HMS Camilla (1776)
HMS Camilla was a Royal Navy 20-gun Sphinx-class post ship. Camilla was built in Chatham Dockyard to a design by John Williams and was launched in 1776, she served in the American Revolution, the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, before being sold in 1831. Camilla sailed for North America in August. There she captured the privateer schooner Independence, John Gill, Master, of six carriage guns, eight swivels, 50 men, she was on a cruise from Boston. Camilla captured Admiral Montague, sailing from Hispaniola to Rhode Island with a cargo of molasses and coffee, Chance sailing to Georgia with coffee, Polly, sailing to Surinam in ballast. On 23 January 1777, 12 miles north of Charlestown, South Carolina, under Captain Charles Phipps, captured the American sloop Fanny, heading to that port from Cap-Français, with a cargo of molasses. In February Captain John Linzee took command of Camilla. On 20 February 1777, Camilla and Perseus, Captain George Keith Elphinstone, captured the 170-ton snow, Adventure.
They captured her 99 miles northeast of Antigua, British West Indies, as she was going from Newburyport, Massachusetts to St. Eustatius, Netherlands West Indies, with a cargo of fish, spermacaeti candles and pine planks. Camilla fired eleven shots. Perseus and Camilla shared the prize money. Eight days latter, Camilla captured Ranger, William Davies, sailing in ballast from St. Lucia. Fanny and Ranger were all condemned and sold at Antigua. April 1777 was a busy month for Camilla. On 6 April she captured the brig Willing Maid, bound from St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, to Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina, with a cargo of sugar and salt. However, the brig sank. On 11 April 1777, Camilla was patrolling with 44-gun frigate Roebuck near the mouth of the Delaware River, just north of the Cape Henlopen lighthouse, when they came upon the American merchantman Morris. Gunfire from the two British vessels drove Morris ashore, where she blew up with such force that it shattered the windows on the British vessels.
Reports indicate that Morris was carrying 35 tons of gunpowder and that the captain and six crewmen still on the vessel were laying a train of gunpowder to blow her up, when things went wrong. It is not clear whether the powder train burnt too or a shot from Camilla or Roebuck set it off. What is clear is that the vessel disintegrated and all aboard her died in the explosion. Much of her cargo of arms was, however and Americans onshore were able to get it. On the 15 and 20 April Camilla took two more prizes, carrying rum and sugar, molasses but there are no details available. On 21 April, she captured Perfect, Etienne Codnet, bound from Cape Nichola, with a cargo of molasses. On the 25 and 26 April she took two more unknown vessels, both carrying rum and rice, she captured Fonbonne, W. De Gallet, W. Galley, sailing from Cap-Français to Miquelon with a cargo of wine and molasses. In July 1777, boats from Camilla and Pearl burnt the Continental schooner Mosquito. Camilla captured several merchantmen in late 1777 or early 1778.
On 15 November she captured the sloop Admiral Montague, sailing from Hispaniola to Rhode Island with a cargo of molasses and coffee. That same day, she captured Chance, Thomas Bell, sailing to Georgia with a cargo of flour and rum. Lastly, on 14 March 1778, Camilla captured Polly, William Thompson, sailing to Surinam in ballast; when Philadelphia fell to the British in 1777, several American vessels found themselves trapped between the city and the British fleet further down the Delaware River. The Americans launched some three fire ships towards the British, but gunfire from Roebuck and other British vessels caused the Americans to set their ships on fire too soon, to abandon them. British boats were able to pull the fire ships on shore. In February 1778 Captain John Collins took command of Camilla, she participated in two operations, one at Newhaven on 5 July and another at Penobscot from 21 July to 14 August. On 29 May 1779, Camilla was part of Admiral George Collier's small flotilla that sailed up the Hudson River and captured Stony Point, two months the site of the American victory in the Battle of Stony Point.
Amongst other services, she exchanged fire with Fort Lafayette. That summer, the British Fleet moved north. Camilla was one of the vessels that participated in Tryon's raid on Connecticut in July, she was among the vessels sharing in the prize money for the capture, on 14 August, of the American privateer Hunter. Camilla participated in the battle that on 15–16 August destroyed the American Penobscot Expedition. During the autumn Camilla captured John M'Kay Master, off Cape Cod; the brig was sailing from St. Eustatius to Connecticut with a cargo of salt. Around this time she recaptured the Mackerel and Marquis of Rockingham. On 12 October she captured the brig Revenge. In December Camilla sailed from New York to Charleston, South Carolina, with Vice Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot's squadron. Thus, spring 1780, found Camilla, Captain Charles Phipps, participating at the Siege of Charleston; the city capitulated on 11 May. Camilla shared in the prize money resulting from the naval captures. On 30 September, Camilla participated in the capture of the brigs Wasp and Portsmouth Hero, the schooners Providence and Betsey.
On 1 November she took the schooner Henrico. On 19 April 1781, Camilla took the sloop Ann. Camilla sailed to join the Downs squadron. Captain J. Wainwright assumed command in
Battle of Machias (1777)
The Battle of Machias was an amphibious assault on the Massachusetts town of Machias by British forces during the American Revolutionary War. Local militia aided by Indian allies prevented British troops from landing; the raid, led by Commodore Sir George Collier, was executed in an attempt to head off a planned second assault on Fort Cumberland, besieged in November 1776. The British forces landed below Machias, seized a ship, raided a storehouse; the result of the raid was disputed. Collier claimed the action was successful in destroying military stores for an attack on Fort Cumberland, while the defenders claimed that they had prevented the capture of Machias and driven off the British; the small community of Machias, located in the eastern district of Massachusetts, now the state of Maine, was a persistent thorn in the side of British naval authorities since the start of the American Revolutionary War. In June 1775, its citizens rose up and seized a small naval vessel, the community had since been a base for privateering.
In 1777, John Allan, an expatriate Nova Scotian, was authorized by the Second Continental Congress to organize an expedition to establish a Patriot presence in the western part of Nova Scotia. Although Congress authorized him to recruit as many as three thousand men, the Massachusetts government was only prepared to give him a colonel's commission and authority to raise a regiment in eastern Massachusetts to establish a presence in the St. John River valley. Allan based his effort in Machias, had by June landed some forty men in the area. However, British authorities in Halifax had received some intelligence of Allan's intended mission, a larger British force arrived at the St. John River on June 23. Men that Allan had left at the settlements near the mouth of the river skirmished with the British but withdrew upriver. Allan was forced to make a difficult overland journey back to Machias after his small force retreated up the river, he was joined on this journey by a number of sympathetic Maliseet Indians that he had persuaded to join the American cause.
In early August the Massachusetts Provisional Congress voted to disband forces recruited for Allan's expedition because of the imminent threat posed by the army of General John Burgoyne in upstate New York. Papers documenting Allan's elaborate plans, including a projected attack on Fort Cumberland, were taken during the conflict on the St. John River and fell into the hands of Captain Sir George Collier, second-in-command to Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot in the naval station at Halifax; this spurred Collier to act, since there had been one attempt on Fort Cumberland the previous year. He therefore organized an assault on Machias, Allan's base of operations and the source of many of his recruits; because Collier and the commander of land forces at Halifax, General Eyre Massey, did not get along, Collier decided to launch the expedition without taking on any British Army troops. He sailed from Halifax in late July in the frigate HMS Rainbow, accompanied by the brig HMS Blonde, planning to use the marines aboard those ships in ground operations.
He was joined by the sloop HMS Hope while making the passage to Machias. The defense of Machias consisted of local militia under the command of Colonel Jonathan Eddy, the leader of the 1776 attack on Fort Cumberland, he had been warned. The militia laid a log boom across the Machias River, constructed several earthen redoubts further upriver, armed with cannons taken from local privateers; the defense was coincidentally reinforced by forty to fifty Maliseet and Penobscots that Colonel Allan had called to Machias to explain what had gone wrong with his expedition. Collier's fleet arrived at the mouth of the river early on August 13, he boarded 123 marines onto the Hope, ordered her and the Blonde up the river. Word of this reached the militia, thirty-five men mustered to oppose them; the ships reached the log boom, a firefight began between the two forces. The militia resistance was sufficient to keep the British from attempting a landing that day. Early the next morning, under the cover of fog, the marines were landed.
They cut the log boom, seized a sloop carrying lumber, set fire to a storehouse, seizing stores of flour, corn and ammunition before returning to the ships. The two ships moved further up the river until they reached the town itself. All along the way they were harassed by musket and cannon fire from the shore, as the militia and their Indian allies positioned themselves to dispute possible landing sites; when darkness set in, the Indians began chanting and shouting in an attempt to magnify their numbers. At this point, "To the great Surprise and Astonishment of every one in Less than half an Hour after Coming to an Anchor, the Brig & Sloop Both Gote under way without firing a Gun" and "made down the River against the Tide of flood." The Hope, ran aground while making its way downstream in the twilight. The militia hauled a swivel gun to a nearby shore, peppered her with shot the next morning before she was refloated by the tide and made her way into Machias Bay. Colonel Allan ascribed the militia's success to British concerns.
He grandiosely likened the encounter to another battle, writing "not an Action during the War Except Bunker Hill there was such a slaughter". American estimates of British casualties ran from forty to one hundred, while claiming their own casualties at one killed and one wounded; the British reported their losses as three killed and
70th (Surrey) Regiment of Foot
The 70th Regiment of Foot was a regiment of the British Army, raised in 1756. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 31st Regiment of Foot to form the East Surrey Regiment in 1881; the formation of the regiment was prompted by the expansion of the army as a result of the commencement of the Seven Years' War. On 25 August 1756 it was ordered that a number of existing regiments should raise a second battalion; the 2nd Battalion of the 31st Regiment of Foot was formed on 10 December 1756 and renumbered as the 70th Regiment of Foot on 21 April 1758. The regiment was sent to Ireland in 1763 and on to the West Indies in 1764 where it suffered serious losses due to illness before returning home in 1774, it embarked for North America in 1775 for service in the American Revolutionary War. It was involved in the Battle of Sullivan's Island in June 1776 and the attack on Fort Lafayette in June 1779; the regiment acquired a county designation as the 70th Regiment of Foot in 1782 before returning home in 1784.
The regiment embarked for the West Indies again in 1793 for service in the French Revolutionary Wars. It took part in the Battle of Martinique in February 1794 and the Invasion of Guadeloupe in April 1794; the regiment returned to Europe landing at Gibraltar in May 1795. It embarked for the West Indies again in February 1800 and based itself in Trinidad before arriving back in Jersey in May 1801, it embarked for the West Indies yet again in autumn 1803 and based itself in Antigua before moving to Saint Kitts in June 1806 and to Saint Thomas in December 1807. It saw action during the Invasion of Guadeloupe in January 1810; the regiment embarked for home in June 1810 and, after moving into Ayr Barracks, reverted to the old title of 70th Regiment of Foot in October 1812. The regiment was tasked with suppressing riots in Montrose in January 1813 and, after guarding French prisoners of war in Perth for four months, embarked for Canada in August 1813, it was garrisoned in Montreal and Cornwall on the Canadian frontier during the War of 1812.
It moved to Fort George in April 1817, to Kingston in June 1819 and to Quebec in May 1821. The regiment regained its English county designation as the 70th Regiment in December 1825 before returning home in September 1827; the regiment moved to Gibraltar in April 1834 and to Malta in July 1836. It returned to the West Indies in January 1838 and took up residence in Barbados before moving on to Montreal in Canada in June 1841 and embarking for home in May 1843, it departed for India in 1849 and helped to suppress the Indian Rebellion in 1857. The regiment moved to New Zealand in 1861 for service in the New Zealand Wars and took part in a skirmish at Rangiaohia in February 1864 during the Invasion of the Waikato, it returned to England in 1866 and moved to Afghanistan in 1878 for service in the Second Anglo-Afghan War. As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 70th was linked with the 31st Regiment of Foot, assigned to district no. 47 at The Barracks, Kingston upon Thames.
On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 31st Regiment of Foot to become the 2nd Battalion of the East Surrey Regiment. Battle honours gained by the regiment were: Guadeloupe 1810 New Zealand 1863–66 Afghanistan 1878-79 Colonels of the regiment were: 1758-1760: Gen. John Parslow 1760-1778: Gen. Cyrus Trapaud 1778-1783: Lt-Gen. William Tryon 1783-1814: Gen. John Howard, 15th Earl of Suffolk 1814-1816: Gen. Hon. Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole, GCB 1816: Lt-Gen. Forbes Champagné 1816-1832: Gen. Kenneth Alexander Howard, 1st Earl of Effingham, GCB 1832-1854: Gen. Gage John Hall 1854-1868: Gen. Sir George William Paty, KCB, KH 1868-1870: Gen. Sir Charles Hastings Doyle, KCMG 1870-1874: Lt-Gen. Sir Henry Knight Storks, GCB, GCMG 1874-1881: Gen. Thomas James Galloway 1881: Regiment amalgamated with the 31st Regiment of Foot to form The East Surrey Regiment Cannon, Richard. Historical Record of the Seventieth, or the Surrey Regiment of Foot. London: Parker and Parker
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
The Norwalk River is a river in southwestern Connecticut 21 miles long. The word "Norwalk" comes from the Algonquian word "noyank" meaning "point of land"; the Norwalk River originates in ponds located in Connecticut. These ponds empty into Ridgefield’s 500-acre "Great Swamp"; the river continues through Ridgefield, is augmented by the "Great Pond", one of the purest lakes in Connecticut due to its being fed by underwater springs. The river is paralleled by U. S. Route 7 as it flows southward through Branchville, Georgetown and Norwalk, where it is joined by the Silvermine River and flows into Norwalk Harbor and into Long Island Sound. Recreational fishing continues to be a popular sport along the course of the river, in addition to oystering at the river’s mouth in Norwalk. A 20-year-old man drowned in the river on May 24, 2009 while trying to save a boy who slipped into a strong current near Broad Street in northern Norwalk, near the Route 7 Connector; the boy had been playing in knee-deep water.
Jose Higareda, a Mexican immigrant living in Norwalk, jumped in the water with the boy's father, but Higareda was himself dragged downstream toward Deering Pond. The boy survived. Over the weekend of October 14–17, 1955, 12 to 14 inches of tropical storm rain caused the Norwalk River, along with many other Connecticut rivers, to flood; the flood of 1955 caused the most severe damage of any flood in the history of Norwalk. From the heavy rains some dams along the Norwalk River broke, sending walls of water surging downstream, knocking out bridges and additional dams. Many of the Norwalk River’s neighboring towns and communities suffered widespread devastation. Several lives were lost in addition to millions of dollars worth of damage along the Norwalk River watershed alone. List of rivers of Connecticut *The Norwalk River Watershed Association Norwalk Harbor Webcam Webcam viewing the Norwalk River's harbor
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t