prize at the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen. Thanks to János Herskó, head of the Hunnia Film Studio at which he apprenticed, Szabó was given his first opportunity to direct a feature film at the age of 25, rather than being required to spend ten years working as an assistant director; the beginning of Szabó's career coincided with the beginning of a “new wave” in Hungarian cinema, one of several new wave cinemas that occurred around this time throughout Western and Eastern Europe. The Eastern European new waves were caused by political liberalization, the decentralization of film industries, the emergence of films as valuable commodities for export to Western European markets; the resulting films were more formally experimental, politically anti-establishment, in the case of Szabó, psychologically probing than the films of the previous generation.

Hungarian filmmakers in particular experienced a significant increase in freedom of expression due to the reforms of the Kádár government. Szabó's first feature film, The Age of Illusions, is a autobiographical film about the struggles of Szabó's generation in starting a career, encountering the obsolescence of the older generation, establishing romantic relationships; the appearance of a poster for François Truffaut's The 400 Blows in the background of a scene suggested Szabó's artistic compatibility with Truffaut and the French New Wave. The film won the Silver Sail for Best First Work at the Locarno International Film Festival and a Special Jury Prize for Best Director at the Hungarian Film Festival. Father is a coming of age story that displays Szabó's increasing fascination with history and memory; the main character copes with the childhood loss of his father against the backdrop of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and memories of the Arrow Cross dictatorship. The film won the Grand Prix at the 5th Moscow International Film Festival and the Special Jury Prize at Locarno, established Szabó as the most internationally famous Hungarian filmmaker of his time, as well as an auteur in the European film tradition.

In 2000, Father appeared as number 11 on a list of the 12 best Hungarian films according to a group of Hungarian film critics. Lovefilm focuses on a young man's relationship with his childhood sweetheart, told through flashbacks that include the Arrow Cross dictatorship and 1956, rend

Larry Mullen Jr.

Lawrence Joseph Mullen Jr. is an Irish musician and actor, best known as the drummer and co-founder of the rock band U2. Mullen's distinctive military drumming style developed from his playing martial beats in a childhood marching band, the Artane Boys Band; some of his most notable contributions to the U2 catalogue include "Sunday Bloody Sunday", "Pride", "Where the Streets Have No Name", "Zoo Station," "Mysterious Ways", "City of Blinding Lights". Mullen was born and raised in Dublin, attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School, where he co-founded U2 in 1976 after posting a message on the school's notice board. A member of the band since its inception, he has recorded 14 studio albums with U2. Mullen has worked on numerous side projects during his career. In 1990, he produced the Ireland national football team's song "Put'Em Under Pressure" for the 1990 FIFA World Cup. In 1996, he worked with U2 bandmate Adam Clayton on a dance re-recording of the "Theme from Mission: Impossible". Mullen has sporadically acted in films, most notably in Man on the Train and A Thousand Times Good Night.

As a member of the band, he has been involved in philanthropic causes throughout his career, including Amnesty International. As a member of U2, Mullen has received 22 Grammy Awards and has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2016, Rolling Stone ranked Mullen the 96th-greatest drummer of all time. Lawrence Joseph Mullen Jr. the middle child and only son of Lawrence Joseph Mullen Sr. and Maureen Mullen, was born on 31 October 1961 in Artane, Dublin and lived there, on Rosemount Avenue, until his twenties. His father was his mother a homemaker, he has an elder sister and had a younger sister, who died in 1973. He attended the School of Music in Chatham Row to learn piano at the age of eight and began drumming in 1971 at the age of 9, under the instruction of Irish drummer Joe Bonnie. After Joe's death, Bonnie's daughter, took over from him but Mullen gave up the lessons and started playing by himself, his mother died in a car accident in 1976. Before founding U2, Mullen was involved for three weeks, on the suggestion of his father, in a Dublin marching band called the Artane Boys Band, contributing to the martial beats common in Mullen's work, such as "Sunday Bloody Sunday".

Mullen left the band after they asked him to cut his shoulder-length hair. Mullen Jr. used the money he had saved and with his father's help bought a drum kit, made by a Japanese toy company, which his sister Cecilia's friend was selling. He set up the kit in his bedroom and his parents allotted him certain times to practice, his father got him into the Post Office Workers Band, which played orchestral melodies with percussion, along with marching band standards. He attended Marlborough Street, Dublin, he took the exams for Chanel College and St. Paul's, two Catholic schools his father wanted his son to attend. After the accidental death of Larry's younger sister in 1973, his father gave up the idea of pushing his son into those schools and sent Larry to Mount Temple Comprehensive School, the first interdenominational school in Ireland. Mullen's father suggested that he place a notice on the Mount Temple bulletin board, saying something to the effect of "drummer seeks musicians to form band."

U2 was founded on 25 September 1976 in Mullen's kitchen in Artane. The band consisting of Mullen, Paul "Bono" Hewson, David "The Edge" Evans, his brother Dik Evans, Adam Clayton, Mullen's friends Ivan McCormick and Peter Martin, was known as the "Larry Mullen Band", but the name changed to "Feedback", as, one of the few musical terms they knew. McCormick and Martin soon left, the band's name was changed to "The Hype". Just before they won a talent contest in Limerick, they changed their name again, for the final time, to U2 at a farewell concert for Dik Evans, becoming the 4-piece band they are today. Mullen left school in 1978; the school offered him the chance to complete his Leaving Certificate exams. He and his sister Cecilia worked for an American company in Dublin, involved in oil exploration off the coast of Ireland. Mullen worked there for a year in the purchasing department, with the prospect of becoming a computer programmer in their geology section. In 2016, Rolling Stone ranked Mullen the 96th-greatest drummer of all time.

In the early days of U2, his contributions to the band were limited to fills and drum rolls, but he became more involved in the writing of the songs particularly in conjunction with Adam Clayton, his partner in the rhythm section, with whom he has collaborated on solo projects. When the band was first being signed to CBS Records, they refused to sign the band unless Mullen was fired, he was not, as a result, his drumming became more integrated into the song structures. His experiences in the Artane Boys Band heavily contributed to the martial beat featured in many of U2's songs, helping to evoke military imagery. During the recording of the album Pop in 1996, Mullen suffered from severe back problems. Recording was delayed due to surgery; when he left the hospital, he arrived back in the studio to find the rest of the band experimenting more than with electronic drum machines, something driven by guitarist The Edge's interest in dance and hip-hop music, given his weakness after the operation, he relented, allowing The Edge to continue using drum machines, which contributed to the album's electronic feel.

Mullen has had tendinitis problems throughout his career. As a means to reduce inflammation and pain, he began to use specia

Pater familias

The pater familias written as paterfamilias, was the head of a Roman family. The pater familias was the oldest living male in a household, exercised autocratic authority over his extended family; the term is Latin for "father of the family" or the "owner of the family estate". The form is archaic in Latin, preserving the old genitive ending in -ās, whereas in classical Latin the normal genitive ending was -ae; the pater familias always had to be a Roman citizen. Roman law and tradition established the power of the pater familias within the community of his own extended familia. In Roman family law, the term "Patria potestas" refers to this concept, he held legal privilege over the property of the familia, varying levels of authority over his dependents: these included his wife and children, certain other relatives through blood or adoption, clients and slaves. The same mos maiorum moderated his authority and determined his responsibilities to his own familia and to the broader community, he had a duty to father and raise healthy children as future citizens of Rome, to maintain the moral propriety and well-being of his household, to honour his clan and ancestral gods and to dutifully participate—and if possible, serve—in Rome's political and social life.

In effect, the pater familias was expected to be a good citizen. In theory at least, he held powers of life and death over every member of his extended familia through ancient right. In practice, the extreme form of this right was exercised, it was limited by law. The Roman household was conceived of as an economic and juridical unit or estate: familia meant the group of the famuli living under the same roof; that meaning expanded to indicate the familia as the basic Roman social unit, which might include the domus but was distinct from it: a familia might own one or several homes. All members and properties of a familia were subject to the authority of a pater familias: his legal and religious position defined familia as a microcosm of the Roman state. In Roman law, the potestas of the pater familias was distinct from that of magistrates. Only a Roman citizen held the status of pater familias, there could be only one holder of that office within a household, he was responsible for its well-being and legal and moral propriety.

The entire familia was expected to adhere to the core principles and laws of the Twelve Tables, which the pater familias had a duty to exemplify, enjoin and, if necessary, enforce, so within the familia Republican law and tradition allowed him powers of life and death. He was obliged to observe the constraints imposed by Roman custom and law on all potestas, his decisions should be obtained through counsel and consent within the familia, which were decisions by committee. The family consilia involved the most senior members of his own household his wife, and, if necessary, his peers and seniors within his extended clan. Augustus's legislation on the morality of marriage co-opted the traditional potestas of the pater familias. Augustus was not only Rome's princeps but its father; as such, he was responsible for the entire Roman familia. Rome's survival required; that could not be left to individual conscience. The falling birth rate was considered a marker of degeneracy and self-indulgence among the elite, who were supposed to set an example.

Lex Julia maritandis ordinibus compelled marriage upon men and women within specified age ranges and remarriage on the divorced and bereaved within certain time limits. The Lex Julia de adulteriis coercendis penalised adulterous wives and any husbands who tolerated such behaviour; the Lex Papia Poppaea extended and modified the laws in relation to intermarriage between social classes and inheritance. Compliance was rewarded and exceptional public duty brought exemption, but dictatorial compulsion was unpopular and quite impractical; the laws were softened in theory and practise, but the imperial quaestio perpetua remained. Its public magistrates now over-rode the traditional rights of the family concilium and pater familias; the principate shows a clear trend towards the erosion of individual patria potestas and the increasing intrusion of the state into the juridical and executive independence of the familia under its pater. The domestic responsibilities of the pater familias included his priestly duties to his "household gods" and the ancestral gods of his own gens.

The latter were represented by the di parentes as ancestral shades of the departed, by the genius cult. Genius has been interpreted as the essential, heritable spirit and generative power that suffused the gens and each of its members; as the singular, lawful head of a family derived from a gens, the pater familias embodied and expressed its genius through his pious fulfillment of ancestral obligations. The pater familias was therefore owed a reciprocal duty of genius cult by his entire familia, he in his turn conferred genius and the duty of sacra familiae to his children—whether by blood or by adoption. Roman religious law defined the religious rites of familia as sacra privata and "unofficial"; the responsibility for funding and executing sacra privata therefore fell to the head of