The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Battle of Zapote River
The Battle of Zapote River known as the Battle of Zapote Bridge, was fought on the 13 June 1899 between 1,200 Americans and between 4,000~5,000 Filipinos. It was the second largest battle of the Philippine–American War after the Battle of Manila five months before in February 1899. Zapote River separates the town of Las Piñas in what was Manila province from Bacoor in the province of Cavite; the ruins of Zapote Bridge still stands next to its replacement bridge on Aguinaldo Highway. Zapote Bridge was made of masonry, it Las Piñas and Manila to the north. It has been witness to two major historical events. Half of the original Zapote Bridge was destroyed during the battles; the reconstructed bridge became a pedestrian promenade, connecting Barangay Zapote, Las Piñas to Barangay Zapote in Bacoor, Cavite. Monument parks were established on both ends of the bridge - one made by sculptor Eduardo Castrillo in the Las Piñas area and another monument depicting the Battle of Zapote Bridge in Bacoor, Cavite.
In February 1997, Villar Foundation, local governments of Bacoor and the City of Las Piñas, the National Centennial Movement, the Department of Education organized an event to pay tribute to the centennial year of the Battle of Zapote Bridge. A street drama, based on the events of 1896-1897, was reenacted of the Battle of Zapote Bridge; the Battle of Zapote River was part of the armed reconnaissance by the U. S. Army between Manila Bay and Laguna de Bay that commenced on June 9 to rid the countryside of Filipino Army rebelling against the Americans. A fleet of gunboats - Callao and Mosquito - led Admiral George Dewey, were on Manila Bay to provide naval gunfire support; these were soon joined by the Helena, Princeton and Monadnock gunboats. The battle started around 6:15am after three shots were fired by the Filipinos at the American outpost from a 1-pounder Hotchkiss gun. In retaliation, the Sixth artillery under Lieutenant Benjamin M. Koehler fired back six shrapnel shells from two 3.2-inch guns.
At the portion of the river between the river and Manila Bay, Companies F and I of the 21st Infantry Regiment were scouting the area when they were ambushed by about 1,000 Filipinos after crossing the bamboo pole bridge to Bacoor. Fierce fighting ensued against Filipinos armed with Mauser rifles. Two of the officers of the two companies were wounded. Running low on ammunition, the Americans headed to the beach for safety, they were relieved by a battalion from the Ninth Infantry led by Major Clarence R. Edwards. Major Starr signaled the gunboats for support, which responded with men and ammunition from the Helena and Monadnock. Near the Zapote Bridge, General Samuel Ovenshine moved his artillery on the road, flanked by his infantry. Upon moving on to the enemy, the fire opened furiously to-and-fro the Filipino trenches and breastworks south of the bridge. Artillery fire were exchanged between a Filipino battery, firing from 6-inch smoothbore cannon and 1-pounder Hotchkiss guns, Battery D with a 3.2-inch field gun, 3-inch and 1.65-inch Hotchkiss guns.
Soon, the battery led by First Lieutenant William L. Kenly moved forward, without cover and under terrific fire, to the bridge ramp about 30 yards from the enemy battery, where they took the enemy with precision shots. At this point, the bridge was not fordable as one span had been removed and its wooden replacement had burned down; the rest of both armies soon joined the fighting which expanded to cover the stretch from the beach to beyond the bridge. It became obvious that the greater number of Filipino soldiers had not been a decisive advantage; the American gunboats shelled the shores in front of the Americans troops, which devastated the Filipino positions. After hours of heavy fighting, between 4 and 4:40pm, the Filipinos gave way, abandoning their positions and began falling back; the bridge was temporarily repaired with wooden stringers. General Loyd Wheaton and his men began crossing the bridge as ordered by Major-General Henry W. Lawton, he sent forward a company from the 21st Infantry headed by First Lieutenant William M. Morrow to ascertain the positions of the enemies and found them 1 mile south of the bridge.
After more fighting, they drove the defenders out of their lines who fled towards Imus and San Nicolas, Bacoor. A Filipino rearguard held off the Americans long enough for the main Filipino force to withdraw inland. Both sides suffered heavily: the American suffered 75 casualties with 15 killed, the Filipinos suffered 150 deaths and 375 wounded. Capt. William H. Sage earned the Medal of Honor for his actions; the Philippine Army began using tactics of guerrilla warfare, avoiding a decisive battle and reverting to harassment. U. S. War Department. "Annual Reports of the War Department, Part 3 of 7". Government Printing Office, Washington
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre is a movement of an armed force around a flank to achieve an advantageous position over an enemy. Flanking is useful. Therefore, to circumvent a force's front and attack a flank is to concentrate offense in the area where the enemy is least able to concentrate defense. Flanking can occur at the operational and strategic levels of warfare; the flanking maneuver is a basic military tactic, with several variations. Flanking an enemy means attacking from one or more sides, at an angle to the enemy's direction of engagement. One type is employed in an ambush, where a unit performs a surprise attack from a concealed position. Units friendly to the ambushing unit may be hidden to the sides of the ambush site to surround the enemy, but care must be taken in setting up fields of fire to avoid friendly fire. Another type is used in the attack. Upon receiving fire from the enemy, the unit commander may decide to order a flank attack. A part of the attacking unit "fixes" the enemy with suppressive fire, preventing them from returning fire, retreating or changing position to meet the flank attack.
The flanking force advances to the enemy flank and attacks them at close range. Coordination to avoid friendly fire is important in this situation; the most effective form of flanking maneuver is the double envelopment, which involves simultaneous flank attacks on both sides of the enemy. A classic example is Hannibal's victory over the Roman armies at the Battle of Cannae. Another example of the double envelopment is Khalid ibn al-Walid's victory over the Persian Empire at the Battle of Walaja. Despite being associated with land warfare, flanking maneuvers have been used in naval battles. A famous example of this is the Battle of Salamis, where the combined naval forces of the Greek city-states managed to outflank the Persian navy and won a decisive victory. Flanking on land in the pre-modern era was achieved with cavalry due to their speed and maneuverability, while armored infantry was used to fix the enemy, as in the Battle of Pharsalus. Armored vehicles such as tanks replaced cavalry as the main force of flanking maneuvers in the 20th century, as seen in the Battle of France in World War II.
The threat of flanking has been existent since the dawn of warfare and the art of being a commander entailed the choice of terrain to allow flanking attacks or prevent them. In addition, proper adjustment and positioning of soldiers is imperative in assuring the protection against flanking. A commander could prevent being flanked by anchoring one or both parts of his line on terrain impassable to his enemies, such as gorges, lakes or mountains, e.g. the Spartans at Thermopylae, Hannibal at the Battle of Lake Trasimene, the Romans at the Battle of Watling Street. Although not impassable, forests, rivers and marshy ground could be used to anchor a flank, e.g. Henry V at Agincourt. However, in such instances it was still wise to have skirmishers covering these flanks. In exceptional circumstances, an army may be fortunate enough to be able to anchor a flank with a friendly castle, fortress or walled city. In such circumstances it was not necessary to fix the line to the fortress but to allow a killing space between the fortress and the battle line so that any enemy forces attempting to flank the field forces could be brought under fire from the garrison.
As good was if natural strongholds could be incorporated into the battle line, e.g. the Union positions of Culp's Hill, Cemetery Hill on the right flank, Big Round Top and Little Round Top on the left flank, at the Battle of Gettysburg. If time and circumstances allowed field fortifications could be created or expanded to protect the flanks, such as the Allied forces did with the hamlet of Papelotte and the farmhouse of Hougoumont on the left and right flanks at the Battle of Waterloo; when the terrain favoured neither side it was down to the disposition of forces in the battle line to prevent flanking attacks. For as long as they had a place on the battlefield, it was the role of cavalry to be placed on the flanks of the infantry battle line. With speed and greater tactical flexibility, the cavalry could both make flanking attacks and guard against them, it was the marked superiority of Hannibal's cavalry at Cannae that allowed him to chase off the Roman cavalry and complete the encirclement of the Roman legions.
With matched cavalry, commanders have been content to allow inaction, with the cavalry of both sides preventing the other from action. With no cavalry, inferior cavalry or in armies whose cavalry had gone off on their own it was down to the disposition of the infantry to guard against flanking attacks, it was the danger of being flanked by the numerically superior Persians that led Miltiades to lengthen the Athenian line at the Battle of Marathon by decreasing the depth of the centre. The importance of the flank positions led to the practise, which became tradition of placing the best troops on the flanks. So that at the Battle of Platea the Tegeans squabbled with Athenians as to who should have the privilege of holding a flank; this is the source of the tradition of giving the honour of the right to the most senior regiment present, that persisted into the modern era. With troops confident and reliable enough to operate in separate dispersed units, the echelon formation may be adopted; this can take different forms with either strong "divisions" or a massively reinforced wing or centre s
Battle of Santa Cruz (1899)
For the WWII battle of the same name see: Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands This Battle of Santa Cruz was a battle fought in the early stages of the Philippine-American War during General Henry W. Lawton's Laguna de Bay Campaign. After defeating the Filipino nationalists at the second battle of Manila, General Elwell S. Otis, commander of the US VIII Corps, sent the 1st Division under Arthur MacArthur to the north to threaten the Filipino capitol at Malolos. At the same time, the 2nd Division under Henry W. Lawton was sent south into the Laguna province, to the Filipino stronghold located in the town of Santa Cruz. On April 8, 1899, Lawton's division boarded a small fleet of cascos escorted by the gunboats Oeste and Napindan, on the Pasig River east of Manila and sailed towards Laguna de Bay; the flotilla did not reach the opposite shore of the lake until early afternoon the next day, because the pilots were unfamiliar with the river and grounded the boats. At 10:30 a.m. on April 9, landing craft began offloading Lawton's troops south of the stronghold of Santa Cruz.
Ashore in the afternoon of April 9, the troops set out for Santa Cruz in a long skirmish line, advancing through driving rain. At 5:45 p.m. the right flank, consisting of the 1st Idaho and 14th Infantry, encountered a defense complex of entrenchments and bamboo obstructions, through which they advanced against resistance, until darkness fell, when the troops camped in the fields. Early on April 10, General Lawton went ashore with the 4th Cavalry north of town, they advanced along the main road leading into the town. The road was guarded until the approach to a bridge just outside the town, guarded by the Filipinos. Lawton ordered a charge and a regular battalion supported by Idaho and Washington volunteers routed the local force; that same day, Lawton took control of Santa Cruz. While Gen. Lawton consolidated his forces in Santa Cruz, he planned to push on to Pagsanjan where he figured the Filipinos had retreated. After capturing Pagsanjan on April 11, he again defeated the Filipinos in a stiff engagement at the Battle of Paete.
On April 16, Lawton's forces reboarded their transport ships to return to Manila, noticing enemy soldiers entering the town as they left. Overall, the results of the Santa Cruz expedition amounted to the capture of six launches and the deaths of some 125 Filipino soldiers. Linn 2000, p. 103 After the expedition, Aguinaldo ordered forces at Cavite and Laguna to concentrate at Muntinlupa, tying up manpower south of Manila which might otherwise have gone north. The expedition demonstrated that towns on Laguna de Bay were vulnerable to raiders, forcing local officials to keep their military forces close to home in case of defensive need. Report of an expedition to the Province of La Laguna Named Campaigns - Philippine Insurrection
Second Battle of Caloocan
The Second Battle of Caloocan, alternately called the Second Battle of Manila, was fought from February 22 to 24, 1899, in Caloocan during the Philippine–American War. The battle featured a Filipino counterattack aimed at gaining Manila from the Americans; this counterattack failed to regain Manila because of lack of coordination among Filipino units and lack of artillery support. The Philippine–American War began on February 4, 1899, with the culmination of the Battle of Manila. On February 10, Filipino forces regrouped in Caloocan and fought again with the American forces at the first Battle of Caloocan; the Americans won both engagements, but Elwell S. Otis had Arthur MacArthur, Jr. wait before attacking Malolos. Noticing that the Americans had halted their offensive to reorganize, the Filipino forces, now under the command of General Antonio Luna, began finalizing their plans to counterattack. Apolinario Mabini, the political philosopher, highlighted the need to prepare to ensure the success of the operation, stating that the battle's outcome would determine the fate of the Philippine Republic.
Luna's headquarters was established in Polo, operations for the counterattack were prepared there. The troops directly under his command were organized into three brigades; the West Brigade was under General Pantaleon Garcia, the Center Brigade was under General Mariano Llanera, the East Brigade was under Colonel Maximino Hizon. The plan envisioned by Luna and his army staff was to effect a union of forces from the north and south of Manila with the sandatahanes or bolomen inside the city; the other forces that were to attack with Luna's troops were the men of General Licerio Gerónimo from the east, the men of Generals Pío del Pilar and Miguel Malvar from the south. Luna requested the battle-hardened Tinio Brigade in Northern Luzon, under the command of Manuel Tinio, it had more than 1,900 soldiers. However, Aguinaldo gave only ambiguous answers; the total Filipino force amounted between 5,000 men. The defending American force had 15,000 to 20,000 men in its suburbs. At 9 pm on February 22, fire broke out at the brothel in Santa Cruz, followed by another in Tondo, Manila.
The fires signaled the beginning of the Filipino counterattack. Around 9 pm, Aguinaldo received a telegram concerning the fire; the local firefighters refused to act, so the Americans used European volunteers, supported by the Provost Guard and the 13th Minnesota, 2nd Oregon, the 23rd Infantry in Tondo, when 500 Filipinos troops occupied the northern part of the city. Panicked refugees fled from the flames in Tondo and as the market in Binondo caught fire after midnight; as a result, it took three hours for the fires to be brought under control. At around 10 pm, armed Filipinos under Colonel Francisco Roman entered Tondo and confronted the surprised American troops. Confusion, did not rest on the American side alone; the Filipinos succumbed to indecision. Colonel Lucio Lucas, under Luna's direct command, had responded after hearing the signal for attack, his objective was to march into the Meisic police station, which the Americans had turned into a barracks. However, en route Lucas' troops were met by a large American contingent at Azcarraga Street.
Thinking of retreat, Lucas had reconsidered the belief that it was better to die fighting than die burning. The houses at their rear were on fire, so he ordered his men to attack the Americans with only daggers in their hands. In the ensuing fight three Filipinos and eight Americans were killed. During the course of the battle, Luna did his best to keep personal participation in the field. At dawn of February 23, the Filipinos opened their attack by firing their cannons against the Americans. Luna managed to secure a Krupp Rifled breech loader to provide artillery support for his men. However, while the advancing Filipinos attempted to break the American line in Caloocan, the Americans were able to coordinate their positions with the USS Monadnock; the ship's twin turrets fired 10-inch shells that set fire to a number of Filipino houses that broke up the Filipino attack, forcing them to fall back to take cover. This setback was made worse by the poor coordination between the regular Filipino army and the sandatahanes.
A lack of ammunition had affected some units, including the troops under Colonel Roman. Garcia's troops had reached the planned points of occupation in Manila, at that point he believed that Manila would soon fly the Filipino flag. At that point, Filipino fortunes wavered. Two companies, totaling about 400 men, of the Pampanga troops under Major Canlas made a rapid advance and placed La Loma under siege; when the Pampanga troops ran out of ammunition, four companies of Kawit troops were ordered to link up with the Pamapanga troops and launch a joint attack on the Americans entrenched in La Loma. The Kawit commander, Captain Janolino, did not obey the order stating that he would only obey orders from President Aguinaldo; as a result, the battle in that sector was lost, this incident was singled out by both Luna and General Ambrosio Flores, Luna's assistant as Director of War, as being the main factor in denying the Filipinos victory that day. By the end of February 23, the Filipinos had managed to secure Sampaloc and Tondo.
The Kawit Battalion under Captain Pedro Janolino had secured Meisic and American troops in Caloocan, numbering around 6,000, were under siege by Filipino troops under Llanera and Garcia. The next day, the Filipinos fought more fiercely than they had the day before; the continued fighting aroused concern amon
Battle of Mabitac
The Battle of Mabitac was an engagement in the Philippine-American War, when on September 17, 1900, Filipinos under General Juan Cailles defeated an American force commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham, Jr. Mabitac was linked to the garrison town of Siniloan by a causeway which, on the day of the battle, was flooded with water; the water in the flanking rice fields was deeper, making it impossible to properly deploy off the narrow road. Trenches occupied by Filipinos under Cailles cut across this causeway, blocking the path into Mabitac; the battle began when elements of the 37th Infantry Regiment and 15th Infantry Regiment, advancing from Siniloan, came under intense fire some 400 yards from the enemy trenches, estimated at 800 in strength. Eight troops sent ahead to scout the enemy positions died to the last man as they closed to within 50 yards of the Filipinos. One of the last to fall was 2nd Lieutenant George Cooper. General Cailles, in an honorable gesture, let the defeated Cheatham recover the bodies of the eight slain soldiers after the battle.
Meanwhile, the main body of U. S. Infantry had become pinned down in the waist-deep mud, still several hundred yards from the Filipino trenches. Unable to properly deploy, in a dangerously exposed position, they engaged in a firefight with Philippine forces for nearly 90 minutes. Despite the bravery of one Captain John E. Moran awarded the Medal of Honor for trying to rally his demoralized comrades, the Americans were badly mauled, sustaining scores of casualties. Supporting fire from a U. S. Navy gunboat and an attempted flank attack by 60 Americans, who had not participated in the costly frontal assault, could not dent the Filipino position, Cheatham withdrew soon after. General Cailles managed a skillful withdrawal in order to avoid envelopment, by the next day, his entire command had made good their escape. According to the Americans the US Army lost some 21 killed and 23 wounded in the battle, an effective loss of 33% of their strength. American estimates put Filipino losses at 20 wounded.
Numbered among their dead was Lieutenant Colonel Fidel Sario. A differing version of the battle exists in the Philippine Revolutionary Records. A letter addressed to a Miguel Estrada by one Faustin Pantua says this: "Mr. Miguel Estrada, With the greatest satisfaction I inform you that coming from the operations over the towns of Baybay, I have arrived in this camp with my General and other companions in good condition, without a single casualty, thanks be to God, the same thing which I desire for you and your appreciated family; as a result of our operations I can say that on the 17th, the town of Mavitac having been occupied by our forces from the night of the 14th, on the morning of the first day mentioned, we were attacked by the enemy to the number of 300, by land and sea. We being the defenders of the place, were only about 300 of us, more or less. In fact the fire began at six o’clock in the morning, attacking the point occupied by our General and where I was the enemy made the attack in four columns whose fire alternated with shots from the cannons of the gun boats, which they had in the waters of the Laguna, opposite the said town.
Three times they wanted to charge with bayonets, but they failed in their attempt, only realizing their complete defeat. The troops attempted to land on the right flank of the place attacked but did not succeed in doing so because our troops prevented them with volleys which compelled them to retreat to the gun boat from where they came; the enemy being repulsed and the battle field sown with corpses on account of the casualties we had caused. The enemy fell back towards the gun boats to Paete; as a result of the combat, the enemy had 180 casualties in wounded. Among the first could be counted, one Major, one Captain and some subaltern officers, according to reliable information. On our side we only have to lament two dead and three wounded. Among the first could be found the brave Lieutenant Colonel, Don Fidel S. Angeles. On account of the advantages that strategy advises our soldiers being in need of ammunition, we were compelled to evacuate the town and concentrate our forces in the central cuartel of the forces which operate over the towns of Baybay from where we perceived and discerned the enemy attacking anew, by land and sea, from ten o'clock in the morning until two in the afternoon, in which they took the town or entered it without resistance.
Once in the town, as it appeared, they got news of the death of our Lieutenant Colonel, to make it appear that the corpse fell into their hands or power. They clothed a certain person from the Lieutenant Colonel on an officer of the naval reserve whom they held for many years in the "Calabus" in Paete and killed him in the town. What brutality! What infamy for a nation that prides itself on being civilized and humane! Enough of americanism! Long live the Filipino Republic! In respect to the duty your beloved sister was entrusted with I would desire that you do me the favor to send me an account of what she was able to buy in Manila with an expression of the amount or value of each in order to be able to dispose of it by means of a person of my confidence, which may be collected, the price for her total amount. Without anything further for the present, with regards to you and your family. I remain your servant who kisses your hands. Faustin Pantua" American Major-General John C. Bates said of this battle: "It is deemed chari